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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Evaluating And Improving Cochlear Length Measurements On Clinical Computed Tomography Images, John E. Iyaniwura Aug 2017

Evaluating And Improving Cochlear Length Measurements On Clinical Computed Tomography Images, John E. Iyaniwura

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cochlear implants provide the sensation of sound to deaf individuals. An accurate estimate of cochlear duct length (CDL) is required for pre-operative implant electrode selection and can be obtained from clinical computed tomography (CT) by measuring the “A-value”.

The objectives of this work were to estimate the accuracy and variability in manual A-value measurements, and to automate measurements.

Four specialists repeatedly measured the A-value on clinical CT images from which the inter- and intra-observer variability were calculated. Accuracy was assessed by comparison to measurements on higher resolution micro-CT images. Motivated by this study, software was developed to automate the A-value ...


Image-Based Registration Methods For Quantification And Compensation Of Prostate Motion During Trans-Rectal Ultrasound (Trus)-Guided Biopsy, Tharindu De Silva Jun 2014

Image-Based Registration Methods For Quantification And Compensation Of Prostate Motion During Trans-Rectal Ultrasound (Trus)-Guided Biopsy, Tharindu De Silva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for cancer diagnosis and is typically performed under two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for needle guidance. Unfortunately, most early stage prostate cancers are not visible on ultrasound and the procedure suffers from high false negative rates due to the lack of visible targets. Fusion of pre-biopsy MRI to 3D TRUS for targeted biopsy could improve cancer detection rates and volume of tumor sampled. In MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy systems, patient or prostate motion during the procedure causes misalignments in the MR targets mapped to the live 2D TRUS images, limiting the targeting accuracy of the ...


Augmented Image-Guidance For Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, Pencilla Lang Jul 2012

Augmented Image-Guidance For Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, Pencilla Lang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), an innovative stent-based technique for delivery of a bioprosthetic valve, has resulted in a paradigm shift in treatment options for elderly patients with aortic stenosis. While there have been major advancements in valve design and access routes, TAVI still relies largely on single-plane fluoroscopy for intraoperative navigation and guidance, which provides only gross imaging of anatomical structures. Inadequate imaging leading to suboptimal valve positioning contributes to many of the early complications experienced by TAVI patients, including valve embolism, coronary ostia obstruction, paravalvular leak, heart block, and secondary nephrotoxicity from contrast use.

A ...