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Iowa State University

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Overview Of Sepsis And Sepsis Biomarker Detection, Souvik Kundu Jan 2019

Overview Of Sepsis And Sepsis Biomarker Detection, Souvik Kundu

Creative Components

Sepsis being a fatal physiological state due to an imbalance in the immune system caused by infection, and one of the most common cause for millions of deaths in the non-coronary intensive care unit worldwide requires special attention in its diagnostic methods and cure. Therefore an understanding of literature related to sepsis is of utmost importance. With the advent of inter-disciplinary research, the study and diagnosis of sepsis problem are not limited to the medical field, rather it requires interventions and active participation of other fields of science and technology. However, often subject matter from interdisciplinary research is expounded in ...


A Volume Rendering Engine For Desktops, Laptops, Mobile Devices And Immersive Virtual Reality Systems Using Gpu-Based Volume Raycasting, Christian John Noon Jan 2012

A Volume Rendering Engine For Desktops, Laptops, Mobile Devices And Immersive Virtual Reality Systems Using Gpu-Based Volume Raycasting, Christian John Noon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Volume rendering is the process of visualizing characteristics and properties of three-dimensional (3D) volume data as a 3D object. The most extensive use of volume rendering takes place within the medical field. Physicians are using a combination of medical imaging technologies and volume rendering techniques to non-invasively examine patients to make critical medical decisions and diagnoses such as finding tumors, searching for blood clots and monitoring unborn fetuses. As the technological computing power continues to increase at a rapid rate, so do the opportunities to provide volume rendering solutions on new and innovative platforms such as mobile devices and immersive ...


Materials Selection, Processing, And Manufacturing For A Design Of An Elbow Joint Replacement Prototype, Erik Manatt Jan 2012

Materials Selection, Processing, And Manufacturing For A Design Of An Elbow Joint Replacement Prototype, Erik Manatt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A new design for a canine elbow joint replacement was manufactured and assembled. The design incorporates a ceramic ball for articulation with radius and ulna components and a bioactive ceramic for tissue contact. A variety of materials were considered, with zirconia-toughened alumina selected as the wear surface, stainless steel as the structural backbone, and osteoceramic as the bioactive bone interface. The ceramic components were manufactured by cold isostatic pressing the powders, firing the formed rods to an intermediate temperature for strength, and then machining them before a final sintering. A modified osteoceramic bone cement with better flow characteristics was chosen ...


Edge Cross-Section Profile For Colonoscopic Object Detection, Yi Wang Jan 2012

Edge Cross-Section Profile For Colonoscopic Object Detection, Yi Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, claiming close to 50,000 lives annually in the United States alone. Colonoscopy is an important screening tool that has contributed to a significant decline in colorectal cancer-related deaths. During colonoscopy, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the human colon. The video data is displayed on a monitor for real-time diagnosis by the endoscopist. Despite the success of colonoscopy in lowering cancer-related deaths, a significant miss rate for detection of both large polyps and cancers is estimated ...


High Throughput Design Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Targeted Vaccine Delivery, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy Jan 2011

High Throughput Design Of Functionalized Nanoparticles For Targeted Vaccine Delivery, Ana Vianey Chavez-Santoscoy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the design of functionalized nanoparticles, a novel approach to targeted antigen delivery by decorating the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles with specific carbohydrates to provide "pathogen-like" properties.

Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine platforms that have the potential to be used as controlled drug delivery devices as well as potent and effective immune adjuvants for the design of single dose vaccines. CLRs offer unique advantages for tailoring immune responses. Engagement of CLRs regulates antigen presenting cell activation and promotes delivery of antigens to specific intracellular compartments inside antigen presenting cells for efficient processing and presentation.

CLRs recognize conserved ...


Functional Materials From Hierarchically Ordered Polymer Nanocomposites, Brandon Josef Franck Jan 2011

Functional Materials From Hierarchically Ordered Polymer Nanocomposites, Brandon Josef Franck

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We report work done studying the segregation of polymer coated gold nanoparticles within block copolymer (BCP) composites. Poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PI-b-PS) of Mn 172 kDa was loaded with various particle fractions of gold nanoparticle with various surface chemistries. Segregation of the particles within the BCP composite was examined via electron microscopy. "Single component" nanocomposites with BCP ligands of PI-b-PS and poly(isoprene-b-dimethylsiloxane) "grafted to" gold nanoparticles were introduced and a study of ordering was done via electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering.


Multiscale Modeling For Complex Macromolecular Systems: Methodologies And Applications, Seung Ha Kim Jan 2011

Multiscale Modeling For Complex Macromolecular Systems: Methodologies And Applications, Seung Ha Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to understand the binding mechanism between flexible macromolecules and guest species in solution using multiscale molecular modeling strategies, including: ab initio electronic structure theory, all-atom classical molecular dynamics simulations, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical eld theory. A brief summary of the subsequent chapters in this thesis is provided. Chapters 2 - 7 and Appendix A are self-contained units complete with literature review and bibliography.


Self-Assembled Pentablock Copolymers For Selective And Sustained Gene Delivery, Bingqi Zhang Jan 2011

Self-Assembled Pentablock Copolymers For Selective And Sustained Gene Delivery, Bingqi Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The poly(diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM) - Pluronic F127 - PDEAEM pentablock copolymer (PB) gene delivery vector system has been found to possess an inherent selectivity in transfecting cancer cells over non-cancer cells in vitro, without attaching any targeting ligands. In order to understand the mechanism of this selective transfection, three possible intracellular barriers to transfection were investigated in both cancer and non-cancer cells. We concluded that escape from the endocytic pathway served as the primary intracellular barrier for PB-mediated transfection. Most likely, PB vectors were entrapped and rendered non-functional in acidic lysosomes of non-cancer cells, but survived in less acidic lysosomes of ...


Surface Functionalization Of Quantum Dots For Biotechnological Applications, Yanjie Zhang Jan 2011

Surface Functionalization Of Quantum Dots For Biotechnological Applications, Yanjie Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Quantum dots (QDs) are considered as fantastic substitutes for organic dyes or genetically coded proteins because of their outstanding optical properties including broad absorption spectra, size tunable emission spectra, large extinction coefficient and superior resistance to chemical and physical degradation. They are now widely used in many biological applications. However, QDs are generally synthesized using organometallic approach and only soluble in organic solvents. To transfer QDs into aqueous solution, we replaced their native ligands with a new group of water-soluble molecules based on simple yet flexible dithiocarbamate chemistry. This cap exchange method offers QDs not only solubility but also stability ...


Engineering Amphiphillic Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Targeted Drug And Vaccine Delivery, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde Jan 2011

Engineering Amphiphillic Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Targeted Drug And Vaccine Delivery, Brenda Rocio Carrillo-Conde

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this work, a transdisciplinary approach that combines concepts from biomaterials, nanotechnology, carbohydrate and protein chemistry, molecular biology, immunology and computational analysis has been applied to rationally design and engineer novel vaccine platforms that encompass passive and active targeting strategies.

First, the intrinsic properties of the polyanhydride systems utilized in these studies were tailored to achieve the stability of proteins with the potential to be used as antigens and/or therapeutic agents. Amphiphillic polyanhydride chemistries showed the most optimal properties to preserve structural integrity and functionality of different proteins. The surface chemistry of polyanhydride particles was also identified as an ...


Purification Of Flavan-3-Ol Biosynthesis For Co-Localization Onto Nanocarriers And A Multi-Enzyme Assay, Emily Kaitlin Davenport Jan 2011

Purification Of Flavan-3-Ol Biosynthesis For Co-Localization Onto Nanocarriers And A Multi-Enzyme Assay, Emily Kaitlin Davenport

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that serve a variety of purposes, from assisting pollination in plants to providing anti-cancerous activity in humans. It is the wide range of functions that give these molecules the highly revered status they have today. Range in function can be linked with the range in structure, and with over 10,000 different flavonoids known, they make up one of the largest groups of natural products. One common sub-class of flavonoids is the flavan-3-ols, which are known for their health benefits and tendency to condense to form proanthocyanidins, or condensed tannins. Both of these classes of ...


Multiple Disturbance Modeling And Prediction Of Blood Glucose In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Kaylee Renee Kotz Jan 2011

Multiple Disturbance Modeling And Prediction Of Blood Glucose In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Kaylee Renee Kotz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Type 1 diabetics often experience extreme variations in glucose concentrations which can have adverse long– and short–term effects such as severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and organ degeneration. Studies have established that there is a need to maintain the glucose levels within a normal range (e.g. 80—150 mg/dL) to avoid complications caused by diabetes. However, initial attempts to regulate blood glucose levels using insulin infusion pumps, multiple injections or a combination of the two have had limited success as they lack the ability to decide the appropriate rate and/or dose of insulin based on the current metabolic ...


Modeling Of Complex Surface Interactions In Low And High Pressure Plasmas, Mingmei Wang Jan 2011

Modeling Of Complex Surface Interactions In Low And High Pressure Plasmas, Mingmei Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plasma etching (or dry etching) is widely used in the fabrication of integrated cir-cuits (IC). Anisotropic features are easily obtained by controlling reactive ion trajectories in plasma. Twisting and bowing are two main issues during high aspect ratio (HAR) fea-ture etching. Twisting is, instead of a feature etching vertically, the feature twists or turns to the side. Mixing damage by ion bombardment of underlying materials is also a critical problem in post-etch processing. One of the explanations for twisting is charge accumu-lation on feature surfaces during ion bombardment. An asymmetric local electric field (E-field) changes ion trajectories incident into the ...


Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral Jan 2011

Steam Reforming Of Water-Soluble Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil: Studies On Bio-Oil Composition Effect, Carbon Deposition, And Catalyst Modifications, Pedro J. Ortiz-Toral

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bio-oils from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass can be phase separated into a heavy water insoluble portion and a light water-soluble portion. The water-rich portion contains mainly carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. This highly oxygenated water-rich portion was evaluated for production of the renewable hydrogen required for the upgrading reactions. There are certain challenges introduced due to the complexity of these mixtures. Catalyst deactivation by coking and the formation of carbon deposits are major limitations although the specific causes were previously unidentified. A bio-oil fractionating system can separate heavier components from the light-end components. This light-end fraction has ...


Combinatorial Design And Development Of Biomaterials For Use As Drug Delivery Devices And Immune Adjuvants, Latrisha Kay Petersen Jan 2011

Combinatorial Design And Development Of Biomaterials For Use As Drug Delivery Devices And Immune Adjuvants, Latrisha Kay Petersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are several challenges associated with current strategies for drug and vaccine delivery. These include the need for multiple-dose administrations, which can hinder patience compliance, the requirements for specific storage conditions due to the fragile structure of protein-based molecules, and the need for additional excipients to enhance protein stability or adjuvant the immune response. This work has focused on the development of a high throughput, combinatorial approach to optimize degradable polymeric biomaterials, specifically polyanhydrides, to overcome these challenges associated with drug and vaccine delivery. We have developed high throughput techniques to rapidly fabricate polymer film and nanoparticle libraries to carry ...


Use Of Colloidal Crystal Templating To Fabricate Ordered Pit Arrays On Aluminum And Aluminum Alloy 3003, Newira Widharta Jan 2011

Use Of Colloidal Crystal Templating To Fabricate Ordered Pit Arrays On Aluminum And Aluminum Alloy 3003, Newira Widharta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In a number of industrial processes, metal surfaces are etched to develop topographic patterns consisting of microscopic cavities. Al alloy plates for lithographic printing are etched to create a microscopically roughened surface that optimizes retention of ink and release agent. Fabrication of ordered arrays of micro-porous pits utilizing colloidal crystal templating method in aluminum and aluminum alloy 3003 was developed in this thesis. We choose such a technique, previously developed for aluminum electrolytic capacitors, and adapt it to aluminum alloy 3003 substrates used in the solid-ink lithography. Using electrochemistry and imaging techniques (SEM), we showed that ordered pit arrays with ...


Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Escherichia Coli Mg1655 Under Octanoic Acid (C8) Stress, Yanfen Fu Jan 2011

Metabolic Flux Analysis Of Escherichia Coli Mg1655 Under Octanoic Acid (C8) Stress, Yanfen Fu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic engineering has evolved to the point of fulfilling the dream of having industrial chemicals produced renewably. Carboxylic acids [e.g., short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as octanoic acid (C8)] are such chemical intermediates that can be produced by Escherichia coli engineered with thioesterases specific for short chain fatty acids. However, C8 is toxic to E. coli at concentration greater than 10 mM. To design a better host strain for the production of large amount of SCFAs, 13C metabolic flux analysis of E. coli was performed for both C8 stress and control condition (without C8). To investigate central carbon ...


Catalytic Strategies Of Glycoside Hydrolases, Luis Petersen Jan 2010

Catalytic Strategies Of Glycoside Hydrolases, Luis Petersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between two carbohydrate residues or a carbohydrate unit linked to a non-carbohydrate aglycon unit. Despite years of research dedicated to GHs, there are still several mechanistic details, relevant for individual GH enzymes, that remain to be investigated. In this work, a computational analysis of the detailed mechanism of several GHs is presented. QM/MM metadynamics simulations of two glycoside hydrolases, GH8 endoglucanase and GH43 β-xylosidase, give insight into the enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell wall, and the detailed reaction mechanism of both enzymes. In addition, an ...


Alternative Routes For Purification Of Collagen Type I Α1 From A Whole Corn Extract, Christopher Michael Setina Jan 2010

Alternative Routes For Purification Of Collagen Type I Α1 From A Whole Corn Extract, Christopher Michael Setina

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Transgenic corn is capable of producing and storing Type I α1 human collagen (r-CIα1) containing a sequence that assists assembly (foldon) and the mature cleaved form (without foldon). Extracts of ground corn grain spiked with Pichia-sourced collagen (rP-CIα1), with and without foldon, were precipitated with NaCl to purify collagen from host cell proteins. The low acid solubility of host cell proteins (HCP's) along with the acid stability of collagen favored extraction at pH 2. NaCl concentrations >0.75 M provided complete precipitation of rP-CIα1 without foldon and >70% purity. A fractional cut to remove HCP's with 0 ...


Protein And Oil Recoveries From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans And Sunflower Seed, Kerry Alan Campbell Jan 2010

Protein And Oil Recoveries From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans And Sunflower Seed, Kerry Alan Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aqueous extraction processing (AEP) of soybeans has the potential to achieve oil extraction yields comparable to hexane extraction without the environmental or safety concerns associated with hexane. The economic viability of this novel process depends upon maximizing the yield of free oil as well the development of a cost effective, high yielding method of recovering protein values in the aqueous by-product.

In order to direct strategies for yield improvement, mechanisms of AEP were studied by microscopic observation of extracted residual solids coupled with yield measurements and mathematical modeling. The nature of the oil-confining matrix varied depending on physical treatment of ...


Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan Jan 2010

Development Of A Sorbent For Carbon Dioxide, Dursun Can Ozcan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The reversible absorption of CO2 by CaO at high temperature is a promising method for capturing and removing CO2 from a hot gas stream. The main challenge facing the use of this method is the deterioration of CO2 absorption capacity when the method is applied over a large number of CO2 absorption/desorption cycles. Although various techniques have been proposed for improving the cyclic stability and performance of calcium based sorbents, a cost effective method is still needed for industrial applications. Therefore, two promising methods for improving the cyclic stability were selected for further investigation. One method is to optimize ...


Structures, Kinetics, And Modeling Of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanases From Clostridium Acetobutylicum And Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1, Christopher Donald Warner Jan 2010

Structures, Kinetics, And Modeling Of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanases From Clostridium Acetobutylicum And Ruminococcus Flavefaciens Fd-1, Christopher Donald Warner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Glycoside hydrolases (GH) are enzymes that hydrolyze glycosidic bonds between carbohydrates. Family 44 contains endo- and xylo- glucanases capable of hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicelluose. Two members produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 are the subjects of characterization work in this dissertation.

The EG from Clostridium acetobutylicum was characterized both structurally and kinetically. Crystallization and x-ray diffraction to 2.2-y resolution revealed a TIM barrel-like structure with additional ψ-loop and β-sandwich folds. The EG hydrolyzes cellotetraose and larger cellooligosaccharides, as well as carboxymethylcellulose and xylan at approximately the same rates. It converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and ...


Acid Catalyzed Carbohydrate Degradation And Dehydration, Basak Cinlar Jan 2010

Acid Catalyzed Carbohydrate Degradation And Dehydration, Basak Cinlar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Facile commercial production of versatile polyfunctional compounds from biomass constitutes a great challenge for establishing a sustainable chemical industry. One such example is the production of furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural via dehydration of pentoses and hexoses. Identified as primary building blocks in polymer industry, their massive production is highly desired, yet suffers from several problems, such as feedstock availability, low product yields due to excessive side reactions and lack of an industrially feasible heterogeneous catalyst.

Organic acid functional groups incorporated onto mesoporous silica offer well defined catalytic sites beside their unique textural properties and therefore could be considered as promising ...


Understanding The Product Distribution From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan Jan 2010

Understanding The Product Distribution From Biomass Fast Pyrolysis, Pushkaraj Ramchandra Patwardhan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fast pyrolysis of biomass is an attractive route to transform solid biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which has been envisioned as a renewable substitute for crude oil. However, lack of fundamental understanding of the pyrolysis process poses a significant challenge in developing cost-effective pyrolysis based technologies for producing transportation fuels. The fundamental knowledge of pyrolysis pathways, product distribution and underlying mechanisms will have a direct and significant impact on the reactor design, strategic operation and kinetic modeling of the pyrolysis process. However, this knowledge has remained obscure due to the complexity of the pyrolysis process and lack of well established ...


Membrane-Based Separations For Solid/Liquid Clarification And Protein Purification, Matthew Thomas Aspelund Jan 2010

Membrane-Based Separations For Solid/Liquid Clarification And Protein Purification, Matthew Thomas Aspelund

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant protein technology has become increasingly important in recent years. Recombinant proteins can be found in everything from pharmaceuticals to detergents. The increasing demand and the high cost associated with the production and purification of recombinant proteins highlights the need to develop efficient and inexpensive methods for the solid/liquid clarification and purification of these proteins. Membrane technologies, which offer the advantage of high throughput and ever-improving selectivity, have the potential to meet the increased demands placed on the downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The overall objective of this work was to develop methods for the solid/liquid clarification and ...


Hierarchically Ordered Montmorillonite Block Copolymer Brushes, Ross Eric Behling Jan 2010

Hierarchically Ordered Montmorillonite Block Copolymer Brushes, Ross Eric Behling

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We report the phase behavior of a new class of polymer

nanocomposites, montmorillonite (MMT) block copolymer brushes

(MBBs). MBBs are comprised of discrete MMT particles encapsulated with block copolymer brushes synthesized via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Polystyrene-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) MBBs of varying composition and total Mn = 80--250 kDa were compared with bulk block copolymers via electron

microscopy and a host of mechanical tests. MBBs were found to self

assemble into single grain morphologies across incredibly large

areas (> 3 um). Perhaps most promising is that MBBs maintain

similar melt state properties to bulk block copolymers and are thus

amenable ...


Molecular Design Of Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Vehicles For Pneumonic Plague, Bret Daniel Ulery Jan 2010

Molecular Design Of Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Vehicles For Pneumonic Plague, Bret Daniel Ulery

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The work described in this dissertation focuses on the design of polyanhydride nanoparticles that function as both adjuvants and long-term antigen delivery vehicles in order to improve vaccination, specifically for biodefense-related applications. Chapter 1 is an introduction into the threat of bioterrorism, polymer-based controlled delivery systems and challenges associated with vaccine design.

Chapter 2 is a detailed literature review of topics related to the research conducted in this dissertation. Areas covered include basic immunology, vaccine design, degradable polymer-based adjuvant engineering, plague (Yersinia pestis) biology, and vaccines that confer protection against plague.

Chapter 3 overviews the research objectives and the specific ...


A Comrehensive Model Study For Flash Nanoprecipitation: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Micro- Particle Image Velocimetry, And Population Balance Modeling, Janine Chungyin Cheng Jan 2010

A Comrehensive Model Study For Flash Nanoprecipitation: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Micro- Particle Image Velocimetry, And Population Balance Modeling, Janine Chungyin Cheng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A model study has been conducted for Flash Nanoprecipitation(FNP)) - a novel approach to produce functional nanoparticles. A mixing study has been conducted in a custom-designed microscale multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) and a scalar mixing model was validated against experimental data. A microPIV experiment was conducted to further validate the turbulent model. A population balance equation (PBE) has been proposed to model the FNP process. It was furthermore, integrated into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of to yield conditions comparable to the real experimental settings. In coping with the complicated aggregation model in the CFD code, a new numerical ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulation Of Nanocomposite Materials, Yin Yani Jan 2009

Molecular Dynamics Simulation Of Nanocomposite Materials, Yin Yani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mixed-matrix materials are a class of nanocomposites that contain a rigid, inorganic chemical species within a polymer matrix. The addition of the inorganic species necessarily affects the structures and thermal properties of the original polymeric material. In this thesis, mixed-matrix materials containing polymer and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are studied with molecular dynamics simulation to provide molecular insight about the property enhancements observed experimentally for this class of material.

Three different polymer matrices are considered: glassy polymer (polyimide, PI), flexible polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), and a copolymer composed of the glassy and flexible segments. Two different POSS, octahydrido silsesquioxane (OHS) and ...


Bioinspired Synthesis Of Magnetic Nanoparticles, Anand David Jan 2009

Bioinspired Synthesis Of Magnetic Nanoparticles, Anand David

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

High quality magnetite crystals have previously been synthesized in a pluronic medium using a biomineralization protein, mms6, derived from magnetotactic bacteria. However, until present these studies have been conducted only in the solution phase, for which particle aggregation and movement of particles to the bottom of the pluronic medium limit characterization opportunities, including how the particles affect the pluronic structure. In this study, magnetite synthesis is completed in a solid pluronic gel phase for which magnetite particles are suspended and can be characterized using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). This study has shown that the proteins alone do not affect the ...