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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Mechanical Engineering

Doctoral Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Observer-Based Event-Triggered And Set-Theoretic Neuro-Adaptive Controls For Constrained Uncertain Systems, Abdul Ghafoor Jan 2020

Observer-Based Event-Triggered And Set-Theoretic Neuro-Adaptive Controls For Constrained Uncertain Systems, Abdul Ghafoor

Doctoral Dissertations

"In this study, several new observer-based event-triggered and set-theoretic control schemes are presented to advance the state of the art in neuro-adaptive controls. In the first part, six new event-triggered neuro-adaptive control (ETNAC) schemes are presented for uncertain linear systems. These comprehensive designs offer flexibility to choose a design depending upon system performance requirements. Stability proofs for each scheme are presented and their performance is analyzed using benchmark examples. In the second part, the scope of the ETNAC is extended to uncertain nonlinear systems. It is applied to a case of precision formation flight of the microsatellites at the Sun-Earth ...


Characterization And Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel Powder For Use In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin Taylor Sutton Jan 2020

Characterization And Recyclability Of 304l Stainless Steel Powder For Use In The Selective Laser Melting Process, Austin Taylor Sutton

Doctoral Dissertations

"Powder-bed fusion refers to a subset of additive manufacturing (AM) methods which successively melts and solidifies selected regions within a powder bed on a layer-by-layer basis to construct components directly from computer-aided design files. Laser Powder-Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is a process among the powder-bed fusion techniques that utilizes a laser to consolidate particles into a material with little porosity. During the L-PBF process, the large energy input from the laser causes the production of ejecta in the form of laser spatter and condensate, both of which have the potential to settle in the surrounding powder bed compromising its reusability. In ...


Magnetic Control Of Transport Of Particles And Droplets In Low Reynolds Number Shear Flows, Jie Zhang Jan 2020

Magnetic Control Of Transport Of Particles And Droplets In Low Reynolds Number Shear Flows, Jie Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

“Magnetic particles and droplets have been used in a wide range applications including biomedicine, biological analysis and chemical reaction. The manipulation of magnetic microparticles or microdroplets in microscale fluid environments is one of the most critical processes in the systems and platforms based on microfluidic technology. The conventional methods are based on magnetic forces to manipulate magnetic particles or droplets in a viscous fluid.

In contrast to conventional magnetic separation method, several recent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated a different way to manipulate magnetic non-spherical particles by using a uniform magnetic field in the microchannel. However, the fundamental mechanism ...


Trajectory Control Of A Wheeled Robot Using Interaction Forces For Intuitive Overground Human-Robot Interaction, George Leno Holmes Jr. Jan 2020

Trajectory Control Of A Wheeled Robot Using Interaction Forces For Intuitive Overground Human-Robot Interaction, George Leno Holmes Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

"Effective and intuitive physical human robot interaction (pHRI) requires an understanding of how humans communicate movement intentions with one another. It has been suggested that humans can guide another human by hand through complex tasks using force information only. However, no clear and applicable paradigm has been set forth to understand these relationships. While the human partner can readily understand and adhere to this expectation, it would be difficult for anyone to explain their intuitive motions with strict rules, algorithms, or steps. Uncovering such a procedural framework for the control of robotic systems to execute expected performance simply from force ...


Combustion And Emission Characteristics Of Ic Engines Fueled By Hydrogen And Hydrogen/Diesel Mixtures And Multi-Objective Optimization Of Operating Parameters, Abdulhakim Issa Jabbr Jan 2020

Combustion And Emission Characteristics Of Ic Engines Fueled By Hydrogen And Hydrogen/Diesel Mixtures And Multi-Objective Optimization Of Operating Parameters, Abdulhakim Issa Jabbr

Doctoral Dissertations

“The present study considers combustion of hydrogen in IC engines. In general, the work focuses on simulating the engine performance and emissions at different operation parameters, and using optimization techniques. Task I work deals with the engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder spark-ignition (SI) engine fueled by hydrogen. The engine was simulated at different equivalence ratios, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ignition timing. The results indicate that NOx emissions, engine power, and efficiency are reduced by increasing EGR level, and increased with increasing equivalence ratio and advanced ignition timing. The best operating conditions for hydrogen engines were obtained ...


A Framework For A Successful Additive Repair System, Todd E. Sparks Jan 2020

A Framework For A Successful Additive Repair System, Todd E. Sparks

Doctoral Dissertations

“The goal of this research is to generate a revolutionary improvement to the usability and usefulness of additive repair technology by integrating a set of tools into a seamless work flow. Insufficient automation in the current repair process is a huge hurdle in achieving cost-effective, reliable repairs. Many opportunities have been missed due to inconsistency, quality issues and lack of robustness and flexibility. The present work addresses deficiencies in preparatory steps such as 2D and 3D geometry processing, parameter estimation, and path planning as well as on-machine execution of the path plan. The bulk of the effort is focused on ...


Human Behavior Understanding For Worker-Centered Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao Jan 2020

Human Behavior Understanding For Worker-Centered Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenjin Tao

Doctoral Dissertations

“In a worker-centered intelligent manufacturing system, sensing and understanding of the worker’s behavior are the primary tasks, which are essential for automatic performance evaluation & optimization, intelligent training & assistance, and human-robot collaboration. In this study, a worker-centered training & assistant system is proposed for intelligent manufacturing, which is featured with self-awareness and active-guidance. To understand the hand behavior, a method is proposed for complex hand gesture recognition using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with multiview augmentation and inference fusion, from depth images captured by Microsoft Kinect. To sense and understand the worker in a more comprehensive way, a multi-modal approach is proposed ...


Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu Jan 2019

Time-Dependent Reliability Methodologies With Saddlepoint Approximation, Zhangli Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"Engineers always encounter time-dependent uncertainties that ubiquitously exist, such as the random deterioration of material properties and time-variant loads. Therefore the reliability of engineering systems becomes time-dependent. It is crucial to predict the time-dependent reliability in the design stage, given possible catastrophic consequences of a failure. Although extensive research has been conducted on reliability analysis, estimating the reliability accurately and efficiently is still challenging. The objective of this work is to develop accurate and efficient reliability methodologies for engineering design. The basic idea is the integration of traditional reliability methods with saddlepoint approximation (SPA), which can accurately approximate the tail ...


Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu Jan 2019

Reliability Analysis For Systems With Outsourced Components, Zhengwei Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

"The current business model for many industrial firms is to function as system integrators, depending on numerous outsourced components from outside component suppliers. This practice has resulted in tremendous cost savings; it makes system reliability analysis, however, more challenging due to the limited component information available to system designers. The component information is often proprietary to component suppliers. Motivated by the need of system reliability prediction with outsourced components, this work aims to explore feasible ways to accurately predict the system reliability during the system design stage. Four methods are proposed. The first method reconstructs component reliability functions using limited ...


Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig Jan 2019

Solvent-Free Additive Manufacturing Of Electrodes For Li-Ion Batteries, Brandon Joshua Ludwig

Doctoral Dissertations

"A new Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing process using a solvent free additive manufacturing method has been developed. Li-ion battery electrodes consist of active material particles, a binder additive, and a conductive additive. Traditionally, Li-ion battery electrodes are manufacturing using the "slurry casting" technique. In this method, the electrode materials are mixed with a solvent to create a slurry. Electrodes fabricated in this method are readily implemented for small platforms, such as portable electronics. However, this method isn't as economically viable in large platforms due to high material and manufacturing costs. High material and manufacturing costs are mostly attributed to ...


Deep Understanding Of Degradation In Lithium Ion Batteries Through Experimental And First-Principles Study, Yufang He Jan 2019

Deep Understanding Of Degradation In Lithium Ion Batteries Through Experimental And First-Principles Study, Yufang He

Doctoral Dissertations

"The growing interests in Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) have significantly accelerated the development of active materials. However, the key challenge is that electrode materials suffer from degradation, which include transition metal dissolution, solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation, and mechanical fracture. To address these issues, applying an ultrathin coating onto active materials via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an efficient way. Although numerious works have been done for active material performance improvement via ALD technology, the fundamental enhancement mechanisms of ALD coating on battery performance improvement are not yet known. Therefore, this dissertation consists of four papers, which focused on the ...


Remanufacturing Of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology, Xinchang Zhang Jan 2019

Remanufacturing Of Precision Metal Components Using Additive Manufacturing Technology, Xinchang Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Critical metallic components such as jet engine turbine blades and casting die/mold may be damaged after servicing for a period at harsh working environments such as elevated temperature and pressure, impact with foreign objects, wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Additive manufacturing has a promising application for the refurbishment of such high-costly parts by depositing materials at the damaged zone to restore the nominal geometry. However, several issues such as pre-processing of worn parts to assure the repairability, reconstructing the repair volume to generate a repair tool path for material deposition, and inspection of repaired parts are challenging. The current research ...


Improvements In Digital Image Correlation And Application In Material Mechanical Test, Yunlu Zhang Jan 2019

Improvements In Digital Image Correlation And Application In Material Mechanical Test, Yunlu Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact full-field optical measurement method. With the advantages of high accuracy, low cost, and simple implementation, it has been widely applied in the area of experimental mechanics. In this study, DIC algorithm has been improved in the aspects of the pixel-level searching method and reference frame update strategy. The feature matching based method is proposed to provide an initial guess for all points of interest with semi-subpixel level accuracy in cases with small or large translation, deformation, or rotation. The bisection searching strategy is presented to automatically adjust the frame step for varying practical ...


Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li Jan 2019

Freeform Extrusion Fabrication Of Advanced Ceramics And Ceramic-Based Composites, Wenbin Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Ceramic On-Demand Extrusion (CODE) is a recently developed freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing dense ceramic components from single and multiple constituents. In this process, aqueous paste of ceramic particles with a very low binder content ( < 1 vol%) is extruded through a moving nozzle to print each layer sequentially. Once one layer is printed, it is surrounded by oil to prevent undesirable water evaporation from the perimeters of the part. The oil level is regulated just below the topmost layer of the part being fabricated. Infrared radiation is then applied to uniformly and partially dry the top layer so that the yield stress of the paste increases to avoid part deformation. By repeating the above steps, the part is printed in a layer-wise fashion, followed by post-processing. Paste extrusion precision of different extrusion mechanisms was compared and analyzed, with an auger extruder determined to be the most suitable paste extruder for the CODE system. A novel fabrication system was developed based on a motion gantry, auger extruders, and peripheral devices. Sample specimens were then produced from 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia using this fabrication system, and their properties, including density, flexural strength, Young's modulus, Weibull modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness were measured. The results indicated that superior mechanical properties were achieved by the CODE process among all the additive manufacturing processes. Further development was made on the CODE process to fabricate ceramic components that have external/internal features such as overhangs by using fugitive support material. Finally, ceramic composites with functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated by the CODE process using a dynamic mixing device"--Abstract, page iv.


Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li Jan 2019

Laser Welding Of Metallic Glass To Crystalline Metal In Laser-Foil-Printing Additive Manufacturing, Yingqi Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The application of metallic glasses has been traditionally limited to parts with small dimensions and simple geometries, due to the requirement of fast cooling during the conventional process of casting. In addition, joining metallic glass to crystalline metal is of interest for many applications that require locally tailored functions and properties, but it is challenging. This research describes a promising additive manufacturing technology, i.e., laser-foil-printing, to make high-quality metallic glass parts with large dimensions and complex geometries and to fabricate multi-material components from metallic glass and crystalline metal. In this research, Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni ...


Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li Jan 2018

Development And Management Of Advanced Batteries Via Additive Manufacturing And Modeling, Jie Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"The applications of Li-ion batteries require higher energy and power densities, improved safety, and sophisticated battery management systems. To satisfy these demands, as battery performances depend on the network of constituent materials, it is necessary to optimize the electrode structure. Simultaneously, the states of the battery have to be accurately estimated and controlled to maintain a durable condition of the battery system. For those purposes, this research focused on the innovation of 3D electrode via additive manufacturing, and the development of fast and accurate physical based models to predict the battery status for control purposes. Paper I proposed a novel ...


High Temperature Polymer Composites Using Out-Of-Autoclave Processing, Sudharshan Anandan Jan 2018

High Temperature Polymer Composites Using Out-Of-Autoclave Processing, Sudharshan Anandan

Doctoral Dissertations

"High performance polymer composites possess high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and have design flexibility. Carbon/epoxy composites are commonly used aerospace materials. Bismaleimide based composites are used as a replacement for epoxy systems at higher service temperatures. Aerospace composites are usually manufactured, under high pressure, in an autoclave which requires high capital investments and operating costs. In contrast, out-of-autoclave manufacturing, specifically vacuum-bag-only prepreg process, is capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In the current study, out-of-autoclave processing of high temperature carbon/bismaleimide composites was evaluated. The cure and process parameters were optimized. The properties of out-of-autoclave cured ...


Direct Printing Of Single-Crystal Silicon By Microscale Nanoparticle Printing And Confined Laser Melting And Crystallization, Wan Shou Jan 2018

Direct Printing Of Single-Crystal Silicon By Microscale Nanoparticle Printing And Confined Laser Melting And Crystallization, Wan Shou

Doctoral Dissertations

"The transport and interfacial phenomena in laser melting and crystallization of silicon in micro-/nano-scale confinement lacks sufficient understanding. Uncovering the underlying mechanisms, and hence harness the melting and crystallization processes can help the formation of controllable single-crystal structures or patterns. In this dissertation, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was conducted to calculate the interfacial free energy of the silicon system in contact with flat and structured walls. Then the calculated interfacial energies were employed to predict the nucleation mechanisms in a slab of liquid silicon confined by two walls and compared with MD simulation results. Further, in combination with ...


Soy-Based Polyurethane Foam For Insulation And Structural Applications, Gurjot S. Dhaliwal Jan 2018

Soy-Based Polyurethane Foam For Insulation And Structural Applications, Gurjot S. Dhaliwal

Doctoral Dissertations

"Polyurethane (PU) foams are widely used as insulation materials due to their high insulation properties and low cost compared to conventional materials such as styrene and mineral wool. PU foams are traditionally fabricated with petroleum-based precursors. However, high crude price and higher carbon footprint has lead interest of researchers to synthesis PU foams using plant-based raw materials, that are inexpensive and renewable. In this dissertation, PU foams were fabricated using soy-based polyol and its thermal and mechanical properties were investigated. In the first part, of PU foam samples with different formulations were fabricated using soy-based polyol HB230, and varying amounts ...


Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen Jan 2018

Laser Foil Printing And Surface Polishing Processes, Chen Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"A foil-based additive manufacturing technology for fabricating metal parts, called Laser Foil Printing (LFP), was proposed and developed in this dissertation. The manufacturing sub-processes comprising the LFP technology were comprehensively studied, which include the laser spot welding of foil, laser raster-scan welding of foil, laser cutting of foil, and laser polishing processes. The fabricated free-form parts were demonstrated and own better mechanical properties (micro hardness and tensile strength) than the raw material, because of the rapid-cooling process of laser welding. The full and strong bond between layers was formed by the laser welding process, with no micro-cracks or pores observed ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen Jan 2018

Fabrication And Characterization Of Advanced Materials Using Laser Metal Deposition From Elemental Powder Mixture, Xueyang Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

"Over the past decades of years, a great deal of money has been spent to machine large and complex parts from high-performance metals (i.e., titanium components for aerospace applications), so users attempt to circumvent the high cost of materials. Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique capable of fabricating complicated structures with superior properties. This dissertation aims to improve the applications of LMD technique for manufacturing metallic components by using various elemental powder mixture according to the following three categories of research topics. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cost-effective possibility by using ...


Research On Additive Manufacturing Of Metallic Glass Alloy, Yiyu Shen Jan 2018

Research On Additive Manufacturing Of Metallic Glass Alloy, Yiyu Shen

Doctoral Dissertations

"The required rapid cooling has limited the dimension of the Bulk Metallic glasses (BMGs) produced by traditional method, and hence has seriously limited their applications, despite their remarkable mechanical properties. In this present project, a detailed study is conducted on the methodology and understanding of manufacturing large Zr- based metallic glass part by laser based additive manufacturing technology, which breaks the size limitation. The first research issue proposes and develops a new additive manufacturing technology, named Laser-Foil-Printing (LFP). Sheet foils of LM105 (Zr52.5Ti5Al10Ni14.6Cu17.9 (at. %)) metallic glass are used ...


Investigation Of Microstructure And Mechanical Properties By Direct Metal Deposition, Jingwei Zhang Jan 2018

Investigation Of Microstructure And Mechanical Properties By Direct Metal Deposition, Jingwei Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Microstructure and properties of Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) parts are very crucial to meeting industrial requirements of parts quality. Prediction, and control of microstructure and mechanical properties have attracted much attention during conventional metal manufacturing process under different conditions. However, there is few investigations focused on microstructure simulation and mechanical properties control under different process parameters during DMD process. This dissertation is intended to develop a multiscale model to investigate Ti6Al4V grain structure development and explore Ti6Al4V based functionally graded material (FGM) deposit properties during DMD process. The first research topic is to investigate and develop a cellular automaton-finite element ...


Monitoring Of Hybrid Manufacturing Using Acoustic Emission Sensor, Haythem Gaja Jan 2018

Monitoring Of Hybrid Manufacturing Using Acoustic Emission Sensor, Haythem Gaja

Doctoral Dissertations

"The approach of hybrid manufacturing addressed in this research uses two manufacturing processes, one process builds a metal part using laser metal deposition, and the other process finishes the part using a milling machining. The ability to produce complete functioning parts in a short time with minimal cost and energy consumption has made hybrid manufacturing popular in many industries for parts repair and rapid prototyping. Monitoring of hybrid manufacturing processes has become popular because it increases the quality and accuracy of the parts produced and reduces both costs and production time. The goal of this work is to monitor the ...


Modeling And Experimental Investigations On Particle Dynamic Behaviors In Laser 3d Printing With Blown Powder, Wei Li Jan 2018

Modeling And Experimental Investigations On Particle Dynamic Behaviors In Laser 3d Printing With Blown Powder, Wei Li

Doctoral Dissertations

"Pre-mixed powder is frequently-used powder supply to fabricate Functional Gradient Material (FGM) by Laser 3D printing, which is also called Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). The deposited FGM composition is expected to be similar or same as supplied powder mixture. However, because pre-mixed powder has different particle densities and particle sizes, the caused particle acceleration differences can result in the separation in powder mixture. Up to now, there was no study focused on pre-mixed powders' flow behavior in LMD. The current research aims to investigate the flow behaviors of pre-mixed powder supplied for LMD through both experimental and modeling approaches. In ...


Modeling And Characterization Of Thermo-Oxidative Behavior Of Bismaleimide Composites, Rafid Muhammad Hussein Jan 2018

Modeling And Characterization Of Thermo-Oxidative Behavior Of Bismaleimide Composites, Rafid Muhammad Hussein

Doctoral Dissertations

"High-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs) are susceptible to thermo-oxidation, which accelerates the composites' degradation and reduces the service life. Mechanical properties of HTPMCs deteriorate due to coupled thermo-oxidation and cross-linking mechanisms. Bismaleimides (BMIs) are commonly used high-temperature resins for aerospace applications. This work presents the viability of using experimental weight loss to model the spatial distribution of oxidation when the oxidized polymer matrix is not discernible. Three tasks are introduced: (1) Anisotropic oxidation prediction using optimized weight loss behavior of bismaleimide composites, (2) A multi-scale modeling of thermo-oxidative effects on the flexural behavior of cross-ply bismaleimide composites, and (3) Thermo-oxidative ...


Modeling And Simulation Of Viscoplasticity, Recrystallization, And Softening Of Alloyed Steel During Hot Rolling Process, Xin Wang Jan 2018

Modeling And Simulation Of Viscoplasticity, Recrystallization, And Softening Of Alloyed Steel During Hot Rolling Process, Xin Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

"Hot rolling is one of the most important and complex deformation processes in steel manufacturing and is essential to final product quality. The objective of this study is to investigate viscoplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, and static softening of alloyed metal during hot rolling process. Gleeble hot compression tests were performed to provide experimental stress-strain curves at different temperatures and strain rates. An inverse finite element analysis was performed to calibrate the experimental curves. Viscoplastic models including a Johnson-Cook (JC) model, a Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) model, and a combined JC and ZA model were developed. Dynamic recrystallization behavior was investigated and modeled based ...


Reliability Prediction In Early Design Stages, Yao Cheng Jan 2017

Reliability Prediction In Early Design Stages, Yao Cheng

Doctoral Dissertations

"In the past, reliability is usually quantified with sufficient information available. This is not only time-consuming and cost-expensive, but also too late for occurred failures and losses. For solving this problem, the objective of this dissertation is to predict product reliability in early design stages with limited information. The current research of early reliability prediction is far from mature. Inspired by methodologies for the detail design stage, this research uses statistics-based and physics-based methodologies by providing general models with quantitative results, which could help design for reliability and decision making during the early design stage. New methodologies which accommodate component ...


Characterization And Numerical Simulation Of The Microstructural And Micromechanical Viscoelastic Behavior Of Oil Sands Using The Discrete Element Method, Eric Kofi Gbadam Jan 2017

Characterization And Numerical Simulation Of The Microstructural And Micromechanical Viscoelastic Behavior Of Oil Sands Using The Discrete Element Method, Eric Kofi Gbadam

Doctoral Dissertations

"Oil sands are naturally geologic formations of predominantly quartz sand grains whose void spaces are filled with bitumen, water, and dissolved gases. The electric rope shovel is the primary equipment used for excavating the Athabasca oil sand formations. The equipment's static and dynamic loads are transferred to the formation during excavation and propel. These loads cause ground instability leading to sinkage or rutting, crawler wear, and fracture failures. These problems result in unplanned downtimes, production losses, and high maintenance costs. In order to address these problems, there is a need to develop valid models that capture the behavior and ...


Continuous Focusing And Separation Of Microparticles With Acoustic And Magnetic Fields, Ran Zhou Jan 2017

Continuous Focusing And Separation Of Microparticles With Acoustic And Magnetic Fields, Ran Zhou

Doctoral Dissertations

"Microfluidics enables a diverse range of manipulations (e.g., focusing, separating, trapping, and enriching) of micrometer-sized objects, and has played an increasingly important role for applications that involve single cell biology and the detection and diagnosis of diseases. In microfluidic devices, methods that are commonly used to manipulate cells or particles include the utilization of hydrodynamic effects and externally applied field gradients that induce forces on cells/particles, such as electrical fields, optical fields, magnetic fields, and acoustic fields.

However, these conventional methods often involve complex designs or strongly depend on the properties of the flow medium or the interaction ...