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Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Subsurface Mimo: A Beamforming Design In Internet Of Underground Things For Digital Agriculture Applications, Abdul Salam Aug 2019

Subsurface Mimo: A Beamforming Design In Internet Of Underground Things For Digital Agriculture Applications, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In underground (UG) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), the transmit beamforming is used to focus energy in the desired direction. There are three different paths in the underground soil medium through which the waves propagates to reach at the receiver. When the UG receiver receives a desired data stream only from the desired path, then the UG MIMO channel becomes three path (lateral, direct, and reflected) interference channel. Accordingly, the capacity region of the UG MIMO three path interference channel and degrees of freedom (multiplexing gain of this MIMO channel requires careful modeling). Therefore, expressions are required for the degree of ...


A Path Loss Model For Through The Soil Wireless Communications In Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam Jul 2019

A Path Loss Model For Through The Soil Wireless Communications In Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this paper, a path loss model is developed to predict the impact of soil type, soil moisture, operation frequency, distance, and burial depth of sensors for through-the-soil wireless communications channel. The soil specific model is developed based on empirical measurements in a testbed and field settings. The model can be used in different soils for a frequency range of 100MHz to 1GHz. The standard deviation between measured and predicted path loss is from 4-6dB in the silt loam, sandy, and silty clay loam soil types. The model leads to development of sensor-guided irrigation system in the field of digital ...


Underground Soil Sensing Using Subsurface Radio Wave Propagation, Abdul Salam, Akhlaque Ahmad Jul 2019

Underground Soil Sensing Using Subsurface Radio Wave Propagation, Abdul Salam, Akhlaque Ahmad

Faculty Publications

Continuous sensing of soil moisture is essential for smart agriculture variable rate irrigation (VRI), real-time agricultural decision making, and water conservation. Therefore, development of simple techniques to measure the in-situ properties of soil is of vital importance. Moreover, permittivity estimation has applications in electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation analysis in the soil medium, depth analysis, subsurface imaging, and UG localization. Different methods for soil permittivity and moisture estimation are time-domain reflectometry (TDR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and remote sensing. One major bottleneck in the current laboratory-based permittivity estimation techniques is off-line measurement of the collected soil samples. At that, the remote ...


A Comparison Of Path Loss Variations In Soil Using Planar And Dipole Antennas, Abdul Salam Jul 2019

A Comparison Of Path Loss Variations In Soil Using Planar And Dipole Antennas, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this paper, an empirical investigation of propagation path loss variations with frequency in sandy and silty clay loam soils has been done using planar and dipole antennas. The path loss experiments are conducted using vector network analyzer (VNA) in sandy soil testbed, and greenhouse outdoor silty clay loam testbed for different operation frequencies and communication distances. The results show that the planar antenna can be used for subsurface communications in a wide range of operation frequencies. The comparison paves the way for development of sensor-guided irrigation system in the field of digital agriculture.


A Systematic Review Of Studies On Educational Robotics, Saira Anwar, Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Muhsin Menekse, Asefeh Kardgar Jul 2019

A Systematic Review Of Studies On Educational Robotics, Saira Anwar, Nicholas Alexander Bascou, Muhsin Menekse, Asefeh Kardgar

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

There has been a steady increase in the number of studies investigating educational robotics and its impact on academic and social skills of young learners. Educational robots are used both in and out of school environments to enhance K–12 students’ interest, engagement, and academic achievement in various fields of STEM education. Some prior studies show evidence for the general benefits of educational robotics as being effective in providing impactful learning experiences. However, there appears to be a need to determine the specific benefits which have been achieved through robotics implementation in K–12 formal and informal learning settings. In ...


Quantified Measurement Of The Tilt Effect In A Family Of Café Wall Illusions, Nasim Nematzadeh Dr., David Martin Powers Prof. May 2019

Quantified Measurement Of The Tilt Effect In A Family Of Café Wall Illusions, Nasim Nematzadeh Dr., David Martin Powers Prof.

MODVIS Workshop

This abstract explores the tilt effect in a family of Café Wall illusions using a Classical Gaussian Receptive Field model (CRF). Our model constructs an intermediate representation called edge map at multiple scales (Fig. 1) that reveals tilt cues and clues involved in the illusory perception of the Café Wall pattern. We investigate a wide range of parameters of the stimulus including mortar width, luminance, tiles contrast, and phase of the tile displacement (the stimuli in Fig. 2). We show that this simple bioplausible model, simulating the contrast sensitivity of the retinal ganglion cells, can not only detect the tilts ...


Urban Underground Infrastructure Monitoring Iot: The Path Loss Analysis, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah Apr 2019

Urban Underground Infrastructure Monitoring Iot: The Path Loss Analysis, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah

Faculty Publications

The extra quantities of wastewater entering the pipes can cause backups that result in sanitary sewer overflows. Urban underground infrastructure monitoring is important for controlling the flow of extraneous water into the pipelines. By combining the wireless underground communications and sensor solutions, the urban underground IoT applications such as real time wastewater and storm water overflow monitoring can be developed. In this paper, the path loss analysis of wireless underground communications in urban underground IoT for wastewater monitoring has been presented. It has been shown that the communication range of up to 4 kilometers can be achieved from an underground ...


An Underground Radio Wave Propagation Prediction Model For Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam Apr 2019

An Underground Radio Wave Propagation Prediction Model For Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Underground sensing and propagation of Signals in the Soil (SitS) medium is an electromagnetic issue. The path loss prediction with higher accuracy is an open research subject in digital agriculture monitoring applications for sensing and communications. The statistical data are predominantly derived from site-specific empirical measurements, which is considered an impediment to universal application. Nevertheless, in the existing literature, statistical approaches have been applied to the SitS channel modeling, where impulse response analysis and the Friis open space transmission formula are employed as the channel modeling tool in different soil types under varying soil moisture conditions at diverse communication distances ...


Underground Environment Aware Mimo Design Using Transmit And Receive Beamforming In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam Apr 2019

Underground Environment Aware Mimo Design Using Transmit And Receive Beamforming In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In underground (UG) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), the transmit beamforming is used to focus energy in the desired direction. There are three different paths in the underground soil medium through which the waves propagates to reach at the receiver. When the UG receiver receives a desired data stream only from the desired path, then the UG MIMO channel becomes three path (lateral, direct, and reflected) interference channel. Accordingly, the capacity region of the UG MIMO three path interference channel and degrees of freedom (multiplexing gain of this MIMO channel requires careful modeling). Therefore, expressions are required derived the degrees of ...


Internet Of Things In Smart Agriculture: Enabling Technologies, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah Jan 2019

Internet Of Things In Smart Agriculture: Enabling Technologies, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah

Faculty Publications

In this paper, an IoT technology research and innovation roadmap for the field of precision agriculture (PA) is presented. Many recent practical trends and the challenges have been highlighted. Some important objectives for integrated technology research and education in precision agriculture are described. Effective IoT based communications and sensing approaches to mitigate challenges in the area of precision agriculture are presented.


Operating Different Displays In Military Fast Jets Using Eye Gaze Tracker, Jeevitha Shree Dv, L. R. D. Murthy, Kamalpreet Singh Saluja, Pradipta Biswas Dec 2018

Operating Different Displays In Military Fast Jets Using Eye Gaze Tracker, Jeevitha Shree Dv, L. R. D. Murthy, Kamalpreet Singh Saluja, Pradipta Biswas

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

This paper investigated the use of an eye-gaze-controlled interface in a military aviation environment. We set up a flight simulator and used the gaze-controlled interface in three different configurations of displays (head down, head up, and head mounted) for military fast jets. Our studies found that the gaze-controlled interface statistically significantly increased the speed of interaction for secondary mission control tasks compared to touchscreen- and joystick-based target designation system. Finally, we tested a gaze-controlled system inside an aircraft both on the ground and in different phases of flight with military pilots. Results showed that they could undertake representative pointing and ...


Transcribing Braille Code: Learning Equations Across Platforms, Deegan Atha, Courtney Balogh Nov 2018

Transcribing Braille Code: Learning Equations Across Platforms, Deegan Atha, Courtney Balogh

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Deegan Atha, a graduating senior in electrical engineering and a future engineer, is interested in human-centered design and developing technology that helps students engage and be successful in STEM.

Courtney Balogh, a junior in mechanical engineering, is interested in human-centered design and the importance it plays in product development. Deegan and Courtney are members of the Purdue EPICS project, Learning Equations Across Platforms (LEAP). They partnered with the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (ISBVI) to develop a braille transcription device and web application that converts braille to print in real time.


Sort Vs. Hash Join On Knights Landing Architecture, Victor L. Pan, Felix Lin Aug 2018

Sort Vs. Hash Join On Knights Landing Architecture, Victor L. Pan, Felix Lin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

With the increasing amount of information stored, there is a need for efficient database algorithms. One of the most important database operations is “join”. This involves combining columns from two tables and grouping common values in the same row in order to minimize redundant data. The two main algorithms used are hash join and sort merge join. Hash join builds a hash table to allow for faster searching. Sort merge join first sorts the two tables to make it more efficient when comparing values. There has been a lot of debate over which approach is superior. At first, hash join ...


Deep Neural Network Architectures For Modulation Classification Using Principal Component Analysis, Sharan Ramjee, Shengtai Ju, Diyu Yang, Aly El Gamal Aug 2018

Deep Neural Network Architectures For Modulation Classification Using Principal Component Analysis, Sharan Ramjee, Shengtai Ju, Diyu Yang, Aly El Gamal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In this work, we investigate the application of Principal Component Analysis to the task of wireless signal modulation recognition using deep neural network architectures. Sampling signals at the Nyquist rate, which is often very high, requires a large amount of energy and space to collect and store the samples. Moreover, the time taken to train neural networks for the task of modulation classification is large due to the large number of samples. These problems can be drastically reduced using Principal Component Analysis, which is a technique that allows us to reduce the dimensionality or number of features of the samples ...


Investigating Dataset Distinctiveness, Andrew Ulmer, Kent W. Gauen, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Zohar R. Kapach, Daniel P. Merrick Aug 2018

Investigating Dataset Distinctiveness, Andrew Ulmer, Kent W. Gauen, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Zohar R. Kapach, Daniel P. Merrick

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Just as a human might struggle to interpret another human’s handwriting, a computer vision program might fail when asked to perform one task in two different domains. To be more specific, visualize a self-driving car as a human driver who had only ever driven on clear, sunny days, during daylight hours. This driver – the self-driving car – would inevitably face a significant challenge when asked to drive when it is violently raining or foggy during the night, putting the safety of its passengers in danger. An extensive understanding of the data we use to teach computer vision models – such as ...


Virtual Reality For Baseball Batting, Fengchen Gong, Tianjie Jia, Hong Tan, Casey Kohr Aug 2018

Virtual Reality For Baseball Batting, Fengchen Gong, Tianjie Jia, Hong Tan, Casey Kohr

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Nowadays, researchers explore the applications of Virtual Reality in different aspects of people’s lives. A few studies of Virtual Reality focus on applications in sports training. In this research area, one of the most important benefits is that athletes can focus on the training of one specific skill at one time. This SURF project focuses on the development of the virtual reality environment by designing targeted training for baseball batters, with the goal to achieve sufficient realism as judged by the Purdue baseball coaches. With the Virtual Reality training, baseball batters can practice and perfect a specific skill without ...


Purdue Air Sense: A Methodology For Improving The Accuracy Of Ambient Aerosol Mass Concentration And Size Distribution Measurement With Low-Cost Optical Sensing Techniques, Rishabh Ramsisaria, Satya Sundar Patra, Brandon Emil Boor Aug 2018

Purdue Air Sense: A Methodology For Improving The Accuracy Of Ambient Aerosol Mass Concentration And Size Distribution Measurement With Low-Cost Optical Sensing Techniques, Rishabh Ramsisaria, Satya Sundar Patra, Brandon Emil Boor

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is a global lack of a means for monitoring air pollutant levels at a local level due to expensive and bulky instrument requirements. It is important to monitor toxic gas levels, as well as particulate matter levels, in the atmosphere to study their effects on human health and to further develop city- and community-level air pollution solutions. In this study, with the means of a Raspberry Pi, low-cost Alphasense Optical Particle Counter and gas sensors, and methodical calibration techniques, we built a portable 3-D printed module powered by clean electricity generated by an on-board Voltaic solar cell that measures ...


Real-Time Non-Contact Road Defect Detection Using Inexpensive Sensors, Zhao Xing Lim, Mohammad Jahanshahi, Tarutal Ghosh Mondal, Da Cheng, Shutao Wang, Mohammad K. Sweidan, Aanis Ahmad, Omar Hesham Abouhussein, Xi Chen Aug 2018

Real-Time Non-Contact Road Defect Detection Using Inexpensive Sensors, Zhao Xing Lim, Mohammad Jahanshahi, Tarutal Ghosh Mondal, Da Cheng, Shutao Wang, Mohammad K. Sweidan, Aanis Ahmad, Omar Hesham Abouhussein, Xi Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Road defects such as potholes, humps, and road cracks have become one of the main concerns for road and traffic safety worldwide. Pavement defect detection is crucial to ensure road safety. However, current solutions to this problem are either too time-consuming or too expensive to be employed large-scale. We propose a novel approach which has the ability to autonomously detect potholes in real-time using cost-effective sensors. Inexpensive sensors are mounted on a vehicle and a deep learning algorithm is used to identify road defects. The detection system is paired with a GPS and positional sensors to map the location of ...


Micro-Manipulation Using Learned Model, Matthew A. Lyng, Benjamin V. Johnson, David J. Cappelleri Aug 2018

Micro-Manipulation Using Learned Model, Matthew A. Lyng, Benjamin V. Johnson, David J. Cappelleri

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microscale devices can be found in applications ranging from sensors to structural components. The dominance of surface forces at the microscale hinders the assembly processes through nonlinear interactions that are difficult to model for automation, limiting designs of microsystems to primarily monolithic structures. Methods for modeling surface forces must be presented for viable manufacturing of devices consisting of multiple microparts. This paper proposes the implementation of supervised machine learning models to aid in automated micromanipulation tasks for advanced manufacturing applications. The developed models use sets of training data to implicitly model surface interactions and predict end-effector placement and paths that ...


Remote Sensing Using I-Band And S-Band Signals Of Opportunity, Kadir Efecik, Benjamin R. Nold, James L. Garrison Aug 2018

Remote Sensing Using I-Band And S-Band Signals Of Opportunity, Kadir Efecik, Benjamin R. Nold, James L. Garrison

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Measurement of soil moisture, especially the root zone soil moisture, is important in agriculture, meteorology, and hydrology. Root zone soil moisture is concerned with the first meter down the soil. Active and passive remote sensing methods used today utilizing L-band(1-2GHz) are physically limited to a sensing depth of about 5 cm or less. To remotely sense the soil moisture in the deeper parts of the soil, the frequency should be lowered. Lower frequencies cannot be used in active spaceborne instruments because of their need for larger antennas, radio frequency interference (RFI), and frequency spectrum allocations. Ground-based passive remote sensing ...


Employing A User-Centered Design Process For Cybersecurity Awareness In The Power Grid, Jean C. Scholtz, Lyndsey Franklin, Aditya Ashok, Katya Leblanc, Christopher Bonebrake, Eric Andersen, Michael Cassiadoro Jan 2018

Employing A User-Centered Design Process For Cybersecurity Awareness In The Power Grid, Jean C. Scholtz, Lyndsey Franklin, Aditya Ashok, Katya Leblanc, Christopher Bonebrake, Eric Andersen, Michael Cassiadoro

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

In this paper, we discuss the process we are using in the design and implementation of a tool to improve the situation awareness of cyberattacks in the power grid. We provide details of the steps we have taken to date and describe the steps that still need to be accomplished. The focus of this work is to provide situation awareness of the power grid to staff from different, non-overlapping roles in an electrical transmission organization in order to facilitate an understanding of a possible occurrence of a cyberattack. Our approach follows a user-centered design process and includes determining the types ...


Answering Food Insecurity: Serving The Community With Food And Knowledge Using Technology, Courtney Simpson Oct 2017

Answering Food Insecurity: Serving The Community With Food And Knowledge Using Technology, Courtney Simpson

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

The courses of Tech120, CGT110, and ENGT 180/181 and Red Gold at Purdue collaborated to design a robot that would plant and water a garden for a local community charter school. The students centered the project on the users’ needs for fresh food, nutrition education, and early exposure to STEM for children. The school, Anderson Preparatory Academy (APA), is comprised of many children who come from low-income families and are in the free or reduced lunch program. Inspired from “Farm Bot,” a similar system that allows for almost hands-free gardening, the “Boiler Bot” is designed to be scalable so ...


Parallel Computation Using Mems Oscillator-Based Computing System, Xinrui Wang, Ilias Bilionis, Salar Safarkhani Aug 2017

Parallel Computation Using Mems Oscillator-Based Computing System, Xinrui Wang, Ilias Bilionis, Salar Safarkhani

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In recent years, parallel computing systems such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been of great interest. In these systems which emulate the behavior of human brains, the processing is carried out simultaneously. However, it is still a challenging engineering problem to design highly efficient hardware for parallel computing systems. We will study the properties of networks of Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) oscillators to explore their capabilities as parallel computing infrastructure. Furthermore, we simulate the time-variant states of MEMS oscillators network under various initial conditions and performance of certain tasks. Recent theoretical results show that networks of MEMS oscillators have some ...


Resource Estimation For Large Scale, Real-Time Image Analysis On Live Video Cameras Worldwide, Caleb Tung, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Anup Mohan Aug 2017

Resource Estimation For Large Scale, Real-Time Image Analysis On Live Video Cameras Worldwide, Caleb Tung, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Anup Mohan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Thousands of public cameras live-stream an abundance of data to the Internet every day. If analyzed in real-time by computer programs, these cameras could provide unprecedented utility as a global sensory tool. For example, if cameras capture the scene of a fire, a system running image analysis software on their footage in real-time could be programmed to react appropriately (perhaps call firefighters). No such technology has been deployed at large scale because the sheer computing resources needed have yet to be determined. In order to help us build computer systems powerful enough to achieve such lifesaving feats, we developed a ...


Optimal Placement Of Intrusion Detection Systems To Identify Multi-Stage Attacks In Software Defined Networks, Rebecca S. Salo, Subramaniyam Kannan, Paul C. Wood Aug 2017

Optimal Placement Of Intrusion Detection Systems To Identify Multi-Stage Attacks In Software Defined Networks, Rebecca S. Salo, Subramaniyam Kannan, Paul C. Wood

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A major threat to network security is the multi-stage attack, where an attacker compromises an outer edge server from which he penetrates an inner server, and so on, until he gains access to protected information deep in the network. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) can detect such attacks, but limited resources constrain the number of IDS deployed. Software defined networking (SDN) provides network flexibility, and combined with network function virtualization (NFV), it enables IDS placement optimizations that can relieve cost constraint pressures. In this work, we develop a novel algorithm for placing IDS to maximize network protection benefits and minimize costs ...


Ani-Bot: A Mixed-Reality Ready Modular Robotics System, Zhuangying Xu, Yuanzhi Cao Aug 2017

Ani-Bot: A Mixed-Reality Ready Modular Robotics System, Zhuangying Xu, Yuanzhi Cao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

DIY modular robotics has always had a strong appeal to makers and designers; being able to quickly design, build, and animate their own robots opens the possibility of bringing imaginations to life. However, current interfaces to control and program the DIY robot either lacks connection and consistency between the users and target (Graphical User Interface) or suffers from limited control capabilities due to the lack of versatility and functionality (Tangible User interface). We present Ani-Bot, a modular robotics system that allows users to construct Do-It-Yourself (DIY) robots and use mixed-reality approach to interact with them instantly. Ani-Bot enables novel user ...


Development Of A Water Quality Status And Trend Detection Tool*, Ruchir Aggarwal, Valeria Mijares, Margaret W. Gitau Aug 2017

Development Of A Water Quality Status And Trend Detection Tool*, Ruchir Aggarwal, Valeria Mijares, Margaret W. Gitau

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Water Quality Index (WQI) models have been developed since the early 1970s. They present a means by which water quality status and trends can be compared across time and space on the basis of a composite value computed using existing water quality data. There is a need for a tool that can bring the different water quality parameters together and calculate the WQIs so as to facilitate data use in predictive modeling and water quality management. We are developing a software tool that can be used by water quality managers and others with different technical backgrounds to calculate WQI of ...


Web-Based Interactive Social Media Visual Analytics, Diego Rodríguez-Baquero, Jiawei Zhang, David S. Ebert, Sorin A. Matei Aug 2017

Web-Based Interactive Social Media Visual Analytics, Diego Rodríguez-Baquero, Jiawei Zhang, David S. Ebert, Sorin A. Matei

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Real-time social media platforms enable quick information broadcasting and response during disasters and emergencies. Analyzing the massive amount of generated data to understand the human behavior requires data collection and acquisition, parsing, filtering, augmentation, processing, and representation. Visual analytics approaches allow decision makers to observe trends and abnormalities, correlate them with other variables and gain invaluable insight into these situations. In this paper, we propose a set of visual analytic tools for analyzing and understanding real-time social media data in times of crisis and emergency situations. First, we model the degree of risk of individuals’ movement based on evacuation zones ...


Perception Of 3d Symmetrical And Near-Symmetrical Shapes, Vijai Jayadevan, Aaron Michaux, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo May 2017

Perception Of 3d Symmetrical And Near-Symmetrical Shapes, Vijai Jayadevan, Aaron Michaux, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Real Time Learning Level Assessment Using Eye Tracking, Saurin S. Parikh, Hari Kalva May 2017

Real Time Learning Level Assessment Using Eye Tracking, Saurin S. Parikh, Hari Kalva

MODVIS Workshop

E-Learning is emerging as a convenient and effective learning tool. However, the challenge with eLearning is the lack of effective tools to assess levels of learning. Ability to predict difficult content in real time enables eLearning systems to dynamically provide supplementary content to meet learners’ needs. Recent developments have made possible low-cost eye trackers, which enables a new class of applications based on eye response. In comparison to past attempts using bio-metrics in learning assessments, with eye tracking, we can have access to the exact stimulus that is causing the response. A key aspect of the proposed approach is the ...