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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Real-Time Temperature Imaging Using Ultrasonic Change In Backscattered Energy, Weiyuan Zhao Dec 2014

Real-Time Temperature Imaging Using Ultrasonic Change In Backscattered Energy, Weiyuan Zhao

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Thermal therapy from low-temperature cryosurgery to high-temperature ablation of tumors and unwanted electrical pathways has gained increased attention. Temperature imaging (TI) from magnetic resonance studies is the de facto standard for volumetric estimation of temperature. Ultrasound has the advantages of being cheap, portable, non-invasive and non-ionizing. Our group showed in predictions for single scatterers, simulations of scatterer populations and measurements in 1D, 2D and 3D, that CBE changed monotonically with temperature with 1oC accuracy. An obstacle to clinical application of CBE TI is estimation of temperature in real time, which is limited by time for motion compensation (MC ...


Evaluating Human Performance For Image-Guided Surgical Tasks, Matthew Kenneth Kramers Aug 2014

Evaluating Human Performance For Image-Guided Surgical Tasks, Matthew Kenneth Kramers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The following work focuses on the objective evaluation of human performance for two different interventional tasks; targeted prostate biopsy tasks using a tracked biopsy device, and external ventricular drain placement tasks using a mobile-based augmented reality device for visualization and guidance. In both tasks, a human performance methodology was utilized which respects the trade-off between speed and accuracy for users conducting a series of targeting tasks using each device. This work outlines the development and application of performance evaluation methods using these devices, as well as details regarding the implementation of the mobile AR application. It was determined that the ...


Experimental Terahertz Imaging And Spectroscopy Of Ex-Vivo Breast Cancer Tissue, Tyler C. Bowman Aug 2014

Experimental Terahertz Imaging And Spectroscopy Of Ex-Vivo Breast Cancer Tissue, Tyler C. Bowman

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents experimental results of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques to analyze excised breast cancer tissue. The pulsed terahertz system at the University of Arkansas was used to assess formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue obtained from 22, 40, and 46 year old patients. The tissue for this research was sliced to relatively thin sections of 10 μm thick and mounted on glass slides. Terahertz reflection time and frequency domain images of the breast cancer tissue were then obtained and compared to histopathology slides from the same patient. Results showed good correlation between the reflection images and histopathology slides for ...


Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez Aug 2014

Nerve Fiber Diameter Measurements Using Hematoxylin And Eosin Staining And Brightfield Microscopy To Assess The Novel Method Of Characterizing Peripheral Nerve Fiber Distributions By Group Delay, Jorge Arturo Vazquez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral neuropathies are a set of common diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system, causing damage to vital connections between various parts of the body and the brain and spinal cord. Different clinical conditions are known to selectively impact various size nerve fibers, which often makes it difficult to diagnose which peripheral neuropathy a patient might have. The nerve conduction velocity diagnostic test provides clinically useful information in the diagnosis of some peripheral neuropathies. This method is advantageous because it tends to be minimally invasive yet it provides valuable diagnostic information. However, this test does not determine characteristics of peripheral ...


Potential For Photoacoustic Imaging Of Neonatal Brain, Pantea Tavakolian Jul 2014

Potential For Photoacoustic Imaging Of Neonatal Brain, Pantea Tavakolian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines many of the merits of both optical and ultrasound imaging. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been hypothesized as a technique for imaging neonatal brain. However, PAI of the brain is more challenging than traditional methods (e.g. near infrared spectroscopy) due to the presence of the skull layer. To evaluate the potential limits the skull places on 3D PAI of the neonatal brain, we constructed a neonatal skull phantom (~1.52-mm thick) with a mixture of epoxy and titanium dioxide powder that provided acoustic insertion loss (1-5MHz) similar to human infant skull ...


Image-Based Registration Methods For Quantification And Compensation Of Prostate Motion During Trans-Rectal Ultrasound (Trus)-Guided Biopsy, Tharindu De Silva Jun 2014

Image-Based Registration Methods For Quantification And Compensation Of Prostate Motion During Trans-Rectal Ultrasound (Trus)-Guided Biopsy, Tharindu De Silva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for cancer diagnosis and is typically performed under two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for needle guidance. Unfortunately, most early stage prostate cancers are not visible on ultrasound and the procedure suffers from high false negative rates due to the lack of visible targets. Fusion of pre-biopsy MRI to 3D TRUS for targeted biopsy could improve cancer detection rates and volume of tumor sampled. In MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy systems, patient or prostate motion during the procedure causes misalignments in the MR targets mapped to the live 2D TRUS images, limiting the targeting accuracy of the ...


Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall Jun 2014

Smooth Muscle Cell Organization In The Stem Region Of The Gracilis Collateral Circulation, Amanda Krall

Biomedical Engineering

Many patients who suffer from the ischemic Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) experience intermittent claudication, which can be attributed to impaired vasodilation. Collateral vessels are the primary site of resistance to blood flow downstream; therefore maximizing vasodilation in collaterals is crucial for efficient circulation. Collaterals function as natural bypasses around the occluded arteries and the increase in flow into these vessels causes them to outwardly remodel into conduit vessels. However, functional vasodilation in the stem region of collateral vessels is impaired at day 7 following femoral ligation, which can be attributed to smooth muscle cell malfunction. However, the increase in ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Nasopharyngeal Method For Selective Brain Cooling And Development Of A Time-Resolved Near-Infrared Technique To Monitor Brain Temperature And Oxidation Status During Hypothermia, Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi May 2014

Nasopharyngeal Method For Selective Brain Cooling And Development Of A Time-Resolved Near-Infrared Technique To Monitor Brain Temperature And Oxidation Status During Hypothermia, Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mild hypothermia at 32-35oC (HT) has been shown to be neuroprotective for neurological emergencies following severe head trauma, cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia. However, HT has not been widely deployed in clinical settings because: firstly, cooling the whole body below 33-34°C can induce severe complications; therefore, applying HT selectively to the brain could minimize adverse effects by maintaining core body temperature at normal level. Secondly, development of an effective and easy to implement selective brain cooling (SBC) technique, which can quickly induce brain hypothermia while avoiding complications from whole body cooling, remains a challenge. In this thesis ...


Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young May 2014

Modeling, Analysis, And Control Of A Mobile Robot For In Vivo Fluoroscopy Of Human Joints During Natural Movements, Matthew A. Young

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the modeling, analysis and control of a multi-degree of freedom (mdof) robotic fluoroscope was investigated. A prototype robotic fluoroscope exists, and consists of a 3 dof mobile platform with two 2 dof Cartesian manipulators mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the platform. One Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray generator and the other Cartesian manipulator positions the x-ray imaging device. The robotic fluoroscope is used to x-ray skeletal joints of interest of human subjects performing natural movement activities. In order to collect the data, the Cartesian manipulators must keep the x-ray generation and imaging devices accurately aligned while ...


Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar Apr 2014

Oriented Collagen And Applications Of Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (Wefs) Microscopy, Qamrun Nahar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, Waveguide Evanescent Field Scattering (WEFS) microscopy is developed as a non-invasive, label-free live cell imaging technique. This new high-contrast imaging can be employed to study the first hundred nanometers from the surface as it utilizes the evanescent field of a waveguide as the illumination source. Previously, waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy was developed as a fluorescence imaging technique comparable to the total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy. Both the WEFF and WEFS technique utilizes the same fundamental concepts except in WEFS microscopy imaging is accomplished without the application of any fluorescent labeling. In this work, bacterial ...


Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen Apr 2014

Material Differences In Equine Cortical And Trabecular Bone, Ryan B. Allen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A greater understanding of bone materials would be beneficial in creating more accurate computer models and in the making of biomedical products involving bone. This study set out to determine whether cortical and trabecular bone are two separate materials, or whether they are the same material with a variance in porosity. To answer this question, samples were taken from different sections of the equine metacarpus, underwent densitometry analysis and were statistically analyzed. The majority of results suggest that the material is the same between varying densities of bone and thus the same between cortical and trabecular bone. These particular results ...


Surface Functionalization And Bioconjugation Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications, Longyan Chen Jan 2014

Surface Functionalization And Bioconjugation Of Nanoparticles For Biomedical Applications, Longyan Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Colloidal inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have been attracting considerable interest in biomedicine, from drug and gene delivery to imaging, sensing and diagnostics. It is essential to modify the surface of nanoparticles to have enhanced biocompatibility and functionality for the in vitro and in vivo applications, especially in delivering locally and recognizing biomolecules. Herein, the goal of this research work is to develop advanced NPs with well-tailored surface functionalities and/or bio-functionality for the applications in cell tracking and analytes detection.

In the first project, quantum dots incorporating with gelatin nanoparticles (QDs-GNPs) have been developed for bioimaging applications. Two different approaches have ...


Stabilization Of Extended Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy Measurements On In Vivo Human Skeletal Muscle During Dynamic Exercise, Brad A. Henry Jan 2014

Stabilization Of Extended Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy Measurements On In Vivo Human Skeletal Muscle During Dynamic Exercise, Brad A. Henry

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

This research investigates various applications of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) on in-vivo human muscle tissue, both at rest and during dynamic exercise. Previously suspected muscle tissue relative blood flow (rBF) baseline shift during extended measurement with DCS and DCS-Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) hybrid optical systems are verified, quantified, and resolved by redesign of optical probe and alteration in optical probe attachment methodology during 40 minute supine bed rest baseline measurements. We then translate previously developed occlusion techniques, whereby rBF and relative oxygen consumption rV̇O2 are calibrated to initial resting absolute values by use of a venous occlusion (VO ...


Changes In The Ultrastructural Features Of Estrogen Deficient Ovine Bone, Peter Mauer Jan 2014

Changes In The Ultrastructural Features Of Estrogen Deficient Ovine Bone, Peter Mauer

PhD theses

Osteoporosis is “a skeletal disorder characterised by compromised bone strength predis- posing to an increased risk of fracture” (NIH, 2001). Every second woman and every fifth man will suffer an osteoporotic fracture (Kanis et al., 2000). Of all people that suffer an age-related fracture, the current gold standard of osteoporosis diagnosis, DEXA scanning, misclassifies 80% of them to be non-osteoporotic (Sanders et al., 2006). Bone quantity is easily measured, however, bone strength is an interplay of bone quantity and quality — and the latter is hard to determine. More reliable clinical methods to diagnose osteoporosis are needed as well as widening ...


Optically Active Plasmonic Microbubbles, Jacob Dove Jan 2014

Optically Active Plasmonic Microbubbles, Jacob Dove

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Contrast agents are used across a variety of medical imaging modalities for improved visualization of structures in the body. Microbubbles, for example, efficiently scatter ultrasound thereby providing enhanced ultrasonic imaging of the vasculature. Plasmonic nanoparticles, on the other hand, are efficient optical absorbers and can provide improvements in optical and photoacoustic imaging.

The focus of this thesis is on the development of novel contrast agents capable of enhancing both ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging modalities. The first agent is constructed by templating nanoparticles onto a lipid-encapsulated microbubble with a perfluorocarbon gas core. Using an avidin-biotin conjugation scheme, control over the nanoparticle ...


Cervical Cancer Histology Image Feature Extraction And Classification, Peng Guo Jan 2014

Cervical Cancer Histology Image Feature Extraction And Classification, Peng Guo

Masters Theses

"Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer affecting women worldwide and the most common in developing countries can be cured if detected early and treated. Expert pathologists routinely visually examine histology slides for cervix tissue abnormality assessment. In previous research, an automated, localized, fusion-based approach was investigated for classifying squamous epithelium into Normal, CIN1, CIN2, and CIN3 grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) based on image analysis of 62 digitized histology images obtained through the National Library of Medicine. In this research, CIN grade assessments from two pathologists are analyzed and are used to facilitate atypical cell concentration feature development ...