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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Biochemical And Histological Differences Between Costal And Articular Cartilages, Michael W. Stacey Jan 2017

Biochemical And Histological Differences Between Costal And Articular Cartilages, Michael W. Stacey

Bioelectrics Publications

Biologically, costal cartilage is an understudied tissue type and much is yet to be learned regarding underlying mechanisms related to form and function, and how these relate to disease states, specifically chest wall deformity. Chest wall deformities have a component of inheritance, implying underlying genetic causes; however the complexity of inheritance suggests multiple genetic components. At our Centre investigations were performed on gene expression of key select genes from costal cartilage removed at surgery of patients with chest wall deformity to show high expression of decorin, a key player in collagen fiber formation and growth. Also, the degree of tissue ...


Nanoindentation Of Bio- And Geo-Mineralized Composites: Contribution Of Microstructure And Composition, Sara E. Campbell Apr 2010

Nanoindentation Of Bio- And Geo-Mineralized Composites: Contribution Of Microstructure And Composition, Sara E. Campbell

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Bio-mineralized composite tissues, such as bone and teeth, are heterogeneous in both mineral composition and crystallinity. These tissues are altered throughout life by aging, wear, microfracture, and various disease states (e.g., osteoporosis), and are then further altered geologically after death by fossilization to create geo-mineralized tissues. Bone and enamel exhibit a wide range of mechanical responses at nanometer-length scales, where large-scale porosity and macro-structural variation are not factors. Some variability seen in mineralized tissues can be attributed to the amount of mineral; where a general increase in mechanical properties occurs with increasing mineral volume fraction. However, a large range ...


Mechanical Properties Of Dendritic Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, Efstratios Papazoglou, Qiang Wu, William A. Brantley, John C. Mitchell, Glyn Meyrick Jan 1999

Mechanical Properties Of Dendritic Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, Efstratios Papazoglou, Qiang Wu, William A. Brantley, John C. Mitchell, Glyn Meyrick

Cells and Materials

Three Pd-Cu-Ga dental alloys with very similar nominal compositions and dendritic as-cast microstructures were selected for study: Option (Ney Dental) and Spartan (Williams/lvoclar) contain a small amount of boron, while Spartan Plus (Williams/Ivoclar) is boron-free. Bars of each alloy were tested in tension for the as-cast and simulated porcelain-firing conditions, and values of mechanical properties were measured. Fracture surfaces and microstructures of axially sectioned and etched fracture specimens were observed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Except for the elastic modulus, significant differences were typically found in alloy properties. Heat treatment eliminated the dendritic microstructure, decreased strength and ...


Effects Of Casting Conditions And Annealing On Microstructures And Vickers Hardness Of Dendritic Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Qiang Wu, Zhuo Cai, Stanley G. Vermilyea, John C. Mitchell, Michael C. Comerford Jan 1999

Effects Of Casting Conditions And Annealing On Microstructures And Vickers Hardness Of Dendritic Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Qiang Wu, Zhuo Cai, Stanley G. Vermilyea, John C. Mitchell, Michael C. Comerford

Cells and Materials

Three Pd-Cu-Ga alloys with as-cast dendritic microstructures and very similar compositions, two containing less than 1 wt% boron and the third boron-free, were cast with normal bench-cooling or rapid-quenching into water. Quenched specimens were also heat treated at temperatures of 1000°, 1200°, 1500° and 1800°F that span the firing cycles for dental porcelain. Similar values of Vickers hardness were observed for all three alloys, suggesting little effect from boron on yield strength. The hardness was relatively insensitive to the experimental conditions, except for heat treatment at 1500° and 1800°F where significant softening occurred with transformation of the microstructure ...


X-Ray Diffraction And Scanning Electron Microscopy Analyses Of A Gallium-Based Dental Restorative Alloy, Randa E. Shaker, William A. Brantley, Qiang Wu, John C. Mitchell Jan 1999

X-Ray Diffraction And Scanning Electron Microscopy Analyses Of A Gallium-Based Dental Restorative Alloy, Randa E. Shaker, William A. Brantley, Qiang Wu, John C. Mitchell

Cells and Materials

Specimens of a gallium-based dental alloy were prepared with different condensation techniques, with and without the removal of a surface layer, and after aging for 2 hours at 50°, 100° and 150°C. X-ray diffraction at times ranging from 10 minutes to 1 day showed the development of the four matrix phases (ß-Sn, CuGa2, Ga28Ag72, and In4Ag9) during the setting reaction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of specimens loaded to failure revealed brittle fracture, with greater porosity for hand-condensed specimens, and provided insight into crack propagation processes. Aging increased the amount of ...


Alloy Oxidation And Porcelain Fused To Alloy Interaction In Noble Alloy Systems, M. S. Bapna, H. J. Mueller Jan 1997

Alloy Oxidation And Porcelain Fused To Alloy Interaction In Noble Alloy Systems, M. S. Bapna, H. J. Mueller

Cells and Materials

The oxidation and porcelain fusion characteristics of noble alloys containing a variety of minor oxidizable elements, including Cu, Sn, In, Ga, Mn, and Fe were investigated. Four porcelain alloys systems: a Pd-base alloy (Naturelle}, two Pd-Ag-based alloys (Jelstar and Acclaim}, and a high Au-alloy (SMG-3) were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy after being heat treated and after being fused with porcelain. Internal oxidation of minor alloying elements occurred within several micrometers from the surface in all four alloys. Surface nodules as detected by other investigators for a Pd-Ag alloy were also detected in this study. Evidence ...


Ultrastructural Observations Of Peri-Implant Mucosa Morphology Around Different Types Of Abutment In Humans, C. Piacentini, P. Lanzarini, R. Rodriguez Y Baena, S. Rizzo, C. Brusotti Jan 1997

Ultrastructural Observations Of Peri-Implant Mucosa Morphology Around Different Types Of Abutment In Humans, C. Piacentini, P. Lanzarini, R. Rodriguez Y Baena, S. Rizzo, C. Brusotti

Cells and Materials

Scanning electron microscopy (SFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the morphological aspects of peri-implant mucosa around abutments of differing geometry (biconical and cylindrical) and of differing surface micromorphology. The samples were taken from seven patients who had undergone implant surgery at least one year prior to the study. In samples from biconical abutments, SEM of the sulcular epithelium showed that it consisted of flattened polygonal cells with a surface resembling a honeycomb. Superficial desquamation was rarely found. In contrast, in the samples from cylindrical abutments, the sulcular epithelium showed extensive desquamation and surface irregularity, but not ...


Mechanism For Formation Of Lamellar Constituents In Grain-Refined Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Zhuo Cai, John C. Mitchell, Stanley G. Vermilyea Jan 1997

Mechanism For Formation Of Lamellar Constituents In Grain-Refined Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Zhuo Cai, John C. Mitchell, Stanley G. Vermilyea

Cells and Materials

Grain-refined Pd-Cu-Ga dental alloys solidify with a lamellar microstructural constituent that affects a variety of clinically relevant properties. While formation of this constituent has been attributed to eutectic solidification, an alternative mechanism of discontinuous precipitation has been proposed. Using a representative grain-refined Pd-Cu-Ga dental alloy, casting procedures involving two different rates of solidification were used: (a) A standard thin-walled coping configuration for a metal-ceramic restoration was cast into a room temperature mold, followed by rapid quenching into an ice-water mixture. (b) A thin plate specimen was cast into a standard elevated-temperature mold, with the same subsequent rapid quenching procedure. Neither ...


Heat-Treatment Behavior Of High-Palladium Dental Alloys, Qiang Wu, William A. Brantley, John C. Mitchell, Stanley G. Vermilyea, Jianzhong Xiao, Wenhua Guo Jan 1997

Heat-Treatment Behavior Of High-Palladium Dental Alloys, Qiang Wu, William A. Brantley, John C. Mitchell, Stanley G. Vermilyea, Jianzhong Xiao, Wenhua Guo

Cells and Materials

Four high-palladium dental alloys were cast, quenched following solidification, and heat treated at temperatures ranging from 200° to 1,800°F. The Vickers hardness of each alloy was measured, and microstructural changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase transformations were investigated by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Heat treatment at 1,600° and 1,800°F significantly decreased the hardness of one Pd-Cu-Ga alloy, compared to the as-cast condition, as did heat treatment at 1,800°F for the other Pd-Cu-Ga alloy and one Pd-Ga alloy, and yielded fine-grained microstructures of the palladium solid solution. There were generally no significant ...


A Microstructural Investigation Of Calcium Hydroxyapatites Synthesized From Cahpo4•2h2o And Ca4(Po4)2o, Kevor S. Tenhuisen, Boyd A. Clark, Maria Klimkiewicz, Paul W. Brown Jan 1996

A Microstructural Investigation Of Calcium Hydroxyapatites Synthesized From Cahpo4•2h2o And Ca4(Po4)2o, Kevor S. Tenhuisen, Boyd A. Clark, Maria Klimkiewicz, Paul W. Brown

Cells and Materials

This investigation determined the effects of reaction temperature and bulk composition on the microstructural features of hydroxyapatites (HAp) synthesized from reaction between particulate CaHPO4·2H2O and Ca4(PO4)2O. These data were used in combination with previous work to further elucidate the mechanistic reaction path taken by these calcium phosphate cements. HAps having two different compositions (Ca/P = 1.50 and 1.67) were synthesized between 15.0 and 70.0°C. All reactions reached completion as indicated by X-ray diffraction. Single point nitrogen absorption was performed on all samples to determine specific surface ...


Biodegradation Of Synthetic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate And Biological Calcified Substratum By Cells Of Hemopoietic Origin, A. Soueidan, O. I. Gan, J. M. Bouler, F. Gouin, G. Daculsi Jan 1995

Biodegradation Of Synthetic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate And Biological Calcified Substratum By Cells Of Hemopoietic Origin, A. Soueidan, O. I. Gan, J. M. Bouler, F. Gouin, G. Daculsi

Cells and Materials

Different types of osteoclastic cells (authentic osteoclasit from human giant cell tumor and bone marrow of newborn rats; newly-formed osteoclasts from adult rat bone marrow), giant multinucleated cells and macrophages were studied for their effect on synthetic and natural mineralized substrata. Biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic consisted of hydroxyapatite and beta tricalcium phosphate was chosen for in vitro experiments, and dentine served as a positive control for cell resorbing activity . Our results show the limited capacity of authentic and newly-formed osteoclasts to resorb synthetic ceramic as compared to that of natural substrata. In vitro cell-mediated biodegradation included also modifications of the ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies Of Ceramic Layers And Interfacial Regions For Calcium Phosphate-Coated Titanium Dental Implants, W. A. Brantley, E. Tufecki, J. C. Mitchell, D. W. Foreman, E. A. Mcglumphy Jan 1995

Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies Of Ceramic Layers And Interfacial Regions For Calcium Phosphate-Coated Titanium Dental Implants, W. A. Brantley, E. Tufecki, J. C. Mitchell, D. W. Foreman, E. A. Mcglumphy

Cells and Materials

The surface and cross-section characteristics of the plasma-sprayed calcium phosphate coatings, along with the microstructures and elemental compositions near the titanium alloy interface, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy for two different dental implants of proprietary compositions: Integra!® (Calcitek) and BioVent ® (Dentsply). Elemental concentrations (Ca, P, Ti, AI, and V) near the interfaces were obtained by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Coating surfaces exhibited a splat deposition topography of greatly differing microstructural scale for the two implants, along with other features characteristic of the plasma-spraying process; cross-sections of the coatings revealed minimal porosity. Some interdiffusion of principally titanium and calcium was found ...


Backscattered Electron Imaging To Enhance Microstructural Contrast In Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Bone Cement Fracture Analysis, L. D. T. Topoleski, P. Rutledge, X. Lu Jan 1995

Backscattered Electron Imaging To Enhance Microstructural Contrast In Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Bone Cement Fracture Analysis, L. D. T. Topoleski, P. Rutledge, X. Lu

Cells and Materials

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is used as a grout to secure joint replacement prostheses into bone. It has a distinct microstructure made up of: prepolymerized beads, an interbead matrix polymer, a radiopacifier {barium sulphate (BaS04) or zirconium dioxide (Zr02)}, and pores or voids; the radiopacifier is found only in the interbead matrix of the cured bone cement. The mechanism of slow or fatigue crack growth appears to be initial micro-cracking through the interbead matrix, followed by coalescence of the microcracks to form a continuous crack. Thus, distinguishing the interbead matrix from the pre-polymerized beads is important for investigating ...


A Morphological Assessment Of Bovine Chondrocytes Cultured On Poly(Ethyl Methacrylate)/Tetrahydrofurfuryl Methacrylate, R. M. Sawtell, M. V. Kayser, S. Downes Jan 1995

A Morphological Assessment Of Bovine Chondrocytes Cultured On Poly(Ethyl Methacrylate)/Tetrahydrofurfuryl Methacrylate, R. M. Sawtell, M. V. Kayser, S. Downes

Cells and Materials

A heterocyclic methacrylate polymer system, PEMA/THFMA, has shown potential as a biomaterial for cartilage repair in a rabbit model and has properties making it suitable for use clinically. The ability of the polymer system, PEMA/THFMA, and a related system, PEMA/HEMA, to support chondrocytes in vitro was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Chondrocytes adhered to the surface of the PEMA/THFMA by day one, having a rounded morphology and clustered appearance opposed to the Thermanox® control, where the cells had spread out and become fibroblastic in appearance. The chondrocytes divided rapidly on the PEMA/ THFMA system by day ...


Room Temperature Aging Of Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Zhuo Cai, Qiang Wu, Alan B. Carr, John C. Mitchell Jan 1995

Room Temperature Aging Of Pd-Cu-Ga Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Zhuo Cai, Qiang Wu, Alan B. Carr, John C. Mitchell

Cells and Materials

Specimens of three Pd-Cu-Ga dental alloys cast five years ago and subsequently stored at room temperature were reexamined and observed to have lower amounts of the eutectic constituents in the near-surface region than originally present, along with other microstructural changes. This previously unreported room temperature aging behavior of these alloys is attributed to the presence of high-diffusivity paths in the non-equilibrium ascast eutectic structures and to the essential role of the surface for the vacancy diffusion mechanism. These results may have important clinical significance for the ill vivo corrosion resistance and long-term biocompatibility of the Pd-Cu-Ga alloys.


A Scanning Electron Microscope Study Of The Ultrastructural Organization Of Bone Mineral, F. B. Bagambisa, U. Joos, W. Schilli Jan 1993

A Scanning Electron Microscope Study Of The Ultrastructural Organization Of Bone Mineral, F. B. Bagambisa, U. Joos, W. Schilli

Cells and Materials

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study samples of lamellar bone at magnifications typical for the published transmission electron micrographs, to gain more insight into the three-dimensional ultrastructure of bone mineral. Untreated (whole bone) samples allowed an assessment of the degree of mineralization. Deproteinized samples revealed the ultrastructural form and organization of bone apatite to be a function of the extent to which collagen fibers were imbibed with mineral. Numerous parallel formations reminiscent of troughs, gutters, or furrows, pierced and traversed the mineralization front. These troughs showed varying diameters identifiable with collagen fibers, and were separated from one another ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Of The Osteoclast-Bone Interface In Vivo, H. Zhou, R. Chernecky, J. E. Davies Jan 1993

Scanning Electron Microscopy Of The Osteoclast-Bone Interface In Vivo, H. Zhou, R. Chernecky, J. E. Davies

Cells and Materials

Rat femoral bones were studied by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate the morphology of osteoclast- bone matrix interfacial relationships. Two general morphological types of actively resorbing osteoclasts were observed . One cell type was approximately ovoid with highly fimbriated borders, fully attached and closely adapted to the resorption surface. The ruffled border of such cells was composed of a number of individual filopodia which were of uniform , regular shape and approximately 2-3 μm in length and 150 nm in diameter. They were found to penetrate the bone matrix to a depth of 1 μm and interdigitated with the surrounding bone. The ...


Immunohistochemical Investigation Of Tracks Left By The Migration Of Fibroblasts On Titanium Surfaces, Y. Abiko, D. M. Brunette Jan 1993

Immunohistochemical Investigation Of Tracks Left By The Migration Of Fibroblasts On Titanium Surfaces, Y. Abiko, D. M. Brunette

Cells and Materials

Fibronectin, a major attachment protein, has been thought to be involved in pathway guidance, a process in which cells migrate along specific pathways within a tissue during development. Fibroblasts exhibit the phenomenon of contact guidance, the tendency of cells to be guided in their direction of migration by the shape of the substratum. The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that fibronectin tracks are deposited by fibroblasts moving on smooth and grooved titanium surfaces.

The study was carried out on human gingival fibroblasts which were plated onto both smooth and grooved titanium substrata using medium containing either ...


In-Vivo Reactions In Some Bioactive Glasses And Glass-Ceramics Granules, A. M. Gatti, T. Yamamuro, L. L. Hench, O. H. Andersson Jan 1993

In-Vivo Reactions In Some Bioactive Glasses And Glass-Ceramics Granules, A. M. Gatti, T. Yamamuro, L. L. Hench, O. H. Andersson

Cells and Materials

Two different bioactive glasses and one glass-ceramic were implanted as granules for 2 months in rabbit muscle and for 5 months in sheep jaw in order to study the influence of the biological surroundings on the reactions of the materials.

Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that a calcium and phosphorous-rich (CaP) surface layer (adjacent to a silicon rich-layer) forms on both glasses in both implantation sites. The glass-ceramic developed only a CaP layer. A chemical process of degradation was more evident in muscle, even though the implantation time was shorter than that in bone. For all ...


In Vitro Studies Of Encrustations On Catheters, A Model Of Infection Stone Formation, W. Schmitz, A. Nolde, G. Marklein, A. Hesse Jan 1993

In Vitro Studies Of Encrustations On Catheters, A Model Of Infection Stone Formation, W. Schmitz, A. Nolde, G. Marklein, A. Hesse

Cells and Materials

Deposition of infection-induced stone material on urinary catheters is a common problem in urological patients. Therefore, a crystallization model was developed in order to form this material in a reproducible manner. Furthermore, the dissolving potency of two solutions (Suby-G® and Solution-R®) was investigated with this model. The encrustations were examined by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, chemical encrustation analysis , scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. In addition, the encrustations were calculated from the results of the urine analysis, before and after each experiment, as contents remaining in each artificial bladder. The model conditions changed during the experiment and led to supersaturation ...


A Simple Freeze Fracture Technique For Scanning Electron Microscopy Of Collagenous Biomaterials, David L. Christiansen, George Pins, Frederick H. Silver Jan 1993

A Simple Freeze Fracture Technique For Scanning Electron Microscopy Of Collagenous Biomaterials, David L. Christiansen, George Pins, Frederick H. Silver

Cells and Materials

A simple freeze fracture technique for the ultrastructural analysis of fragile collagenous biomaterials is presented. Following standard methods of preparation and dehydration, fragile biomaterials are fractured with a sharp blade attached to a modified slide hammer. The sliding mass imparts a sudden impact load on the frozen surface of the material , creating a distortion free cleavage plane across the material. More traditional methods including bending and cutting with scissors introduce artifacts indirectly associated with stress concentration produced by bending, and sample compression at the edges with cutting. The impact loading of the sample during fracture results in preservation of edge ...


Mineralization Of An Axially Aligned Collagenous Matrix: A Morphological Study, D. L. Christiansen, F. H. Silver Jan 1993

Mineralization Of An Axially Aligned Collagenous Matrix: A Morphological Study, D. L. Christiansen, F. H. Silver

Cells and Materials

Bone can be described as a highly ordered composite of type I collagen integrated with an inorganic mineral phase. In vitro models of bone mineralization using collagenous substrates have been reported in the literature. This study reports an in vitro system of mineralized reconstituted collagen fibers, with aligned fibrillar substructure. The collagen fibers were mineralized in a double diffusion chamber saturated with respect to calcium and phosphate. The morphology and ultrastructure of the mineral precipitate were evaluated as a function of the pH of the incubating media. Brushite crystal was observed at acidic pH. Large rectangular crystals formed at pH ...


Are Long Term Cryopreservation And Patency Of Vein Allograft Truly Achievable?, G. Pasquinelli, G. L. Faggioli, P. Preda, M. Vici, G. N. Martinelli, R. Giardino, M. D'Addato, J. J. Ricotta Jan 1993

Are Long Term Cryopreservation And Patency Of Vein Allograft Truly Achievable?, G. Pasquinelli, G. L. Faggioli, P. Preda, M. Vici, G. N. Martinelli, R. Giardino, M. D'Addato, J. J. Ricotta

Cells and Materials

Despite extensive experimental work, neither the effect of long term cryopreservation on vein graft architecture nor the failure of alloveins due to graft rejection have yet been investigated. Herein, we investigated ultrastructurally: a) the integrity of rabbit jugular veins following 1, 2 and 3 months of cryopreservation; b) the outcome of the three-month cryopreserved vein auto- and allografts after 1 month of implantation in the rabbit carotid artery; and c) the immunologic response to cryopreserved vein allografts with and without seeded autologous endothelium. Prior to implantation, the cryopreserved rabbit veins were well-maintained except for endothelial cell damage. Following implantation, the ...


Metallurgical Structures Of As-Cast And Heat-Treated High-Palladium Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Zhuo Cai, Alan B. Carr, John C. Mitchell Jan 1993

Metallurgical Structures Of As-Cast And Heat-Treated High-Palladium Dental Alloys, William A. Brantley, Zhuo Cai, Alan B. Carr, John C. Mitchell

Cells and Materials

Scanning electron microscope observations and energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses have been performed on two first-generation and two second-generation high-palladium dental casting alloys. A specimen design simulating a maxillary central incisor coping was employed to conserve metal, while providing thin and thick sections to yield a range of solidification rates. The alloys were centrifugally cast in air, following standard dental laboratory techniques; three castings were prepared for each alloy. Each casting was sectioned to produce two mirror-image specimens, and one specimen received the appropriate oxidation heat treatment, followed by a simulated full porcelain firing sequence. After metallographic polishing, specimens were examined with ...


A Model For A Model: Pressure Jackets On Nude Mice With Implants Of Hypertrophic Scars, C. Ward Kischer, Jana Pindur Jan 1992

A Model For A Model: Pressure Jackets On Nude Mice With Implants Of Hypertrophic Scars, C. Ward Kischer, Jana Pindur

Cells and Materials

The hypertrophic scar, a consequence of deep surface injury, is peculiar to humankind. Subcutaneous implants of these tissues in nude mice provide a quasi - animal model for experimental use. An efficacious treatment to promote acceleration of maturation of the hypertrophic scar is controlled topical pressure produced by flexible dacron fabric wraps. Implants in the nude mouse provide a model for study of the effects of pressure. Preliminary results indicate that those implants in nude mice, responding favorably to pressure jackets, show changes consistent with those previously obtained in human studies. The collagen matrix shows reduced density and parallel layering of ...


Microstructure Of Mica Glass-Ceramics And Interface Reactions Between Mica Glass-Ceramics And Bone, W. Holand, W. Gotz, G. Carl, W. Vogel Jan 1992

Microstructure Of Mica Glass-Ceramics And Interface Reactions Between Mica Glass-Ceramics And Bone, W. Holand, W. Gotz, G. Carl, W. Vogel

Cells and Materials

This review paper characterizes glass-ceramics containing mica as main crystal phase. The phase formation reactions in dependence of the chemical composition and the microstructure are shown. Microstructure of mica glass-ceramics has been studied by electron replica and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques.

Mica glass-ceramics have previously been developed in Si02-B20rA120rMgO-F--base glasses. The material is machinable because of the precipitation of micas of fluorophlogopite-type. Also, a machinable glass-ceramic for dental applications was developed based on KMg2_5(Si40 10)F2-micas. We developed mica glass-ceramics in the Si02-Al20rMgO-NaiO-K20-F glass system. Phase formation within these glasses was observed by SEM. A double controlled nucleation ...


The Effect Of Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement Vibration On The Bone-Cement Interface, A. M. C. Thomas, D. J. W. Mcminn, M. Haddaway, I. W. Mccall Jan 1992

The Effect Of Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement Vibration On The Bone-Cement Interface, A. M. C. Thomas, D. J. W. Mcminn, M. Haddaway, I. W. Mccall

Cells and Materials

Low frequency vibration of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement reduces the viscosity of the cement by shear thinning. The effect of this low frequency vibration on the bone-cement interface was studied using microfocal radiography (MFR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects were studied in-vitro and in-vivo. In-vitro, samples of Palacos low viscosity PMMA were placed on blocks of Kiel bone and vibrated. MFR and SEM demonstrated an improvement in the appearance of the bone-cement interface. In-vivo, PMMA was injected into the upper tibia of the dog. An assessment of the effect of high and low pressure injection, and the effect of ...


Comparative Assessment Of The Cytotoxicity Of Various Substrates In Organ Culture And Cell Culture: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study, J. L. Duval, R. Warocquier-Clerout, M. F. Sigot-Luizard Jan 1992

Comparative Assessment Of The Cytotoxicity Of Various Substrates In Organ Culture And Cell Culture: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study, J. L. Duval, R. Warocquier-Clerout, M. F. Sigot-Luizard

Cells and Materials

A comparative study of the behavior of chick embryo endothelial cells grown on various substrates was performed in order to establish the reliability and the limitation of both cell and organ culture methods. Following substrates were analyzed to compare these two different culture techniques: bovine serum albumin, pigskin gelatin and albumin + gelatin cross-linked by glutaraldehyde or carbodiimide, fibrin glue and negative control (Thermanox*). Parameters of cell growth and adhesion were calculated and compared with electron microscopic observations of cell morphology and of the extracellular matrix. Both culture methods provided complementary results and led to a similar classification of the biomaterials ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Of Biofilms On Silicone Voice Prosthesis, T. R. Neu, F. Dijk, G. J. Verkerke, H. C. Van Der Mei, H. J. Busscher Jan 1992

Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Of Biofilms On Silicone Voice Prosthesis, T. R. Neu, F. Dijk, G. J. Verkerke, H. C. Van Der Mei, H. J. Busscher

Cells and Materials

Patients after laryngectomy often receive silicone made voice prostheses fot speech rehabilitation. The prosthesis is inserted in a shunt between the trachea and the digestive tract. As the prosthesis is placed in a nonsterile environment it becomes rapidly colonized by microorganisms eventually leading to failure and frequent exchange of the implant. In this study, explanted "Groningen Button" silicone voice prostheses were used to investigate by scanning electron microscopy the biofilm developing on the implant. Two main types of microbial colonization forms could be distinguished. Firstly, macroscopically visible, single colonies dominating on the esophagus side of the prosthesis were found, which ...


Apatite - Cholesterol Agglomerates In Human Atherosclerotic Lesions, Sara Sarig, Danielle Hirsch, Reuven Azoury, Teddy A. Weiss, Iony Katz, Howard S. Kruth Jan 1992

Apatite - Cholesterol Agglomerates In Human Atherosclerotic Lesions, Sara Sarig, Danielle Hirsch, Reuven Azoury, Teddy A. Weiss, Iony Katz, Howard S. Kruth

Cells and Materials

The purpose of this study was to examine the ultrastructural relationships of cholesterol crystals and apatite deposits in human atherosclerotic lesions. Segments of human aortic atherosclerotic lesions were obtained at autopsy , fixed in glutaraldehyde and dehydrated without using any organic solvents. The aortic segments were coated with carbon and subjected to various scanning electron microscope analyses. These included secondary electron imaging, back scattering of primary electrons, energy dispersive X-ray analysis of selected spots followed by area mapping of calcium and phosphorus , and cathodoluminescence.

The information gathered from scanning of selected areas in the lesions by all the techniques showed that ...