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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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1994

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Articles 1 - 30 of 48

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Wear And Friction Of Hylamer And Polyethylene Against Cobalt Chromium A Pin-On-Disc Study, Jerry D'Alessio, Ii Dec 1994

Wear And Friction Of Hylamer And Polyethylene Against Cobalt Chromium A Pin-On-Disc Study, Jerry D'Alessio, Ii

Theses

Understanding friction and wear of biomaterials is essential to the success of any prosthetic joint. A pin-on-disc wear tester is used to find the friction and wear of pins of one material on a coupon of medical grade cobalt chrome. In this experiment six pins of UHMWPe (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) and six pins of Hylamer® from Du Pont Manufacturing were tested. Four separate runs were made. The tests were performed for ten million cycles, stopping every one to one and a half million cycles for data acquisition. Volumetric wear, wear rate, and coefficients of friction were measured. Both ...


Time Domain And Frequency Domain Analysis Of Myoelectric Signals During Muscle Fatigue, Rakesh M. Maniar Dec 1994

Time Domain And Frequency Domain Analysis Of Myoelectric Signals During Muscle Fatigue, Rakesh M. Maniar

Theses

Spectral analysis of the EMG signal is a useful tool for studying the complex phenomena of fatigue. The spectral parameters of mean frequency and median frequency, and the time domain parameter of root mean square have been used to measure localized fatigue.

The normal values of median frequency and its decline with fatigue have not as yet been determined in healthy subjects. This should be done in order to apply spectral analysis for clinical evaluations of abnormal populations. Normal median frequency values and its slope were established in this work for the upper extremity muscles of biceps, triceps and deltoid ...


Development Of A Multi-Lead Trans-Thoracic Impedance Pneumograph For Heart Rate Variability Studies, Curtis Bashford Dec 1994

Development Of A Multi-Lead Trans-Thoracic Impedance Pneumograph For Heart Rate Variability Studies, Curtis Bashford

Theses

In this study, a device that measures respiratory tidal volume and ECG for use in heart rate variability studies, was designed, built and tested. The device developed is a Multi-Lead Trans-Thoracic Impedance Pneumograph, which determines tidal volume on a breath by breath basis, utilizing both hardware and software. It uses standard ECG electrodes which provide increased comfort and inability to the subject over traditional spirometry methods. The device operates similar to traditional bipolar impedance pneumographs except that instead of only one lead (electrode pair), four leads are acquired simultaneously using time-division multiplexing; providing data from different locations and vectors on ...


Model Parameter Identification For Rod And Cone Oscillatory Potentials, Kehur Banker Dec 1994

Model Parameter Identification For Rod And Cone Oscillatory Potentials, Kehur Banker

Theses

The use of signal modeling of the oscillatory potential (OP) of the electroretinogram (ERG), in the study of cone-rod interaction is investigated. ERG response data were analyzed for red, orange, blue and white flashes on no background and with red flashes on a blue background (to suppress rod responses). The OP signals were extracted from the ERG by digital bandpass filtering and a signal model was fitted through a simplex algorithm to produce the parameters including "OP envelope-amplitude", latency in terms of "center-time" of the OP-envelope and OP frequency. Amplitude for red flashes with or without a blue background showed ...


Measurement Of The Reaction To Stress And Meditation Using Brain Wave Coherence And Heart Rate Variability, Christopher B. King Dec 1994

Measurement Of The Reaction To Stress And Meditation Using Brain Wave Coherence And Heart Rate Variability, Christopher B. King

Theses

Measurement of physiological parameters associated with the stress response and the relaxation response caused by various forms of meditation can provide valuable information about the reaction of the body to the mind and to the external environment.

This study used two different techniques to evaluate physiological parameters. The first part examined the meditation response by recording the EEG and calculating the coherence between brain waves originating from different parts of the brain. It was found that high levels of coherence in the alpha portion of the EEG frequency band coincided with a restful state associated with the relaxation response. In ...


Wear Of Polyethylene And Hylamer On Cobalt-Chromium : A Knee Simulator Study, Alessandro F. Canonaco Dec 1994

Wear Of Polyethylene And Hylamer On Cobalt-Chromium : A Knee Simulator Study, Alessandro F. Canonaco

Theses

Two tests were conducted to examine the wear characteristics of tibial bearings used in total knee replacement systems. Each test consisted of six A/P Glide Tibial Bearings each having a conical control arm. The plastic portion of the conical bearings were all made of UHMWPe. Each of these bearing systems was mounted onto a Co-Cr alloy tibial platform and Co-Cr alloy LCS (low contact stress) femoral component . These test samples were mounted onto the New Jersey Mark III Knee Simulator System. The simulator was configured to produce flexion and axial rotation to simulates normal gait. Each test ran at ...


A Pharmacokinetic Model Of The Liver, Samirbhai Rameshbhai Patel Dec 1994

A Pharmacokinetic Model Of The Liver, Samirbhai Rameshbhai Patel

Theses

The liver is the major organ where chemical breakdown of organic and inorganic compounds takes place. A pharmacokinetic heterogeneous model was developed for the local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug lidocaine. It was assumed that transport and elimination of lidocaine and its metabolites are linear with concentration. Simulations were done using VisSim software on a 486 based personal computer to obtain concentration profiles for hepatic clearance and for step input of the drug and its metabolites. It was found that the rate of uptake and rate of breakdown were 0.48 min-1 and 0.49 min-1 respectively for lidocaine ...


Area And Perimeter Measurements Of Cells With Bound Fluorescent Antibodies, Aicha Weiss Dec 1994

Area And Perimeter Measurements Of Cells With Bound Fluorescent Antibodies, Aicha Weiss

Theses

The objective of this research was to geometrically analyze the characteristics of cells, specifically area and perimeter. The images were transferred from HP A900 system to an AVS work station. The images were visualized and manipulated by the AVS which permits the distinction between the cell body, fluorescent object, and background. The intrinsic geometry of the cell was determined by using image processing algorithms written in C. The images were then passed through a threshold filter, thereby yielding a black background and a white cell body. The perimeter calculation was then applied to the black and white images. Two test ...


Preoperative Risk Assessment For Cardiac Surgery Using Piecewise Linear Regression Model, Arifa Zafar Dec 1994

Preoperative Risk Assessment For Cardiac Surgery Using Piecewise Linear Regression Model, Arifa Zafar

Theses

In the present climate of quality assurance policies, rigorous requirements for informed consent, and a constantly changing patient population, a system of preoperative risk assignment for cardiovascular surgery was developed to monitor and evaluate surgical outcomes. The goal of this work is to estimate the preoperative risk associated with cardiac bypass surgery for patients in different risk categories. These risk categories are determined by the Parsonnet model which is based upon studying the severity of illness. The Parsonnet model assigns a risk value to a range of risk factors consisting of patient attributes and disease parameters. The aggregate of these ...


The Effects Of Elevated Glucose Upon Na+/K+-Atpase In Bovine Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells, Julie Y. Crider Dec 1994

The Effects Of Elevated Glucose Upon Na+/K+-Atpase In Bovine Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells, Julie Y. Crider

Theses and Dissertations

Crider, Julie Y., The Effects of Elevated Glucose Upon Na+/K+-ATPase in Bovine Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Doctor of Philosophy (Biomedical Sciences, Pharmacology), December, 1994, 154 pp., 14 tables, 31 illustrations, bibliography, 288 titles. Bovine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were cultured under 1, 4.5 and 10 g/l glucose conditions in order to characterize the effects of hyperglycemia upon Na+/K+-ATPase. Functional activity of Na+/K+-ATPase was measured as ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake. 3H ouabain was used to assess binding characteristics of Na+/K+-ATPase. The major contributors to rubidium (mRb+) uptake activity were the ouabain-sensitive ...


A Prototype Computational Phantom To Create Digital Images For Research And Training In Diagnostic Radiology, Charles F. Babbs Nov 1994

A Prototype Computational Phantom To Create Digital Images For Research And Training In Diagnostic Radiology, Charles F. Babbs

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Working Papers

Research in the processing, compression, transmission, and interpretation of digital radiographic images require the testing and evaluation of a wide variety of images, varying both in format and in spatial resolution. If receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis or a related method is used to evaluate the performance of observers using novel vs. conventional displays, large numbers of test images containing known abnormalities are required. This report describes a convenient, inexpensive, and reproducible source of test images, having any desired resolution and containing precisely defined abnormalities of unlimited subtlety. The images are generated by computing x-ray transmission through mathematically defined, three ...


Characterization Of Sleep Eeg, Seetharamiah Sateesh Oct 1994

Characterization Of Sleep Eeg, Seetharamiah Sateesh

Theses

The physiological relationship between the various components of sleep and its variation due to drug administration has been used as one of the primary tools to analyze the performance of drug. A number of studies have been performed in recent years in this direction. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been characterized with the help of variables ranging from measurements of the duration of different sleep stages to the activities that define the stages themselves. Advances in computer hardware and software have improved the methods of data acquisition and storage. Analysis of long stretch of data has always been a problem considering the ...


Autonomic Nervous System Evaluation Using Time-Frequency Analysis, Sanjay Fernando Oct 1994

Autonomic Nervous System Evaluation Using Time-Frequency Analysis, Sanjay Fernando

Theses

Spectral analysis of heartrate variability (HRV) provided an estimate of the sympathetic and parasympatheticinfluences on heart rate without drugs or other invasive procedures.However, there are many situations where heart rate changed rapidlyover time and the control of those changes was of considerable interest.Time-frequency analysis was utilized to expand the concept of spectralanalysis of HRV to describe changes in vagal tone and sympatho-vagalbalance as a function of time. As a result the assessment of the autonomicnervous system during rapid changes in heart rate was made.

There were three advantagesto calculating vagal tone and sympatho-vagal balance by using timefrequencyanalysis. First ...


Cervical Spine Bone Anchoring System Csbas Pullout Testing And Comparisons, Konstantin Caploon Oct 1994

Cervical Spine Bone Anchoring System Csbas Pullout Testing And Comparisons, Konstantin Caploon

Theses

The purpose of this study is to prove the effectiveness of the newly designed and patented Cervical Spine Bone Anchoring System (CSBAS). It is a posterior fixation device intended to be used with spine bone-plate systems. Its purposes are to substitute for conventional bone screws, significantly decrease the neurological and vascular risks associated with screws, and have comparable bone purchase strength.

Three CSBAS sizes (10mm, 12mm, and 14mm) were compared to four conventional bone screws in six human cadaveric cervical spines (C2-C7). Post-implantation axial pullout tests of each device using an MTS servohydraulic testing machine yielded bone purchase strength.

In ...


The Treatment Of Depression With Group Behavioural-Cognitive Therapy And Imipramine., Glenn Gaudette, A Stravynski, R Verreault, R Langlois, S Gagnier, M Larose Aug 1994

The Treatment Of Depression With Group Behavioural-Cognitive Therapy And Imipramine., Glenn Gaudette, A Stravynski, R Verreault, R Langlois, S Gagnier, M Larose

Glenn R. Gaudette

Twenty-four outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for major depression were assigned to group behavioral-cognitive therapy either with or without antidepressant medication (imipramine). Eighteen patients completed 15 weekly sessions of treatment. Equivalent improvement was observed in both regimens after treatment. The results essentially maintained at six months follow-up. This suggests that a group format of behavioural-cognitive therapy is a viable therapeutic intervention for outpatients diagnosed as suffering from major depression. However, the addition of imipramine to group behavioural-cognitive therapy did not enhance the outcome.


High Shear Mixing Reactor For Glycerolysis, Hossein Noureddini Jun 1994

High Shear Mixing Reactor For Glycerolysis, Hossein Noureddini

Papers in Biomaterials

lnrcreasEd ervironmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop aiternative fuels from renew ble resources that are environmentally more acceprable. Esters of fatty acids (biodiesel)-derived from the traiisesterification of vegetable oils, have properties 3imi:ar to cornponents of petrolium based dieselfuel. Cost has been a Cost has been major factor inslowing down the commercialization of biodiesel. In order to improve the eiuIlulliy ui Illis process two iactors wcrc invcarigated in this study: 1) use of beef tallow as raw mzlerial and 2) by-product utilization. Glycerol is the by-product of the esterlficatiun Drocesg In this work the ...


Maximum Surface Storage Provided By Crop Residue, John E. Gilley, Eugene R. Kottwitz Jun 1994

Maximum Surface Storage Provided By Crop Residue, John E. Gilley, Eugene R. Kottwitz

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Small ponds created by crop residue serve to store water on upland areas. The present study is conducted to identify the maximum surface storage provided by crop residue. Equations for estimating surface storage are derived assuming that residue elements were oriented end to end, at uniform intervals, in a direction perpendicular to flow. Separate equations are developed for conditions where average slope was greater than or equal to residue cover, or less than residue cover. Both equations relate average surface-storage depth to residue cover, residue diameter, and average slope. Data to test the reliability of the equations are obtained in ...


Hydraulic Conditions Required To Move Unanchored Residue Materials, John E. Gilley, E. R. Kottwitz, G. A. Wieman Jun 1994

Hydraulic Conditions Required To Move Unanchored Residue Materials, John E. Gilley, E. R. Kottwitz, G. A. Wieman

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Hydraulic conditions required to initiate movement of unanchored residue materials are identified in the present study. Selected amounts of corn, cotton, pine needles, sorghum, soybean, sunflower, and wheat residue are placed in a flume on a sand surface, and flow is then introduced at the top of the flume in progressive increments. The discharge rate and flow velocity necessary to cause residue movement are determined. The ratio of critical flow depth to residue diameter, critical Reynolds number, critical shear stress, dimensionless shear stress, and boundary Reynolds number are calculated from hydraulic measurements. Regression equations are developed to relate dimensionless shear ...


Modeling, Simulation And Hemodynamic Response Analysis Of Arteriovenous Malformation Occlusion, Huijuan Mao May 1994

Modeling, Simulation And Hemodynamic Response Analysis Of Arteriovenous Malformation Occlusion, Huijuan Mao

Theses

The cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation system (AVM) or fistula, is a network with large caliber vessels that yields an alternate pathway for blood flow between arteries and veins. Neurosurgical and interventional radiological techniques are the common way to treat AVM patients so that the normal capillary blood flow would be restored. Several patients who underwent this procedure had different degrees of brain swelling and subsequent hemorrhage. To understand this, Blesser et al. developed a simplified model to simulate the effect of AVM occlusion on cerebrovascular pressure and flow. Their model does not include the cerebrovascular regulatory mechanism which is an important ...


Non‐Rayleigh Statistics Of Ultrasonic Backscattered Echo From Tissues, V. Manjo Narayanan, Robert C. Molthen, P. M. Shankar, J. M. Reid May 1994

Non‐Rayleigh Statistics Of Ultrasonic Backscattered Echo From Tissues, V. Manjo Narayanan, Robert C. Molthen, P. M. Shankar, J. M. Reid

Biomedical Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

The envelope of the backscattered signal from tissues can exhibit non‐Rayleigh statistics if the number density of scatterers is small or if the variations in the scattering cross sections are random. The K distribution which has been used extensively in radar, is introduced to model this non‐Rayleigh behavior. The generalized K distribution is extremely useful since it encompasses a wide range of distributions such as Rayleigh, Lognormal, and Rician. Computer simulations were conducted using a simple one‐dimensional discrete scatteringmodel to investigate the properties of the echo envelope. In addition to cases of low number densities, significant departures ...


Accounting For The Stiffnesses Of The Probe And Sample In Scanning Probe Microscopy*, Nancy Burnham Apr 1994

Accounting For The Stiffnesses Of The Probe And Sample In Scanning Probe Microscopy*, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

The elements of a scanning probe microscope are modeled as a set of springs in series. For a single‐component sample, that is, a sample consisting of only one material, the detected feature height in variable force (force microscopy) or variable current (tunneling microscopy) modes is a function of the total system stiffness and the stiffness of the detector. For a multicomponent sample, the data in both variable force (current) and constant force (current) modes are modified by the set‐point force, the detector stiffness, and the relative stiffnesses of the components of the sample. A detection scheme for reducing ...


Production Of Interleukin 10 By Islet Cells Accelerates Immune-Mediated Destruction Of Beta Cells In Nonobese Diabetic Mice., Lise Wogensen, Myung-Shik Lee, Nora Sarvetnick Apr 1994

Production Of Interleukin 10 By Islet Cells Accelerates Immune-Mediated Destruction Of Beta Cells In Nonobese Diabetic Mice., Lise Wogensen, Myung-Shik Lee, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

The T helper type 2 (Th2) cell product interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits the proliferation and function of Th1 lymphocytes and macrophages (M phi). The nonobese diabetic mouse strain (NOD/Shi) develops a M phi and T cell-dependent autoimmune diabetes that closely resembles human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The objective of the present study was to explore the consequences of localized production of IL-10 on diabetes development in NOD/Shi mice. Surprisingly, local production of IL-10 accelerated the onset and increased the prevalence of diabetes, since diabetes developed at 5-10 wk of age in 92% of IL-10 positive I-A beta g7 ...


Laser Assisted Pd Seeding For Electroless Plating On Siq2, A. G. Schrott, B. Braren, Ravi F. Saraf Mar 1994

Laser Assisted Pd Seeding For Electroless Plating On Siq2, A. G. Schrott, B. Braren, Ravi F. Saraf

Ravi Saraf Publications

Excimer laser pulses with wavelengths of 248 and 308 nm were used to selectively seed Pd on SiO2 surfaces, making them suitable for electroless plating. This novel seeding process for insulating materials is accomplished with the sample immersed in the seeding solution, and occurs only on the areas of the substrate that are illuminated (through the liquid) by the laser light. The Pd content of the seeded samples increased with the number of pulses, but was rather independent of repetition rate. The deposition rate showed a dependence with wavelength consistent with a defect driven mechanism for electron excitation through ...


Pancreatic Islet Production Of Murine Interleukin-10 Does Not Inhibit Immune-Mediated Tissue Destruction., Myung-Shik Lee, Lise Wogensen, Judith Shizuru, Michael B.A. Oldstone, Nora Sarvetnick Mar 1994

Pancreatic Islet Production Of Murine Interleukin-10 Does Not Inhibit Immune-Mediated Tissue Destruction., Myung-Shik Lee, Lise Wogensen, Judith Shizuru, Michael B.A. Oldstone, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

IL-10 inhibits macrophage-dependent antigen presentation, cytokine production, and generation of allospecific cells in vitro. These findings have lead to the widespread expectation that IL-10 may be a useful immunosuppressive agent to inhibit allograft rejection or autoimmunity in vivo. We used two experimental paradigms to study effects of murine IL-10 on in vivo immune responses. First, fetal pancreata or adult pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing IL-10 in pancreatic beta cells (Ins-IL-10 mice) were grafted across the MHC barrier to examine if IL-10 could inhibit allograft rejection. Second, Ins-IL-10 mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) antigens ...


Overview Of Federal Technology Transfer, Lawrence Rudolph Mar 1994

Overview Of Federal Technology Transfer, Lawrence Rudolph

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

Mr. Rudolph reviews approximately thirteen years of legal and political developments that have contributed to laws governing the extent to which private firms may secure rights in technology at least partly developed with federal funds.


Technology Transfer: A View From The Trenches, Harvey Drucker Mar 1994

Technology Transfer: A View From The Trenches, Harvey Drucker

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

Dr. Drucker, who has lab-wide responsibility for technology transfer at Argonne National Laboratory, argues that transferring rights in discoveries made through tax supported research to private entities can contribute to public welfare in many ways.


Low Molecular Weight Organic Composition Of Ethanol Stillage From Sugarcane Molasses, Citrus Waste, And Sweet Whey, Michael K. Dowd, Steven L. Johansen, Laura Cantarella, Peter J. Reilly Feb 1994

Low Molecular Weight Organic Composition Of Ethanol Stillage From Sugarcane Molasses, Citrus Waste, And Sweet Whey, Michael K. Dowd, Steven L. Johansen, Laura Cantarella, Peter J. Reilly

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Filtered stillage from the distillation of ethanol made by yeast fermentation of sugarcane molasses, citrus waste, and sweet whey was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nearly all of the major peaks representing low molecular weight organic components were identified. The major components in cane stillage were, in decreasing order of concentration, lactic acid, glycerol, ethanol, and acetic acid. In citrus stillage they were lactic acid, glycerol, myo-inositol, acetic acid, chiro-inositol, and proline. Finally, in whey stillage the major components were lactose, lactic acid, glycerol, acetic acid, glucose, arabinitol, and ribitol.


In Vitro Testing And Evaluation Of Intraaortic And Extraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation Devices, Joseph V. Izzo Jan 1994

In Vitro Testing And Evaluation Of Intraaortic And Extraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation Devices, Joseph V. Izzo

Theses

The primary purpose of this project was to develop an in vitro environment in which the intraaortic and extra-aortic balloon pumps could be tested and evaluated. This was done by modifying a mechanical heart simulator -- the pulse duplicator system -- to accommodate both devices, and developing a software system that could collect and process the data relevant to the operation of the two balloons.

Both counterpulsation techniques were tested in the pulse duplicator where the aortic pressure and flow data were collected. The software system then processes the data to calculate all of the parameters affected by counterpulsation.

While the results ...


Interposed Abdominal Compression As An Adjunct To Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Charles F. Babbs, Jeffrey B. Sack, Karl B. Kern Jan 1994

Interposed Abdominal Compression As An Adjunct To Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Charles F. Babbs, Jeffrey B. Sack, Karl B. Kern

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

The addition of interposed abdominal compression (IAC) to otherwise standard CPR provides external pressure over the abdomen in counterpoint to the rhythm of chest compression. Interposed abdominal compression is a simple manual technique that can supplement the use of adrenergic drugs to increase both coronary perfusion pressure and total blood flow during CPR. Mechanistically, manual abdominal compressions induce both central aortic and central venous pressure pulses. However, owing to differences in venous versus arterial capacitance, the former are usually greater than the latter, so that systemic perfusion pressure is enhanced. Moreover, practical experience and theoretical analysis have suggested subtle refinements ...


The Evolution Of Abdominal Compression In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Charles F. Babbs Jan 1994

The Evolution Of Abdominal Compression In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Charles F. Babbs

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Objective: To review the history of external abdominal compression as an adjunct to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), tracking the development of five major themes over the course of the 20th century: 1) augmentation of peripheral resistance by physical means, 2) risk of hepatic injury with abdominal compression, 3) counterpulsation vs. sustained compression, 4) the abdominal pump mechanism, and 5) contact compression techniques. Methods: Literature retrieved from successive MEDLINE English-language searches was reviewed with a special emphasis on work and concepts highlighted by participants at the First Purdue Conference on Interposed Abdominal Compression-CPR, September 1992. Results: External abdominal compression of one form ...