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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Improvement Of Fluorescence-Based Microfluidic Dna Analyzers, Collin Tranter Apr 2017

Improvement Of Fluorescence-Based Microfluidic Dna Analyzers, Collin Tranter

Doctoral Dissertations

A tremendous effort continues in the development of micro-total-analysis-systems; in support of this, many chemical passivation methods have been developed to enhance the biocompatibility of such microfluidic systems. However, the suitability of these passivation techniques to many fluorescence-based assays still remains inconsistent. This part of this work is focused on the performance of a third generation intercalating DNA dye when used within microfluidic devices treated with a select variety of passivating coatings. The results of these tests indicate that passivation coatings which are intended to shed DNA based on electrostatic repulsion will in fact imbibe the fluorescent DNA intercalating dye ...


Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi Dec 2016

Characterizing The Effects Of Repetitive Head Trauma In Female Soccer Athletes For Prevention Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Diana Otero Svaldi

Open Access Dissertations

As participation in women’s soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes’ careers continues to increase, prevention of mTBI in women’s soccer has become a major concern for female athletes as the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women’s sports, soccer exhibits the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men’s football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that “concussive hits” occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision ...


Exploring The Production Of Extracellular Matrix By Astrocytes In Response To Mimetic Traumatic Brain Injury, Addison Walker Dec 2016

Exploring The Production Of Extracellular Matrix By Astrocytes In Response To Mimetic Traumatic Brain Injury, Addison Walker

Theses and Dissertations

Following injury to the central nervous system, extracellular modulations are apparent at

the site of injury, often resulting in a glial scar. Astrocytes are mechanosensitive cells, which can create a neuroinhibitory extracellular environment in response to injury. The aim for this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of the affects a diffuse traumatic brain injury has on the astrocyte extracellular environment after injury. To accomplish this, a bioreactor culturing astrocytes in 3D constructs delivered 150G decelerations with 20% biaxial strain to mimic a traumatic brain injury. Experiments were designed to compare the potential effects of media type, number of ...


A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu Dec 2016

A Bifunctional Nanocomposites Based Electrochemical Biosensor For In-Field Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Food, Meng Xu

Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on the application of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, in foods. The possible presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food companies. Therefore, the demand for rapid and sensitive methods to detect foodborne pathogens is growing. In this research, an impedimetric immunosensor was first developed for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in foods. It was based on the techniques of immunomagnetic separation, enzyme labelling, and electrochemical ...


Examination Of Pseudomonas Fluorescence As A Recombinant Expression Host: Cloning, Expression, And Chromatography, Ahmed K.Ali Elmasheiti Dec 2016

Examination Of Pseudomonas Fluorescence As A Recombinant Expression Host: Cloning, Expression, And Chromatography, Ahmed K.Ali Elmasheiti

Theses and Dissertations

In an effort to expand the pool of bacterium useful for biotechnology applications, Pseudomonas fluorescens, a common gram negative microbe, was examined for its ability to function in a recombinant setting. P. fluorescens is ubiquitous in nature and was initially identified as a soil bacterium found in dirt and is typically associated with plant material. Past literature indicates that it shared characteristics common to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, including simple growth conditions and potential cloning vectors, providing motivation to look into both the upstream and downstream characteristics of this bacterium. First, it was demonstrated that P. fluorescens could be ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao Dec 2016

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo Dec 2016

Mathematical Analysis Of Feedback Targets Of Bmp Signaling In Drosophila Embryonic Development, Yan Luo

Open Access Theses

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) drive a range of cellular processes especially in the early stages of embryonic development. This family of proteins acts as one of the most important extracellular signals in development pattern formation across the animal kingdom. Cells in embryos differentiate into different cell types in response to the concentration level of BMP. This complex process is regulated by multiple regulators that serve to tune the signal response.

Extensive experimental and computational research has been performed to analyze BMP regulation in Drosophila, a widely studied model organism, and has advanced our understanding of animal development. Because of BMP ...


Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson Oct 2016

Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, a clinical need that is partially fulfilled to date through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG). Using brain connectivity analysis, patterns of causal interactions between brain regions were derived from multichannel EEG of 127 seizures in nine patients with focal, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The statistically significant directed interactions in the reconstructed brain networks were estimated from three second intracranial multi-electrode EEG segments using the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) and validated ...


The Role Of Mechanical Loading In Chondrocyte Signaling Pathways, Qiaoqiao Wan Aug 2016

The Role Of Mechanical Loading In Chondrocyte Signaling Pathways, Qiaoqiao Wan

Open Access Dissertations

Chondrocytes are a predominant cell type present in articular cartilage, whose integrity is jeopardized in joint degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). In the chondrocytes of patients with OA, the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been reported. These cytokines contribute to degradation of cartilage matrix by increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes. In addition to their contribution to proteolytic enzymes, these cytokines adversely affect anabolic activity of chondrocytes by inhibiting the production of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Therefore, blocking the action of these cytokines is a potential strategy ...


Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka Jul 2016

Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs ...


Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez Apr 2016

Influence Of The 3d Microenvironment On Glioblastoma Migration And Drug Response, Ruth Marisol Herrera Perez

Open Access Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive brain cancer characterized by poor prognosis. Despite significant efforts by the basic and clinical research community our understanding of GBM progression and recurrence has been incremental. Improvements in therapeutic response have been dismal, and GBM continues to be the deadliest tumor of the central nervous system, with patient average survival rate of 12 months. Synergistic relationships that the tumor cells establish with the brain microenvironment have been proven fundamental for successful tumor progression and maintenance. Yet, many in vitro GBM studies are performed in formats that fail to recapitulate the most essential component of ...


Consonant Discrimination In The Inferior Colliculus Of Young And Aged Rats, Christopher S. Soverns Apr 2016

Consonant Discrimination In The Inferior Colliculus Of Young And Aged Rats, Christopher S. Soverns

Open Access Theses

Complex acoustic stimuli are thoroughly encoded and processed along the primary auditory pathway to give reliable and relevant information about the environment, and elucidating the neural coding mechanisms is essential to informing clinical attempts to combat auditory dysfuntion. Receiving a uniquely diverse set of ascending and descending inputs, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a site of intricate temporal processing. In this work, natural and modified human speech is used to investigate discrimination of voice onset time (VOT) in the spiking output of IC neurons. A template-matching classification model is proposed in which single stimulus presentation responses are correlated with aggregate ...


Mutlifunctional Platforms For Gene And Drug Delivery For Cancer Therapy, Jeffery J. Ambrose Jr. Apr 2016

Mutlifunctional Platforms For Gene And Drug Delivery For Cancer Therapy, Jeffery J. Ambrose Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

The National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society estimate that 1.6 million new cancer incidences and over half a million cancer related deaths occur annually [1][2]. Cancer the second most common cause of death in the United States [1], [2]. Although the causes of cancer can vary depending on cell type, all or almost all instances of cancer arise from a mutation or from an abnormal activation of the cellular genes that control cell growth and mitosis [3].

Treatment of a given cancer type depends on the subtype, stage and progression of the cancer. Varieties of cancer ...


Rupture In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Qusay Alfaori Dec 2015

Rupture In Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Qusay Alfaori

Theses and Dissertations

Quantification of abdominal aortic aneurysm development, its growth kinetics, and rupture criteria are important to decrease the risk of this life-threatening event. Uniaxial testing of healthy and collagen degraded aortic specimens from pigs was performed. A mathematical model, from the literature, for the stress-strain relationship that is suitable for describing the behavior of abdominal aortic tissue was used to derive specific tissue properties/parameters as a function of strain rate and as a function of specimen orientation. Analyses consisting of Finite Element Modeling of healthy and collagen degraded abdominal aortas were performed using ABAQUS finite element code and the measured ...


Storage Of Round And Square Switchgrass Bales: Effect Of Storage Time And Fungal Inoculation On Saccharification Efficiency, Noaa Frederick Dec 2015

Storage Of Round And Square Switchgrass Bales: Effect Of Storage Time And Fungal Inoculation On Saccharification Efficiency, Noaa Frederick

Theses and Dissertations

To produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, severe pretreatment conditions are needed (either high acid concentration, temperature, or retention times). High severities can produce toxic byproducts which inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation. In order to reduce pretreatment severities (and thus increase enzyme and fermentation efficiency), the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreastus was seeded into square and round bales of Kanlow switchgrass (Panicum virgastum L.) and left in the field over a period of 9 month. The laccase producing fungus is believed to selectively degrade lignin, a common plant structural polymer, which can function as an enzymatic inhibitor. Samples were taken ...


Investigation Of The Inherent Chemical, Structural, And Mechanical Attributes Of Bio-Engineered Composites Found In Nature: Alligator Gar’S Exoskeleton Fish Scales, Wayne Derald Hodo Dec 2015

Investigation Of The Inherent Chemical, Structural, And Mechanical Attributes Of Bio-Engineered Composites Found In Nature: Alligator Gar’S Exoskeleton Fish Scales, Wayne Derald Hodo

Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. Army has determined a huge cost savings of up to 51% can be accomplished by reducing the gross vehicle weight, for their personnel carrier, by 33%. To cut cost, composite materials are needed. Man-made composites can have superior material properties (high-strength, high-fracture toughness, and lightweight), but they are prone to delamination at the glued-layered interface. In contrast, fish scale is a natural composite that has the same material properties and, additionally, tend not to delaminate.

The focus of this study was to learn how nature integrates hard and soft materials at each length scale to form a ...


Capillary Electrophoresis For Analysis Of Aβ1-42 Adsorption And Photo-Crosslinking, Jennifer Lynn Kurtz Jul 2015

Capillary Electrophoresis For Analysis Of Aβ1-42 Adsorption And Photo-Crosslinking, Jennifer Lynn Kurtz

Theses and Dissertations

The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers is believed to be the driving force behind Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Due to the metastable nature of Aβ oligomers, the knowledge of Aβ aggregation and accumulation is not well understood. Here, we use capillary electrophoresis (CE) and photo-induced crosslinking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) to learn about the aggregation of Aβ.

First, we explore the effect of capillary coating on Aβ1-42 protein loss using CE. The dynamic coatings tested were PHEA and 50 kDa, 2000 kDa, 5000 kDa, and 8000 kDa PEO. The covalent coating tested was PVA. The results indicated that 2000 ...


A Non-Invasive Fluorescence-Based Oxygen Sensor And Platform For Studying Cell Responses To Metabolic Agents In Real-Time, Koutilya Reddy Buchapudi Jul 2015

A Non-Invasive Fluorescence-Based Oxygen Sensor And Platform For Studying Cell Responses To Metabolic Agents In Real-Time, Koutilya Reddy Buchapudi

Doctoral Dissertations

A fluorescence-based sensor in a transverse flow/stop measurement platform has been developed to determine real-time changes in oxygen consumption rates for cell metabolic studies. The oxygen sensitive fluorophore platinum octaethylporphyrin was embedded in a cellulose acetate matrix and affixed to a fiber optic bundle, which provided for transmission of the excitation and emission wavelengths of the film. The fiber optic bundle was sealed in a sensor head that can be used in standard 24-well plates common to research labs. The utility of the sensor and sensing platform were determined by measuring the changes in oxygen consumption rates of Candida ...


Effects Of Hip And Ankle Moments On Running Stability: Simulation Of A Simplified Model, Rubin C. Cholera Oct 2014

Effects Of Hip And Ankle Moments On Running Stability: Simulation Of A Simplified Model, Rubin C. Cholera

Open Access Theses

In human running, the ankle, knee, and hip moments are known to play different roles to influence the dynamics of locomotion. A recent study of hip moments and several hip-based legged robots have revealed that hip actuation can significantly improve the stability of locomotion, whether controlled or uncontrolled. Ankle moments are expected to also significantly affect running stability, but in a different way than hip moments. Here we seek to advance the current theory of dynamic running and associated legged robots by determining how simple open-loop ankle moments could affect running stability. We simulate a dynamical model, and compare it ...


Principle Of Bio-Inspired Insect Wing Rotational Hinge Design, Fan Fei Oct 2014

Principle Of Bio-Inspired Insect Wing Rotational Hinge Design, Fan Fei

Open Access Theses

A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is ...


Particle Swarm Optimization Using Multiple Neighborhood Connectivity And Winner Take All Activation Applied To Biophysical Models Of Inferior Colliculus Neurons, Brandon S. Coventry Jul 2014

Particle Swarm Optimization Using Multiple Neighborhood Connectivity And Winner Take All Activation Applied To Biophysical Models Of Inferior Colliculus Neurons, Brandon S. Coventry

Open Access Theses

Age-related hearing loss is a prevalent neurological disorder, affecting as many as 63% of adults over the age of 70. The inability to hear and understand speech is a cause of much distress in aged individuals and is becoming a major public health concern as age-related hearing loss has also been correlated with other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's dementia. The Inferior Colliculus (IC) is a major integrative auditory center, receiving excitatory and inhibitory inputs from several brainstem nuclei. This complex balance of excitation and inhibition gives rise to complex neural responses, which are measured in terms of firing ...


Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova Jul 2014

Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova

Doctoral Dissertations

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for performing thermoelectric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic device. The feasibility of the thermoelectric ELISA is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in urine samples from amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. The detection method is based on formation of a complex between 8OHdG and anti-8OHdG capture antibody conjugated to biotin. The complex is immobilized over the measuring junctions of a thermopile via biotin streptavidin interaction. The concentration of the analyte is determined by using enzyme linked secondary IgG antibody specific to the primary one. The ...


Developing An Embedded System Solution For High-Speed, High-Capacity Data Logging For A Size-Constrained, Low-Power Biomechanical Telemetry System And Investigating Components For Optimal Performance, Brandon Blaine Gardner Apr 2014

Developing An Embedded System Solution For High-Speed, High-Capacity Data Logging For A Size-Constrained, Low-Power Biomechanical Telemetry System And Investigating Components For Optimal Performance, Brandon Blaine Gardner

Open Access Theses

The Purdue Neurotrauma Group (PNG) seeks to develop a biomechanical telemetry system capable of monitoring and storing athletes' head motions with the intention of identifying when a player may be at risk of neurophysiological damage, especially brain damage. A number of commercially-available systems exist with a similar goal; however, each of these systems discards information below an acceleration threshold. Research by PNG indicates that any acceleration may contribute to brain damage and that, because of this, an event-based model is insufficient for a proper understanding of an athlete's neurophysiological health. Continuous-time monitoring of head accelerations is therefore necessary. To ...


Characteristics Of Fibrous Tissue At High Rates Of Tensile Loading, Benjamin J. Claus Apr 2014

Characteristics Of Fibrous Tissue At High Rates Of Tensile Loading, Benjamin J. Claus

Open Access Theses

The mechanical behavior of fibrous tissue is generally characterized at very low strain rates. However, many injuries occur at high rates of loading, such as those encountered in sporting events or vehicle accidents. An understanding of injury behavior requires the injury process to be recorded at high strain rates. Even at low rates of loading, the injury/failure within tissues occurs quickly. Furthermore, using conventional imaging systems, the surface of a specimen may be well documented throughout an experiment. However, damage formation does not necessarily begin at the surface of the specimen or even on the surface exposed to a ...


Biomechanics And Relaxivity For Functional Imaging Of Articular Cartilage Injury And Degradation, Kateri Elizabeth Fites Apr 2014

Biomechanics And Relaxivity For Functional Imaging Of Articular Cartilage Injury And Degradation, Kateri Elizabeth Fites

Open Access Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major debilitating health concern and economic burden worldwide, affecting 27 million people in the United States alone. OA often follows tissue injury, and is marked by changes in the structure and biomechanical function of cartilage, including breakdown of extracellular matrix molecules, loss of bulk tissue stiffness, and increase in articular surface friction and wear. Unlike bone and many other tissues, cartilage lacks an intrinsic capacity for regeneration. Advanced OA is typically diagnosed by patient symptoms (e.g. joint pain) and confirmed by radiographic evaluation of joint space narrowing. However, the application of functional imaging to assess ...


Developing A Hardware Platform For A Low-Power, Low-Cost, Size-Constrained Biomechanical Telemetry System, Aditya Balasubramanian Apr 2014

Developing A Hardware Platform For A Low-Power, Low-Cost, Size-Constrained Biomechanical Telemetry System, Aditya Balasubramanian

Open Access Theses

As sport-related traumatic brain injuries face increasing attention from the media and the general public, the need to be able to detect brain injury quickly, inexpensively and accurately is more important than ever. Commercially-available event-based systems exist that claim to achieve this goal; however, they collect little to no continuous-time data and primarily indicate when a pre-determined acceleration threshold has been exceeded under the unvalidated assumption that a potentially concussive blow has occurred. Recent findings by the Purdue Neurotrauma Group (PNG) have indicated that repeated exposure to both concussive and subconcussive blows can result in cumulative trauma disorder. To track ...


Hybrid Nanostructured Textile Bioelectrode For Unobtrusive Health Monitoring, Pratyush Rai Aug 2013

Hybrid Nanostructured Textile Bioelectrode For Unobtrusive Health Monitoring, Pratyush Rai

Theses and Dissertations

Coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and strokes are the leading causes of mortality in United States of America. Timely point-of-care health diagnostics and therapeutics for person suffering from these diseases can save thousands of lives. However, lack of accessible minimally intrusive health monitoring systems makes timely diagnosis difficult and sometimes impossible. To remedy this problem, a textile based nano-bio-sensor was developed and evaluated in this research. The sensor was made of novel array of vertically standing nanostructures that are conductive nano-fibers projecting from a conductive fabric. These sensor electrodes were tested for the quality of electrical contact that they made ...


A Novel Microfluidic Enrichment Technique For Carbonylated Proteins, Bryant C. Hollins Oct 2012

A Novel Microfluidic Enrichment Technique For Carbonylated Proteins, Bryant C. Hollins

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins are the building blocks of cells in living organisms, and are composed of amino acids. The expression of proteins is regulated by the processes of transcription and translation. Proteins undergo post-translational modifications in order to dictate their role physiologically within a cell.

Not all post-translational modifications are beneficial for the protein or the cell. One type of post-translational modification, called carbonylation, irreversibly places a carbonyl group onto an amino acid residue, most commonly proline, lysine, arginine, and threonine. This modification can have severe consequences physiologically, including loss of solubility, loss of function, and protein aggregation.

Carbonylated proteins have commonly ...


Aptamer-Based Spr Biosensor For Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Hua Bai May 2012

Aptamer-Based Spr Biosensor For Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Hua Bai

Theses and Dissertations

Rapid and specific detection of avian influenza (AI) virus is urgently needed with the concerns over the outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in animal and human infection. Aptamers are artificial oligonucleic acid that can specifically bind to target molecules. They show comparable affinity for target virus and better thermal stability than monoclonal antibodies. Those advantages make aptamers promising candidates in diagnostic and detection applications. The goal of this research was to use DNA&ndashaptamer as the specific recognition element in a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for detection of AI H5N1 virus in poultry.

A SPR biosensor ...


Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Andreas Haukas May 2012

Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering, Andreas Haukas

Theses and Dissertations

Stem cell and tissue engineering offer us with a unique opportunity to research and develop new therapies for treating various diseases that are otherwise incurable using traditional medicines. However, development of these new therapies replies upon the establishment of in vitro cell culture and differentiation systems that mimic in vivo microenvironments required for cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction. The development of these cell culture systems depends upon the identification of appropriate biomaterials and cell sources. Biomaterials should be carefully selected and fabricated into scaffolds for supporting cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we explored the fabrication of 3D electrospun nanofiber ...