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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Radiotherapy-Induced Cherenkov Luminescence Imaging In A Human Body Phantom, Syed Rakin Ahmed, Mengyu Jia, Petr Bruza, Sergei A. Vinogradov, Shudong Jiang, David J. Gladstone, Lesley A. Jarvis, Brian W. Pogue Mar 2018

Radiotherapy-Induced Cherenkov Luminescence Imaging In A Human Body Phantom, Syed Rakin Ahmed, Mengyu Jia, Petr Bruza, Sergei A. Vinogradov, Shudong Jiang, David J. Gladstone, Lesley A. Jarvis, Brian W. Pogue

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Radiation therapy produces Cherenkov optical emission in tissue, and this light can be utilized to activate molecular probes. The feasibility of sensing luminescence from a tissue molecular oxygen sensor from within a human body phantom was examined using the geometry of the axillary lymph node region. Detection of regions down to 30-mm deep was feasible with submillimeter spatial resolution with the total quantity of the phosphorescent sensor PtG4 near 1 nanomole. Radiation sheet scanning in an epi-illumination geometry provided optimal coverage, and maximum intensity projection images provided illustration of the concept. This work provides the preliminary information needed to attempt ...


System Characterizations And Optimized Reconstruction Methods For Novel X-Ray Imaging, Huifeng Guan Dec 2017

System Characterizations And Optimized Reconstruction Methods For Novel X-Ray Imaging, Huifeng Guan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

In the past decade there have been many new emerging X-ray based imaging technologies developed for different diagnostic purposes or imaging tasks. However, there exist one or more specific problems that prevent them from being effectively or efficiently employed. In this dissertation, four different novel X-ray based imaging technologies are discussed, including propagation-based phase-contrast (PB-XPC) tomosynthesis, differential X-ray phase-contrast tomography (D-XPCT), projection-based dual-energy computed radiography (DECR), and tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT). System characteristics are analyzed or optimized reconstruction methods are proposed for these imaging modalities. In the first part, we investigated the unique properties of propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique ...


Evaluating And Improving Cochlear Length Measurements On Clinical Computed Tomography Images, John E. Iyaniwura Aug 2017

Evaluating And Improving Cochlear Length Measurements On Clinical Computed Tomography Images, John E. Iyaniwura

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cochlear implants provide the sensation of sound to deaf individuals. An accurate estimate of cochlear duct length (CDL) is required for pre-operative implant electrode selection and can be obtained from clinical computed tomography (CT) by measuring the “A-value”.

The objectives of this work were to estimate the accuracy and variability in manual A-value measurements, and to automate measurements.

Four specialists repeatedly measured the A-value on clinical CT images from which the inter- and intra-observer variability were calculated. Accuracy was assessed by comparison to measurements on higher resolution micro-CT images. Motivated by this study, software was developed to automate the A-value ...


Longitudinal Medical Imaging Approaches For Characterization Of Porcine Cancer Models, Emily Marie Hammond May 2017

Longitudinal Medical Imaging Approaches For Characterization Of Porcine Cancer Models, Emily Marie Hammond

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second deadliest disease in the United States with an estimated 1.69 million new cases in 2017. Medical imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are widely used in clinical medicine to detect, diagnose, plan treatment, and monitor tumors within the body. Advances in imaging research related to cancer assessment have largely relied on consented human patients, often including varied populations and treatments. Tumor bearing mouse models have been highly valued for basic science research, but imaging focused applications are limited by the translational ability of micro imaging systems. Pig models are ...


Quantifying Cross-Scatter Contamination In Biplane Fluoroscopy Motion Analysis Systems, Janelle A. Cross, Ben Mchenry, Taly Gilat-Schmidt Oct 2015

Quantifying Cross-Scatter Contamination In Biplane Fluoroscopy Motion Analysis Systems, Janelle A. Cross, Ben Mchenry, Taly Gilat-Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Biplane fluoroscopy is used for dynamic in vivo three-dimensional motion analysis of various joints of the body. Cross-scatter between the two fluoroscopy systems may limit tracking accuracy. This study measured the magnitude and effects of cross-scatter in biplane fluoroscopic images. Four cylindrical phantoms of 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-in. diameter were imaged at varying kVp levels to determine the cross-scatter fraction and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Monte Carlo simulations quantified the effect of the gantry angle on the cross-scatter fraction. A cadaver foot with implanted beads was also imaged. The effect of cross-scatter on marker-based tracking accuracy was investigated. Results demonstrated ...


The Effects Of Extending The Spectral Information Acquired By A Photon-Counting Detector For Spectral Ct, Taly Gilat Schmidt, Kevin C. Zimmerman, Emil Y. Sidky Jan 2015

The Effects Of Extending The Spectral Information Acquired By A Photon-Counting Detector For Spectral Ct, Taly Gilat Schmidt, Kevin C. Zimmerman, Emil Y. Sidky

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Photon-counting x-ray detectors with pulse-height analysis provide spectral information that may improve material decomposition and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT images. The number of energy measurements that can be acquired simultaneously on a detector pixel is equal to the number of comparator channels. Some spectral CT designs have a limited number of comparator channels, due to the complexity of readout electronics. The spectral information could be extended by changing the comparator threshold levels over time, sub pixels, or view angle. However, acquiring more energy measurements than comparator channels increases the noise and/or dose, due to differences in noise correlations ...


Modeling And Development Of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms In Emerging X-Ray Imaging Technologies, Jiaofeng Xu May 2014

Modeling And Development Of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms In Emerging X-Ray Imaging Technologies, Jiaofeng Xu

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Many new promising X-ray-based biomedical imaging technologies have emerged over the last two decades. Five different novel X-ray based imaging technologies are discussed in this dissertation: differential phase-contrast tomography (DPCT), grating-based phase-contrast tomography (GB-PCT), spectral-CT (K-edge imaging), cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and in-line X-ray phase contrast (XPC) tomosynthesis. For each imaging modality, one or more specific problems prevent them being effectively or efficiently employed in clinical applications have been discussed. Firstly, to mitigate the long data-acquisition times and large radiation doses associated with use of analytic reconstruction methods in DPCT, we analyze the numerical and statistical properties of two classes ...


Feasibility Of Pulsed Proton Induced Acoustics For 3d Dosimetry, Fahed M. Alsanea Apr 2014

Feasibility Of Pulsed Proton Induced Acoustics For 3d Dosimetry, Fahed M. Alsanea

Open Access Theses

Proton therapy has the potential to deposit its energy in tissue with high conformity to the tumor and significantly reduced integral dose to normal tissue compared to conventional radiation, such as x-rays. As a result, local control can be enhanced while reducing side-effects and secondary cancers. This is due to the way charged Particles deposit their energy or dose, where protons form a Bragg peak and establish a well-defined distal edge as a function of depth (range). To date, the dose delivered to a patient from proton therapy remains uncertain, in particular the positioning of the distal edge of the ...


Sparse Signal Reconstruction From Polychromatic X-Ray Ct Measurements Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić Jan 2014

Sparse Signal Reconstruction From Polychromatic X-Ray Ct Measurements Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić

Aleksandar Dogandžić

We propose a method for reconstructing sparse images from polychromatic x-ray computed tomography (ct) measurements via mass attenuation coefficient discretization. The material of the inspected object and the incident spectrum are assumed to be unknown. We rewrite the Lambert-Beer’s law in terms of integral expressions of mass attenuation and discretize the resulting integrals. We then present a penalized constrained least-squares optimization approach forreconstructing the underlying object from log-domain measurements, where an active set approach is employed to estimate incident energy density parameters and the nonnegativity and sparsity of the image density map are imposed using negative-energy and smooth ℓ1-norm ...


Sparse Signal Reconstruction From Polychromatic X-Ray Ct Measurements Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić Jan 2014

Sparse Signal Reconstruction From Polychromatic X-Ray Ct Measurements Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

We propose a method for reconstructing sparse images from polychromatic x-ray computed tomography (ct) measurements via mass attenuation coefficient discretization. The material of the inspected object and the incident spectrum are assumed to be unknown. We rewrite the Lambert-Beer’s law in terms of integral expressions of mass attenuation and discretize the resulting integrals. We then present a penalized constrained least-squares optimization approach forreconstructing the underlying object from log-domain measurements, where an active set approach is employed to estimate incident energy density parameters and the nonnegativity and sparsity of the image density map are imposed using negative-energy and smooth ℓ ...


Sparse X-Ray Ct Image Reconstruction And Blind Beam Hardening Correction Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić Dec 2013

Sparse X-Ray Ct Image Reconstruction And Blind Beam Hardening Correction Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić

Electrical and Computer Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

We develop a nonlinear sparse X-ray computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction method that accounts for beam hardening effects due to polychromatic X-ray sources. We adopt the blind scenario where the material of the inspected object and the incident polychromatic source spectrum are unknown and apply mass attenuation discretization of the underlying integral expressions that model the noiseless measurements. Our reconstruction algorithm employs constrained minimization of a penalized least-squares cost function, where nonnegativity and maximum-energy constraints are imposed on incident spectrum parameters and negative-energy and smooth ℓ1-norm penalty terms are introduced to ensure the nonnegativity and sparsity of the density map ...


Reducing Radiation Dose To The Female Breast During Ct Coronary Angiography: A Simulation Study Comparing Breast Shielding, Angular Tube Current Modulation, Reduced Kv, And Partial Angle Protocols Using An Unknown-Location Signal-Detectability Metric, Franco Rupcich, Andreu Badal, Lucretiu M. Popescu, Iacovos Kyprianou, Taly Gilat Schmidt Aug 2013

Reducing Radiation Dose To The Female Breast During Ct Coronary Angiography: A Simulation Study Comparing Breast Shielding, Angular Tube Current Modulation, Reduced Kv, And Partial Angle Protocols Using An Unknown-Location Signal-Detectability Metric, Franco Rupcich, Andreu Badal, Lucretiu M. Popescu, Iacovos Kyprianou, Taly Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Purpose:

The authors compared the performance of five protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast during computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography scans using a model observer unknown-location signal-detectability metric.

Methods:

The authors simulated CT images of an anthropomorphic female thorax phantom for a 120 kV reference protocol and five “dose reduction” protocols intended to reduce dose to the breast: 120 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered), 120 kV tube-current modulated (TCM), 120 kV with shielded breasts, 80 kV, and 80 kV partial angle (posteriorly centered). Two image quality tasks were investigated: the detection and localization of 4-mm, 3.25 mg ...


Reducing Radiation Dose To The Female Breast During Conventional And Dedicated Breast Computed Tomography, Franco Rupcich Jan 2013

Reducing Radiation Dose To The Female Breast During Conventional And Dedicated Breast Computed Tomography, Franco Rupcich

Dissertations (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of techniques intended to reduce dose to the breast during CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scans with respect to task-based image quality, and to evaluate the effectiveness of optimal energy weighting in improving contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and thus the potential for reducing breast dose, during energy-resolved dedicated breast CT.

A database quantifying organ dose for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during CTCA, including the breast, was generated using Monte Carlo simulations. This database facilitates estimation of organ-specific dose deposited during CTCA protocols using arbitrary x-ray spectra or tube-current modulation schemes without the ...


Beam Hardening Correction Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić Jan 2013

Beam Hardening Correction Via Mass Attenuation Discretization, Renliang Gu, Aleksandar Dogandžić

Electrical and Computer Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

We develop a beam-hardening correction method for polychromatic xray computed tomography (ct) reconstruction based on mass attenuation coefficient discretization. We assume that the inspected object consists of an unknown single material and that the incident x-ray spectrum is unknown. In this case, the standard photon-energy discretization of the Beer’s law measurement equation leads to an excessive number of unknown parameters and scaling ambiguity. To obtain a parsimonious measurement model parametrization, we first rewrite the measurement equation in terms of integral expressions of the mass attenuation rather than photon energy. The resulting integrals can be discretized easily thanks to the ...


Non-Invasive Stem Cell Tracking Using Novel Nanomaterials : In Vitro And Ex Vivo Studies, Sean Kenneth Sweeney Dec 2012

Non-Invasive Stem Cell Tracking Using Novel Nanomaterials : In Vitro And Ex Vivo Studies, Sean Kenneth Sweeney

Theses and Dissertations

As research and clinical use of stem cell therapies progresses, it is becoming more evident that being able to visualize the stem cell transplant in vivo is of great benefit to the researcher or clinician. As a result, researchers are working to address this need. Our lab is collaborating to develop novel, multimodal nanomaterials, one with a core of mesoporous silica, and the other with a core of gadolinium oxide. Varying modifications have been made as needs arose. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and confirmed to be positive for STRO-1, a common MSC marker ...


Propagation Of Ultrasound Through Freshly Excised Human Calvarium, Armando Garcia Noguera Jul 2012

Propagation Of Ultrasound Through Freshly Excised Human Calvarium, Armando Garcia Noguera

Engineering Mechanics Dissertations & Theses

The propagation of ultrasound through complex biological media, such as the human calvarium, poses a great challenge for modern medicine. Several ultrasonic techniques commonly used for treatment and diagnosis in most of the human body are still difficult to apply to the human brain, in part, because of the properties of the skull. Moreover, an understanding of the biomechanics of transcranial ultrasound may provide needed insight into the problem of blast wave induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, the spatial variability of ultrasonic properties was evaluated for relevant frequencies of 0.5, 1, and 2.25 MHz ...


Investigation Of In-Vivo Hindfoot And Orthotic Interactions Using Bi-Planar X-Ray Fluoroscopy, Kristen M. Bushey Jun 2012

Investigation Of In-Vivo Hindfoot And Orthotic Interactions Using Bi-Planar X-Ray Fluoroscopy, Kristen M. Bushey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A markerless RSA method was used to determine the effect of orthotics on the normal, pes planus and pes cavus populations. Computed tomography (CT) was used to create bone models that were imported into the virtual environment. Joint coordinate systems were developed to measure kinematic changes in the hindfoot during weight-bearing gait and quiet standing. The objectives of this thesis were to (1) implement a fluoroscopy-based markerless RSA system on the foot, (2) determine the effect of various orthotics at midstance of fully weight-bearing dynamic gait, and (3) determine the effect of orthotics as measured using three different techniques. Every ...


Sparse X-Ray Ct Image Reconstruction Using Ecme Hard Thresholding Methods, Kun Qiu, Aleksandar Dogandžić Jan 2011

Sparse X-Ray Ct Image Reconstruction Using Ecme Hard Thresholding Methods, Kun Qiu, Aleksandar Dogandžić

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

We apply expectation‐conditional maximization either (ECME) hard thresholding algorithms to X‐ray computed tomography (CT) reconstruction, where we implement the sampling operator using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT). The measurements follow an underdetermined linear model, where the regression‐coefficient vector is a sum of an unknown deterministic sparse signal component and a zero‐mean white Gaussian component with an unknown variance. Our ECME schemes aim at maximizing this model’s likelihood function with respect to the sparse signal and variance of the random signal component. These schemes exploit signal sparsity in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain and ...


Energy Deposition In The Breast During Ct Scanning: Quantification And Implications For Dose Reduction, Franco Rupcich, Iacovos Kyprianou, Andreu Badal, Taly Gilat Schmidt Jan 2011

Energy Deposition In The Breast During Ct Scanning: Quantification And Implications For Dose Reduction, Franco Rupcich, Iacovos Kyprianou, Andreu Badal, Taly Gilat Schmidt

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Studies suggest that dose to the breast leads to a higher lifetime attributable cancer incidence risk from a chest CT scan for women compared to men. Numerous methods have been proposed for reducing dose to the breast during CT scanning, including bismuth shielding, tube current modulation, partial-angular scanning, and reduced kVp. These methods differ in how they alter the spectrum and fluence across projection angle. This study used Monte Carlo CT simulations of a voxelized female phantom to investigate the energy (dose) deposition in the breast as a function of both photon energy and projection angle. The resulting dose deposition ...


Modeling Of Aortic Valve Anatomic Geometry From Clinical Multi Detector-Row Computed Tomography Images, Gregory A. Book Dec 2010

Modeling Of Aortic Valve Anatomic Geometry From Clinical Multi Detector-Row Computed Tomography Images, Gregory A. Book

Master's Theses

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging and viable alternative to surgical valve replacement. A TAVI procedure involves insertion of a catheter into the heart through an artery or transapically, and expanding valve stent in place. This procedure dramatically reduces the recovery time by eliminating the need for open heart surgery. Understanding the biomechanics of the stent-valve interaction is crucial for proper device deployment and function. In this study, we examine the extraction of valve geometries and creation of valve models from multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) images that may eventually be used to model stent expansion on a ...


Statistical Hypothesis Testing For Postreconstructed And Postregistered Medical Images, Eugene Demidenko Oct 2009

Statistical Hypothesis Testing For Postreconstructed And Postregistered Medical Images, Eugene Demidenko

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Postreconstructed and postregistered medical images are typically treated as the raw data, implicitly assuming that those operations are error free. We question this assumption and explore how the precision of reconstruction and affine registration can be assessed by the image covariance matrix and confidence interval, called the confidence eigenimage, using a statistical model-based approach. Various hypotheses may be tested after image reconstruction and registration using classical statistical hypothesis testing vehicles: Is there a statistically significant difference between images? Does the intensity at a specific location or area of interest belong to the “normal” range? Is there a tumor? Does the ...


Lung Cancer: An Evaluation Of Volumetric Histopathological Architecture With Correlation To Computed Tomography, Jessica Corinne De Ryk Jan 2008

Lung Cancer: An Evaluation Of Volumetric Histopathological Architecture With Correlation To Computed Tomography, Jessica Corinne De Ryk

Theses and Dissertations

Over 190,000 Americans die every year from lung cancer, making it the number one cause of death from cancer in America. Lung cancer has maintained the same low five year survival rate, of 13-15%, over the last thirty years. There is therefore desperate need for improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for lung cancer. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is being increasingly used for lung cancer detection and characterization. While national lung cancer screening trials have shown MDCT to be effective in detecting even very small lung nodules, the characterization achievable through this modality is poor. The majority of non-small ...


Development And Validation Of A Computational Musculoskeletal Model Of The Elbow Joint, Justin Paul Fisk Jan 2007

Development And Validation Of A Computational Musculoskeletal Model Of The Elbow Joint, Justin Paul Fisk

Theses and Dissertations

Musculoskeletal computational modeling is a versatile and effective tool which may be used to study joint mechanics, examine muscle and ligament function, and simulate surgical reconstructive procedures. While injury to the elbow joint can be significantly debilitating, questions still remain regarding its normal, pathologic, and repaired behavior. Biomechanical models of the elbow have been developed, but all have assumed fixed joint axes of rotation and ignored the effects of ligaments. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to develop and validate a computational model of the elbow joint whereby joint kinematics are dictated by three-dimensional bony geometry contact, ligamentous constraints ...


Quasi-Exact Helical Cone Beam Reconstruction For Micro Ct, Jicun Hu, Robert C. Molthen, Roger Johnson, Steven Haworth, Christopher Dawson Jan 2002

Quasi-Exact Helical Cone Beam Reconstruction For Micro Ct, Jicun Hu, Robert C. Molthen, Roger Johnson, Steven Haworth, Christopher Dawson

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

A cone beam micro-CT system is set up to collect truncated helical cone beam data. This system includes a micro-focal X-ray source, a precision computer-controlled X-Y-Z-theta stage, and an image-intensifier coupled to a large format CCD detector. The helical scanning mode is implemented by rotating and translating the stage while keeping X-ray source and detector stationary. A chunk of bone and a mouse leg are scanned and quasi-exact reconstruction is performed using the approach proposed in J. Hu et al. (2001). This approach introduced the original idea of accessory paths with upper and lower virtual detectors having infinite axial extent ...


Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling Revealed By Microfocal X-Ray Tomography, Kelly L. Karau, Robert C. Molthen, Anita H. Dhyani, Steven Thomas Haworth, Christopher A. Dawson Feb 2001

Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling Revealed By Microfocal X-Ray Tomography, Kelly L. Karau, Robert C. Molthen, Anita H. Dhyani, Steven Thomas Haworth, Christopher A. Dawson

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Animal models and micro-CT imaging are useful for understanding the functional consequences of, and identifying the genes involved in, the remodeling of vascular structures that accompanies pulmonary vascular disease. Using a micro-CT scanner to image contrast-enhanced arteries in excised lungs from fawn hooded rats (a strain genetically susceptible to hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension), we found that portions of the pulmonary arterial tree downstream from a given diameter were morphometrically indistinguishable. This 'self-consistency' property provided a means for summarizing the pulmonary arterial tree architecture and mechanical properties using a parameter vector obtained from measurements of the contiguous set of vessel segments ...