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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Optimization Of Biogas Production By Use Of A Microbially Enhanced Inoculum, Anna Doloman Aug 2019

Optimization Of Biogas Production By Use Of A Microbially Enhanced Inoculum, Anna Doloman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A renewable energy source, biogas, comprises of methane (80%) and carbon dioxide (15%), and is a great alternative to the conventional fossil-based fuels, such as coal, gas and oil. Biogas is created during anaerobic biological digestion of waste materials, such as landfill material, animal manure, wastewater, algal biomass, industrial organic waste etc. A biogas potential from organic waste in the United States is estimated at about 9 million tons per year and technology allows capture of greenhouse gases, such as methane and carbon dioxide, into a form of a fuel. In the light of global climate change and efforts to ...


Exploring The Capacity Of Bacteria For Natural Product Biosynthesis, Ozkan Fidan Aug 2019

Exploring The Capacity Of Bacteria For Natural Product Biosynthesis, Ozkan Fidan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is focused on exploring the potential of bacteria for the biosynthesis of natural products with the purposes of generating novel natural product derivatives and of improving the titer of pharmaceutically important natural products.

A wide variety of compounds from various sources have been historically used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Natural products as a major source of new drugs are extensively explored due to their huge structural diversity and promising biological activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antifungal, antiviral and antioxidant properties. For instance, penicillin as an early-discovered antimicrobial agent has saved millions of lives, indicating the ...


Characterization Of Biofilms In A Synthetic Rhizosphere Using Hollow Fiber Root-Mimetic Systems, Michelle Bonebrake Aug 2019

Characterization Of Biofilms In A Synthetic Rhizosphere Using Hollow Fiber Root-Mimetic Systems, Michelle Bonebrake

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The area around a plant’s roots hosts a complex and diverse microbial community. This environment can include a large number of bacteria that live on the surface of the root and benefit from the nutrients that the roots exude into the soil. These microbes can in turn be beneficial to the plant by protecting the roots from harmful fungi or stressful environmental conditions such as drought. In this thesis, several root-mimetic systems (RMSs) were developed for the study and growth of plant-beneficial bacteria in the laboratory environment. The RMS uses a porous hollow fiber used in hemodialysis as a ...


Spiderworms: Using Silkworms As Hosts To Produce A Hybrid Silkworm-Spider Silk Fiber, Ana Laura Licon Aug 2019

Spiderworms: Using Silkworms As Hosts To Produce A Hybrid Silkworm-Spider Silk Fiber, Ana Laura Licon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spider silk has received significant attention due to its fascinating mechanical properties. Given the solitary and cannibalistic behavior of spiders, spider silk farming is impractical. Unlike spiders, silkworms are capable of producing large quantities of a fibrous product in a manner mimetic to spiders, and there already exists an industry to process cocoons into threads and textiles for many applications. The combination of silk farming (sericulture), a millennia old practice, and modern advancements in genetic engineering has given rise to an innovative biomaterial inspired by nature; transgenic silkworm silk.

This project focuses on the creation of chimeric silkworm-spider silk fibers ...


Hydrodeoxygenation Of Pinyon-Juniper Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Hossein Jahromi May 2019

Hydrodeoxygenation Of Pinyon-Juniper Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Hossein Jahromi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), is an effective process to convert oxygenated compounds to hydrocarbons. This process is widely used for improving the negative properties of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils (bio-oils) such as high acidity, poor stability, and low heating value. During this process oxygen is removed from the bio-oil in the form of water, thus the liquid product of HDO process consists of aqueous phase and hydrocarbon phase that can be easily separated. Synthesis of efficient HDO catalyst has been a major challenge in the field of bio-oil upgrading. Red mud, which is an alkaline waste from alumina industry was used to ...


In Vitro Simulation Of Microgravity Induced Muscle Loss Successfully Increases Expression Of Key In Vivo Atrophy Markers, Charles P. Harding May 2019

In Vitro Simulation Of Microgravity Induced Muscle Loss Successfully Increases Expression Of Key In Vivo Atrophy Markers, Charles P. Harding

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Muscle loss from lack of activity is a serious issue for immobilized patients on Earth and in human spaceflight, where the low gravity environment prevents normal muscle activity. Simulating muscle loss in cultured cells is an important step in understanding how this condition occurs. This work evaluates different means of simulating muscle loss and selects the one that most closely mimics the cellular responses seen in animals and humans.

To simulate the microgravity environment of spaceflight, mouse skeletal muscle cells were grown in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS). Growing the cells within a natural gelled substrate was compared against ...


Identification And Engineering Of Nonribosomal Peptide Biosynthetic Systems, Fuchao Xu Dec 2018

Identification And Engineering Of Nonribosomal Peptide Biosynthetic Systems, Fuchao Xu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on the understanding and engineering of nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces coelicolor CH999, Escherichia coli BAP1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5464-NpgA. The biosynthetic systems of indigoidine from bacteria and beauvericin/bassianolide from fungi were studied in this research. The production of these valuble products was significantly increased by enhancing their synthetic pathway with metabolic engineering approaches.

Indigoidine is a bacterial natural product with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its bright blue color resembles the industrial dye indigo, thus representing a new natural blue dye that may find uses in industry. Indigo is a dark blue crystalline powder and ...


Production And Biocompatibility Of Spider Silk Proteins In Goat Milk, Richard E. Decker Jr Dec 2018

Production And Biocompatibility Of Spider Silk Proteins In Goat Milk, Richard E. Decker Jr

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to its strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility, spider silk is a highly appealing material for applications in the medical field. Unfortunately, natural spider silk is difficult to obtain in large quantities because spiders are territorial and cannibalistic, making them impractical to farm. Synthetic spider silk proteins produced by transgenic hosts such as bacteria and goats have made it possible to obtain the quantities of spider silk needed to study it more fully and to investigate its potential uses. The spider silk proteins produced in our laboratory do not have an optimal purification method to remove all of the non-biocompatible contaminants ...


Biomass And Phycocyanin From Oil And Natural Gas Extraction Produced Water Utilizing A Cyanobacteria Dominated Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor (Rabr), Jonathan L. Wood Aug 2018

Biomass And Phycocyanin From Oil And Natural Gas Extraction Produced Water Utilizing A Cyanobacteria Dominated Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor (Rabr), Jonathan L. Wood

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The production of cyanobacterial biofilm biomass and phycocyanin from Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactors utilizing undiluted produced water from oil and natural gas extraction as a culture medium was investigated in this study. Produced water is the largest waste stream generated by the oil and natural gas industries and represents a large volume of non-potable water that may be available for algae culture with minimal impact on freshwater resources. Combining the use of produced wastewater as culture medium with the production of high value algal pigments, such as phycocyanin, may increase the economic viability of algae culture and wastewater purification. High ...


Development And Optimization Of A Produced Water, Biofilm Based Microalgae Cultivation System For Biocrude Conversion With Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Benjamin L. Peterson Aug 2018

Development And Optimization Of A Produced Water, Biofilm Based Microalgae Cultivation System For Biocrude Conversion With Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Benjamin L. Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extraction of oil and gas in Utah’s Uintah Basin results in large quantities of wastewater, or produced water, with nutrients and residual organic chemical that represent a significant resource for producing energy-related and value-added products. Produced water was obtained as a biomass producing nutrient source from industries operating in Utah’s Uintah Basin. Within the Uintah Basin (defined as Uintah and Duchesne Counties within Utah) approximately 93 million barrels of water were produced in 2013 while only 11% of the water was disposed of through evaporation, with the national average at 2%. The rest is reinjected into the subsurface ...


Investigations Of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Secretion And Production Using Sustainable Carbon Sources, Chad L. Nielsen May 2018

Investigations Of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Secretion And Production Using Sustainable Carbon Sources, Chad L. Nielsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a type of biologically-produced plastic known for their biocompatibility and biodegradability. They have the potential to replace petroleum-based plastics as an environmentally-friendly alternative. This is beneficial because the release of plastics into environments such as the ocean and the buildup of plastics in landfills are major concerns facing society today. Currently, however, PHAs are significantly more expensive than their petroleum-based counterparts. This is largely due to the cost of carbon sources and of extracting the bioplastics from bacteria. The goal of these studies was to examine replacing traditional carbon sources used in PHA production like sugar and ...


Silane Modulation Of Protein Conformation And Self-Assembly, Abul Bashar Mohammad Giasuddin May 2018

Silane Modulation Of Protein Conformation And Self-Assembly, Abul Bashar Mohammad Giasuddin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research focused on development of nanoparticle- based therapeutics against amyloid fibrils. Amyloid fibrils are associated with various diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, mad cow disease, Alzheimer’s, and cataracts. Amyloid fibrils develop when proteins change their shape from a native form to a pathogenic “misfolded” form. The misfolded proteins have the ability to recruit more native proteins into the pathogenic forms, which self-assemble into amyloid fibrils that are hallmarks of the various protein-misfolding diseases listed above. Amyloid fibrils are highly resistant to degradation, which may contribute to the symptoms of amyloid diseases. Synthetic drugs, natural compounds, and ...


The Use Of Microfluidics And Dielectrophoresis For Separation, Concentration, And Identification Of Bacteria, Cynthia Hanson May 2018

The Use Of Microfluidics And Dielectrophoresis For Separation, Concentration, And Identification Of Bacteria, Cynthia Hanson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Typical bacterial analysis involves culturing and visualizing colonies on an array of agar plates. The growth patterns and colors among the array are used to identify the bacteria. For fast growing bacteria such as Escherichia coli, analysis will take one to two days. However, slow growing bacteria such as mycobacteria can take weeks to identify. In addition, there are some species of bacteria that are viable but nonculturable. This lengthy analysis time is unacceptable for life-threatening infections and emergency situations. It is clear that to decrease the analysis of the bacteria, the culturing and growth steps must be avoided. The ...


Investigation And Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways, Lei Sun Dec 2017

Investigation And Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways, Lei Sun

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research is focused on investigation and engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways for efficient production of pharmaceutically important molecules or generation of new bioactive molecules for drug development.

Natural products are an important source of therapeutics, such as chromomycin (anti-cancer), emodin (anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor) and sprolaxine (anti-Helicobacter pylori). Metabolic engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways shows its promise for creating and producing valuable compounds with chemical diversity for drug discovery. One goal of this research is to create highly efficient strains to biosynthesize valuable natural products. The engineered Streptomyces roseiscleroticus strain constructed in this work showed higher titers of ...


Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude May 2017

Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phenol-formaldehyde adhesives are important adhesives known to have superior water resistance capacity and high mechanical strength when utilized in wood-based applications. Due to unsustainability and environmental issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to look for alternative raw materials, which are renewable in nature. Pinyon-juniper biomass has been found to be a suitable replacement for petroleum-based phenol because it is renewable, abundant, and readily available.

In this thesis, bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of pinyon-juniper biomass using red mud alumina catalyst was used to produce wood adhesives. The characterization of pinyon-juniper bio-oil showed the ...


Alternative Treatment Technologies For Low-Cost Industrial And Municipal Wastewater Management, Alan J. Hodges May 2017

Alternative Treatment Technologies For Low-Cost Industrial And Municipal Wastewater Management, Alan J. Hodges

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Roughly the same volume of water that rushes over the Niagara Falls is produced as wastewater in North America. This wastewater is treated through a variety of means to ensure that it can be safely returned to the natural ecosystem. This thesis examines two novel means for this treatment, one biological and one physical-chemical in nature, namely, Rotating Algae Biofilm Reactor treatment and expanded shale augmented coagulation-flocculation.

Rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) support biofilm algae growth, and in turn, the algae take up harmful contaminants from the wastewater. This system was tested in wastewater from petroleum refining operations. The efficacy ...


Algae-Based Biofilm Productivity And Treatment Of Dairy Wastewater: Effects Of Temperature And Organic Carbon Concentration, Zachary T. Fica May 2017

Algae-Based Biofilm Productivity And Treatment Of Dairy Wastewater: Effects Of Temperature And Organic Carbon Concentration, Zachary T. Fica

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Production of dairy and associated products is a source of millions of gallons of wastewater every year. Water used in cleaning feeding stalls as well as the liquid component of the animal waste are two of the major volumetric components of this wastewater. This water is nutrient rich, often limiting the viability as a land applied fertilizer. However, these same nutrients could be used as an inexpensive feedstock for the cultivation of algae, which can then be used to produce downstream products including animal feed and aquaculture.

As part of this study, algal biomass was cultivated on dairy wastewater from ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson May 2017

Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to population expiation and the increased awareness of the impact on the environment by wastewater treatment, improved wastewater treatment systems are needed to treat municipal and agricultural wastewater. Treating wastewater with oxygen decreases carbon compounds at the expense of energy to move carbon and oxygen to be in contact with each other. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater can reduce the cost by utilizing microbes to treat high amounts of carbon in wastewater without the need for extensive oxygen requirement. With a proper balance of nutrients, microbes also produce methane, a renewable energy source.

It has been suggested that microalgae be ...


Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways For Bioactive Molecules, Siyuan Wang May 2016

Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways For Bioactive Molecules, Siyuan Wang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polyketides are a large group of structurally diverse natural products that have shown a variety of biological activities. These molecules are synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs). PKSs are classified into three types based on their sequence, primary structure, and catalytic mechanism. Because of the bioactivities of polyketide natural products, this study is focused on the engineering of PKS pathways for efficient production of useful bioactive molecules or structural modification to create new molecules for drug development.

One goal of this research is to create an efficient method to produce pharmaceutically important molecules. Seven biosynthetic genes from plants and bacteria were ...


Investigation Of The Tailoring Steps In Pradimicin Biosynthesis, Kandy L. Napan May 2016

Investigation Of The Tailoring Steps In Pradimicin Biosynthesis, Kandy L. Napan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The actinobacteria Actinomadura hibisca synthesizes the natural products pradimicin A-C through a type II polyketide biosynthetic pathway. Eight tailoring enzymes in pradimicin biosynthesis have been investigated in this work, including PdmJ, PdmW, PdmN, PdmT, PdmO, PdmS, PdmQ and PdmF. PdmJ and PdmW were characterized as cytochrome P450 hydroxylases that catalyze the incorporation of two hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-6, respectively. These enzymes worked synergistically and their co-expression significantly improved the efficiency of the hydroxylation steps. PdmN is an amino acid ligase that accepts a variety of substrates and ligates a D-alanine moiety to C-16 to form the corresponding derivatives ...


Investigating Biosynthetic Steps Of An Angucycline Antifungal, S. Gabrielle Gladstone May 2016

Investigating Biosynthetic Steps Of An Angucycline Antifungal, S. Gabrielle Gladstone

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

From the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SCC-2136 (ATCC 55186), two angucycline natural products are produced, designated Sch 47554 and Sch 47555. These compounds are produced through a type II polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The early biosynthetic steps to these molecules were confirmed. These include the minimal polyketide synthase (PKS), the C-9 keteoreductase, the first-ring aromatase, the subsequent ring cyclase, and two oxygenases. Also confirmed were the biosynthetic genes responsible for production of the first amicetose moiety, as well as the glycosyltransferase that creates a C-glycosidic bond between the angucyclic scaffold and the amicetose moiety, In confirming these patways, two new natural products ...


Characterization And Performance Of Algal Biofilms For Wastewater Treatment And Industrial Applications, Maureen Kesaano Aug 2015

Characterization And Performance Of Algal Biofilms For Wastewater Treatment And Industrial Applications, Maureen Kesaano

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was carried out on algal biofilms grown using rotating algal biofilm reactors (RABRs) with the aim of: i) characterizing their growth in terms of photosynthetic activity and morphology ii) evaluating their performance as a wastewater treatment option and a feedstock for biofuels production, and iii) examining the algal-bacteria interactions.

A review of algal biofilm technologies currently employed in wastewater treatment processes was made to compare nutrient removal efficiencies, factors that influenced algal biofilm growth, and the different bioproducts generated from algal biomass. Consequently, research efforts were directed towards addressing pertinent issues identified in literature in order to optimize ...


In Vitro, Non-Invasive Imaging And Detection Of Single Living Mammalian Cells Interacting With Bio-Nano-Interfaces, Qifei Li May 2015

In Vitro, Non-Invasive Imaging And Detection Of Single Living Mammalian Cells Interacting With Bio-Nano-Interfaces, Qifei Li

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding of bio-nano-interfaces of living mammalian cells will benefit the identification of cellular alterations (e.g. nucleic acids, amino acids, biomechanics, etc.) due to external stimuli, the design of biomaterials (e.g. nanoparticles, nanotubes) and the investigation of the interaction between cells and bio-nano-interfaces (e.g. cell differentiation on 3D nanostructured materials). Analytical techniques can be applied to evaluate the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of mammalian cells when exposed to such bio-nano-interfaces. In this study, non-invasive advanced spectroscopy techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman microscopy (RM), in conjunction with traditional biological methods are utilized to elucidate specific ...


Molecular Sensing And Imaging Of Human Disease Cells And Their Responses To Biochemical Stimuli, Lifu Xiao May 2015

Molecular Sensing And Imaging Of Human Disease Cells And Their Responses To Biochemical Stimuli, Lifu Xiao

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this dissertation is to develop noninvasive imaging techniques that allow us not only to detect diseased cells but also to study the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases.

Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are applied to measure cellular mechanical properties (e.g. Young’s Modulus, adhesion force) and biochemical composition of living cancerous vs. healthy (A549 vs. SAEC) human lung epithelial cells. These biomechanical and biochemical properties can be utilized to differentiate between cancerous A549 and healthy SAEC human lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, different cellular responses to anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) treatment are also observed. Using ...


Microfabrication Of Electrochemical Analytical Devices For Detection Of Pathogen Species Dna And Toxic Metal Ions, Spencer Williams May 2015

Microfabrication Of Electrochemical Analytical Devices For Detection Of Pathogen Species Dna And Toxic Metal Ions, Spencer Williams

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water quality is a crucial factor in determining the health of an environment, and in turn the health of all those living in the given environment. Early detection of potential hazards in source water used for drinking would help to avoid outbreaks of sickness and even death. Contaminants, found in contact and drinking water, having negative effects on human health may include pathogenic microorganisms, and metal ion pollutants such as lead or cadmium. Lead and cadmium were selected due to well-known electrochemical properties providing easy references for developing new detection devices. Current methods for detection of these contaminants are extremely ...


Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Of Whole Field Pennycress Biomass, Yonas Afewerki Kidane May 2015

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Of Whole Field Pennycress Biomass, Yonas Afewerki Kidane

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reports indicate that the worldwide energy consumption and fossil fuel energy production level will have an opposite trend in the coming two decades. The former will continue to increase while the later will decrease. Therefore, additional sources of energy need to be developed. Field pennycress (Thlaspi, arvense L.) has been found to be an ideal source of energy because it has prolific yield and has no value as food. We demonstrated conventional and catalytic fast pyrolysis of whole pennycress biomass in a fluidized bed reactor. Characterization studies on field pennycress showed that the biomass had a potential to be converted ...


Anaerobic Co-Digestion Of Algal Biomass And A Supplemental Carbon Source Material To Produce Methane, Yousef Soboh May 2015

Anaerobic Co-Digestion Of Algal Biomass And A Supplemental Carbon Source Material To Produce Methane, Yousef Soboh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Algae that are grown in wastewater treatment lagoons could be an important substrate for biofuel production; however, the low C/N ratio of algae is not conducive to anaerobic digestion of algae with economically attractive methane production rates. Increasing the C/N ratio in anaerobic, laboratory scale, batch reactors by blending algal biomass with sodium acetate resulted i increased methane production rates as the C/N ratio increased. The highest amount of methane was produced when the C/N was 21/1. When the C/N was 24/1, the biogas production rate decreased. Batch experiments were done to evaluate ...


Non-Catalytic Co-Gasification Of Sub-Bituminous Coal And Biomass, Guevara Che Nyendu May 2015

Non-Catalytic Co-Gasification Of Sub-Bituminous Coal And Biomass, Guevara Che Nyendu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (ΔP) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content ...


Bio-Inspired Materials And Micro/Nanostructures Enabled By Peptides And Proteins, Swathi Swaminathan May 2015

Bio-Inspired Materials And Micro/Nanostructures Enabled By Peptides And Proteins, Swathi Swaminathan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of materials could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this study, a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to materials like (Poly) dimethylsiloxane, epoxy, and (Poly) ethylenetetraphthalate and peptide nanotubes has been demonstrated via comprehensively screened phage-displayed peptides. Further, along with the development of microstructures, micropatterns and micro-molecular self-assembly, recognition with phage-displayed peptides can be specifically localized ...


Microfabrication Of Bio-Analytical Devices: Microelectrode Array And Traveling-Wave Electrophoresis, Neil Draper May 2015

Microfabrication Of Bio-Analytical Devices: Microelectrode Array And Traveling-Wave Electrophoresis, Neil Draper

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The need for potable water is increasing with the ever-increasing world population. Further development of fast, portable, and cost effective analytical tools is necessary in order to create diagnostic techniques capable of supporting the water needs of the world’s population. Within the last decade microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) technologies have increased the portability and speed of detection for aqueous samples. Photolithography techniques serve as a cost effective fabrication tool to create LOC electrodes on the micron scale.

An in-depth look at the fabrication process is undertaken in this paper in order to further the development of micro-scale detection techniques ...