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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Syngenic Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells Delivered In Decellularized Adipose Tissue Scaffolds Enhance In Vivo Tissue Regeneration Through Host Cell Recruitment, Kevin P. Robb Dec 2017

Syngenic Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells Delivered In Decellularized Adipose Tissue Scaffolds Enhance In Vivo Tissue Regeneration Through Host Cell Recruitment, Kevin P. Robb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) represents a promising adipogenic bioscaffold for applications in soft tissue augmentation or reconstruction. With the goal of investigating the role of syngeneic donor adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) and host myeloid cells during in vivo adipose tissue regeneration, transgenic reporter mouse strains were used to track these cell populations within ASC-seeded and unseeded DAT scaffolds. Donor ASCs were obtained from dsRed transgenic mice. These cells were shown to express characteristic cell surface markers, and multilineage differentiation capacity was confirmed. To facilitate cell tracking, DAT scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted into MacGreen mice in which myeloid cells express ...


Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation In Cell Aggregates Supplemented With Micronized, Decellularized Extracellular Matrix, Danielle Heinbuch Oct 2016

Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation In Cell Aggregates Supplemented With Micronized, Decellularized Extracellular Matrix, Danielle Heinbuch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the human body there are tissues with limited regenerative potential, raising the need for cell-based regenerative therapies. The main objective of this thesis was to examine how tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) affects the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). The effects of incorporating milled, decellularized adipose (DAT) or cartilage (DCT) ECM particles on ASC lineage-specific differentiation in 3-D cell aggregate cultures were explored. The results demonstrated that the addition of ECM improved differentiation for both adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. Analysis of adipogenic gene and protein expression indicated enhanced differentiation in the DAT+ASC aggregates relative to the DCT ...


A Comparative Study On Calcification Of Aortic Valves, Shirin Masjedi May 2016

A Comparative Study On Calcification Of Aortic Valves, Shirin Masjedi

Doctoral Dissertations

Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is a major disorder in the developed countries among elderly. It is characterized by calcific deposition and stiffening of the aortic valve cusps. CAVD is a highly cell-mediated condition where valvular interstitial cells (VICs) become activated and differentiate into osteoblast-like cells. This is associated with upregulation of calcific markers like Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Runx2. ECM remodeling in another characteristic of stenotic aortic valves due to VIC activation. Reports show that CAVD initiates majorly on the noncoronary side of the aortic valves. Additionally, male sex is a significant risk factor of CAVD. Aortic valves are ...


Characterization Of Human Muscle Extracellular Matrix, Lauren Klaire Wilson Jul 2015

Characterization Of Human Muscle Extracellular Matrix, Lauren Klaire Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

The performance of extracellular matrix (ECM) biological scaffolds for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML) has shown promising results with regenerating native muscle in animal models and human patients. However, the limitations of these scaffolds include non-specific characteristics based on the original parameters of the muscle that is lost and this is why our group chose to characterize human skeletal ECM. By understanding the characteristics of the native human skeletal ECM, more desired queues for the biological scaffolds being used to treat VML can be provided. Upper limb and lower limb skeletal muscles were commercially obtained, decellularized using common ...


Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick Jan 2015

Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to parse the roles of physical, mechanical and chemical cues in the phenotype plasticity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis. We first developed and characterized a novel synthetic hydrogel with desirable traits for studying mechanotransduction in vitro. This hydrogel, PEG-PC, is a co-polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and phosphorylcholine with an incredible range of Young’s moduli (~1 kPa - 9 MPa) that enables reproduction of nearly any tissue stiffness, exceptional optical and anti-fouling properties, and support for covalent attachment of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To our knowledge, this combination of mechanical range, low ...