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Full-Text Articles in Science and Mathematics Education

The Effects Of Motivation, Technology And Satisfaction On Student Achievement In Face-To-Face And Online College Algebra Classes, Hanan Jamal Amro, Marie-Anne Mundy, Lori Kupczynski Aug 2018

The Effects Of Motivation, Technology And Satisfaction On Student Achievement In Face-To-Face And Online College Algebra Classes, Hanan Jamal Amro, Marie-Anne Mundy, Lori Kupczynski

TxDLA Journal of Distance Learning

Demand for online learning has increased in recent years due to the convenience of class delivery. However, some students appear to have difficulties with online education resulting in lack of completion. The study utilized a quantitative approach with archival data and survey design. The factors of demographics, motivation, technology, and satisfaction were compared for face-to-face and online students. MANCOVA tests were performed to analyze the data while controlling age and gender to uncover significant differences between the two groups. The sample and population for this study were predominantly Hispanic students.

Motivation and Technology were non-significant, but satisfaction was proven to ...


Effects Of A Historical Story On Student Understanding Of Nos, Peng Dai Apr 2018

Effects Of A Historical Story On Student Understanding Of Nos, Peng Dai

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

Science educators have identified that Nature of Science (NOS) is essential to improve students’ science literacy. Numerous empirical studies suggest that incorporating the history of science (HOS) into class by means of an explicit reflective approach is one way to promote students’ NOS conceptions. In view of these findings, we developed a unit using an interrupted story technique to depict the discovery of the structure of DNA featuring Rosalind Franklin’s neglected role to help students learn both science content and NOS. Our study design compares an experimental group (story used) with a control group (no story used). The SUSSI ...


Multiple Representations Of The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus As Enacted In The Curriculum, Sense-Making And Gender, Ileana Vasu Jan 2018

Multiple Representations Of The Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus As Enacted In The Curriculum, Sense-Making And Gender, Ileana Vasu

Doctoral Dissertations

Multiple representations of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) are deemed essential to creating mathematical habits of mind, but not all classroom instruction includes them. This study articulates the relationship between college students’ experience with multiple representations of the FTC, gained through the enacted curriculum, and their use of multiple representations when problem solving or discussing the FTC. It suggests that students’ use of multiple representations directly relates to their curricular experience, which outweighs a student’s own inclination towards any particular representation. It further suggests that the relationship between classroom experience with a particular representation of the FTC, and ...


Motivation And Gender Dynamics In High School Science: The Effect Of Gender Composition On Motivation In Small Group Inquiry And Engineering Tasks, Julie Robinson Jan 2018

Motivation And Gender Dynamics In High School Science: The Effect Of Gender Composition On Motivation In Small Group Inquiry And Engineering Tasks, Julie Robinson

Doctoral Dissertations

While current research shows that the gender gap in science achievement has disappeared (Miller, Blessing, & Schwartz, 2006), girls continue to show declining levels of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) engagement in school. Literature shows that various societal and educational factors impact girls’ STEM motivation disproportionately to boys (Bennett & Hogarth, 2009; Breakwell & Robertson, 2001; Brotman & Moore, 2008; Campbell & Clewell, 1999; Cokadar & Kulce, 2008; Huebner, 2009; Jovanovic & King, 1998; Lee, 1998; Miller, Blessing, & Schwartz, 2006; Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003; Solomon, 1997). The onset of this phenomenon occurs in the middle school years (AAUW, 1994; Bennett & Hogarth, 2009; Brotman & Moore, 2008; Galton, Gray, & Ruddock, 2003; Murphy & Whitelegg, 2006; Scantlebury & Baker, 2007; Solomon, 1997) and is compounded throughout high school and beyond by additional barriers, including societal stereotypes and mismatched values between females and the STEM community (Davis, 2001; Davis, 2002; Hill, Corbett, & St. Rose, 2010; NRC, 2007; Solomon, 1997). Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory (2000a, 2000b) provides a meaningful framework to explore this phenomenon ...


Examining The Relationships Between Gender Role Congruity, Identity, And The Choice To Persist For Women In Undergraduate Physics Majors, Bronwen Bares Pelaez Nov 2017

Examining The Relationships Between Gender Role Congruity, Identity, And The Choice To Persist For Women In Undergraduate Physics Majors, Bronwen Bares Pelaez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Persistent gender disparity limits the available contributors to advancing some science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. While higher education can be an influential time-point for ensuring adequate participation, many physics programs across the U.S. have few women in classroom or lab settings. Prior research indicates that these women face considerable barriers. For university students, faculty, and administration to appropriately address these issues, it is important to understand the experiences of women as they navigate male-dominated STEM fields.

This explanatory sequential mixed methods study explored undergraduate female physics majors’ experiences with their male-dominated academic and research spaces in the ...


Have Gender Gaps In Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, And Learning Behaviors Across Two Ecls-K Cohorts, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah T. Lubienski, Jennifer D. Timmer, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller Jun 2017

Have Gender Gaps In Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, And Learning Behaviors Across Two Ecls-K Cohorts, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah T. Lubienski, Jennifer D. Timmer, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller

Emily Miller

Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort. Extending earlier analyses, this study compares the two ECLS-K cohorts, exploring gaps throughout the achievement distribution and examining whether learning behaviors might differentially explain gaps more at the bottom than the top of the distribution. Overall, this study reveals remarkable consistency across both ECLS-K cohorts, with the gender gap ...


Disciplinary Differences In Out-Of-School High School Science Experiences And Influence On Students’ Engineering Choices, Allison Godwin, Gerhard Sonnert, Philip M. Sadler Jan 2017

Disciplinary Differences In Out-Of-School High School Science Experiences And Influence On Students’ Engineering Choices, Allison Godwin, Gerhard Sonnert, Philip M. Sadler

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Participation from a variety of students is important to the long-term growth of the engineering field. Much of the research on engineering recruitment or career choice has focused on engineering as a whole, even though engineering disciplines are varied in student participation and focus. This work examines how students’ out-of-school interests and experiences in high school predict the likelihood of choosing a career in a particular engineering discipline. Out-of-school experiences offer more unstructured ways for students to meaningfully engage with science and engineering outside of the confines of the classroom. These experiences offer opportunities to spark particular science interests not ...


Patent Law, Copyright Law, And The Girl Germs Effect, Ann Bartow Oct 2016

Patent Law, Copyright Law, And The Girl Germs Effect, Ann Bartow

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "Inventors pursue patents and authors receive copyrights.

No special education is required for either endeavor, and nothing

precludes a person from being both an author and an inventor.

Inventors working on patentable industrial projects geared

toward commercial exploitation tend to be scientists or engineers.

Authors, with the exception of those writing computer code, tend

to be educated or trained in the creative arts, such as visual art,

performance art, music, dance, acting, creative writing, film

making, and architectural drawing. There is a well-warranted

societal supposition that most of the inventors of patentable

inventions are male. Assumptions about the genders ...


Mind The Gap: Student Researchers Use Secondary Data To Explore Disparities In Stem Education, Nathan Bean, Amanda Gnadt, Nicole Maupin, Sherry A. White, Lori Andersen Apr 2016

Mind The Gap: Student Researchers Use Secondary Data To Explore Disparities In Stem Education, Nathan Bean, Amanda Gnadt, Nicole Maupin, Sherry A. White, Lori Andersen

Prairie Journal of Educational Research

Large data sets offer opportunities for graduate students to become involved in meaningful research, but also comes with a unique set of challenges. This paper seeks to examine that relationship through utilizing the High School Longitudinal Study 2009 – representative of US ninth graders in 2009 (n = 21,444) – to examine a set of research questions about STEM interest and preparation amongst secondary students. Student researchers identified gaps in plans and outcomes with regards to race, gender, exceptionalities, and socioeconomic status. Findings indicated inequities that affect STEM outcomes. A significant interaction was found between students education expectations by gender on science ...


Book Review: Ridge, Natasha. (2014). Education And The Reverse Gender Divide In The Gulf States: Embracing The Global, Ignoring The Local. New York, Ny: Teachers College Press. 216 Pp., Isbn: 978-0-8077-5561-7., Theresa C. Bodon Mar 2016

Book Review: Ridge, Natasha. (2014). Education And The Reverse Gender Divide In The Gulf States: Embracing The Global, Ignoring The Local. New York, Ny: Teachers College Press. 216 Pp., Isbn: 978-0-8077-5561-7., Theresa C. Bodon

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

BOOK REVIEW: Ridge, Natasha. (2014). Education and the Reverse Gender Divide in the Gulf States: Embracing the Global, Ignoring the Local. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. 216 pp., ISBN: 978-0-8077-5561-7.


Have Gender Gaps In Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, And Learning Behaviors Across Two Ecls-K Cohorts, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah T. Lubienski, Jennifer D. Timmer, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller Jan 2016

Have Gender Gaps In Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, And Learning Behaviors Across Two Ecls-K Cohorts, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah T. Lubienski, Jennifer D. Timmer, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller

Mathematics

Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort. Extending earlier analyses, this study compares the two ECLS-K cohorts, exploring gaps throughout the achievement distribution and examining whether learning behaviors might differentially explain gaps more at the bottom than the top of the distribution. Overall, this study reveals remarkable consistency across both ECLS-K cohorts, with the gender gap ...


Session H: Pisa: Behind The Headlines And Past The Rankings, Sue Thomson, Chris Wardlaw Aug 2015

Session H: Pisa: Behind The Headlines And Past The Rankings, Sue Thomson, Chris Wardlaw

Dr Sue Thomson

Whenever the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are announced, media headlines are full of reports about rankings, about how many countries Australia is outperformed by and outperforms. In early rounds of PISA, Australia ranked among the top 10 countries across all three education domains assessed. However, over time Australia’s position has declined, rather than improved, and Australia no longer sits in the top 10 of any of the assessed domains. This presentation will go behind the headlines and past the rankings, to look at where Australia has declined, and look at how we can improve ...


Session H: Pisa: Behind The Headlines And Past The Rankings, Sue Thomson, Chris Wardlaw Aug 2015

Session H: Pisa: Behind The Headlines And Past The Rankings, Sue Thomson, Chris Wardlaw

2009 - 2018 ACER Research Conferences

Whenever the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) are announced, media headlines are full of reports about rankings, about how many countries Australia is outperformed by and outperforms. In early rounds of PISA, Australia ranked among the top 10 countries across all three education domains assessed. However, over time Australia’s position has declined, rather than improved, and Australia no longer sits in the top 10 of any of the assessed domains. This presentation will go behind the headlines and past the rankings, to look at where Australia has declined, and look at how we can improve ...


Gender Differences In Science Education: How Gender Has Impacted The Face Of Science In The United States, Katie O'Leary Apr 2015

Gender Differences In Science Education: How Gender Has Impacted The Face Of Science In The United States, Katie O'Leary

Education Undergraduate Theses

Historically, there existed a large achievement gap between male and female students in STEM fields in the United States. While this gap has drastically decreased, there are still areas of inequity. Recent data show that males and females now perform equally well on measures of scientific aptitude through twelfth grade and are equally likely to receive bachelor’s degrees. However, men are still more likely to receive bachelor’s degrees in STEM fields, as well as higher degrees in STEM fields. Men are also more likely to have STEM careers. This inequity appears to be influenced by a wide variety ...


Gender, Self-Efficacy, And Mathematics Achievement: An Analysis Of Fourth Grade And Eighth Grade Timss Data From The United States, Jennifer Anne Evans Jan 2015

Gender, Self-Efficacy, And Mathematics Achievement: An Analysis Of Fourth Grade And Eighth Grade Timss Data From The United States, Jennifer Anne Evans

Educational Studies Dissertations

It has been argued by some that boys are inherently better in mathematics than girls (Halpern, 2012; Summers, 2005). However, according to international assessments such as the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study’s (TIMSS) and Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), boys do not always outperform girls in mathematics (Mullis, Martin, Foy, & Arora, 2012; OECD, 2014). As such, something other than biology might better explain variations in mathematics performance. One explanation may be self-efficacy, a label used to describe judgments people make about themselves in terms of whether or not they have the capability of doing something (Bandura, 1995; Bandura, 1997 ...


Evolving Social Responsibility Understandings, Motivations, And Career Goals Of Undergraduate Students Initially Pursuing Engineering Degrees, Gregory Allen Rulifson Jan 2015

Evolving Social Responsibility Understandings, Motivations, And Career Goals Of Undergraduate Students Initially Pursuing Engineering Degrees, Gregory Allen Rulifson

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future.

This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students’ ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas ...


Understanding Student Mathematical Ways Of Knowing: Relationships Among Mathematical Anxiety, Attitude Toward Learning Math, Gender, Ethnicity, And Separate And Connected Ways Of Knowing, Andrea L. Burnes Dec 2014

Understanding Student Mathematical Ways Of Knowing: Relationships Among Mathematical Anxiety, Attitude Toward Learning Math, Gender, Ethnicity, And Separate And Connected Ways Of Knowing, Andrea L. Burnes

Dissertations, Theses and Capstone Projects

A quantitative, correlational, survey design with anecdotal qualitative data was used to investigate the relationships among mathematical anxiety, attitude toward learning math, gender, ethnicity, and separate and connected ways of knowing within the context of the mathematics classroom. Participants were 88 student volunteers enrolled in undergraduate mathematics classes at an open admissions technical college in the southeastern United States. Survey data consisted of demographic self-report items, Likert scale items, semantic differential scale items, and one qualitative free-response question. Quantitative data were analyzed by use of either a Spearman Rho, Pearson product moment correlation or an independent samples t-test of significance ...


Gender Differences In The Consistency Of Middle School Students’ Interest In Engineering And Science Careers, Marsha Ing, Pamela R. Aschbacher, Sherry M. Tsai Oct 2014

Gender Differences In The Consistency Of Middle School Students’ Interest In Engineering And Science Careers, Marsha Ing, Pamela R. Aschbacher, Sherry M. Tsai

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for males (58% in engineering, 39% in science). After controlling for student and school demographic characteristics, females were as consistent as males in their science career interests during the three years of the study but less consistent in their engineering career interests. Knowing an engineer significantly predicted consistent ...


The Effects Of A Seventh Grade Mathematics Remediation Course On Student Achievement, Jason Nix Oct 2014

The Effects Of A Seventh Grade Mathematics Remediation Course On Student Achievement, Jason Nix

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Since the installment of the No Child Left Behind Act, schools have sought strategies to help students meet these academic requirements. Many middle schools have turned to math remediation classes as a way to improve students' achievement scores. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to explore the relationship of the mathematics remediation class as an intervention strategy to help low performing seventh grade students' achievement on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test. The sample consisted of N= 775 (391 male, 384 female) seventh grade students enrolled in one rural middle school. The result of the statistical test, ANCOVA, revealed ...


Maths + Confidence = Higher Scores For Boys, Sue Thomson, Lisa De Bortoli Aug 2014

Maths + Confidence = Higher Scores For Boys, Sue Thomson, Lisa De Bortoli

Lisa De Bortoli

Teenage boys outperform Australian girls in mathematics by the equivalent of about one-third of a school year, according to the latest PISA survey, as Sue Thomson and Lisa De Bortoli explain.


The Experiences Of Women In Post Graduate Physics And Astronomy Programs: The Roles Of Support, Career Goals, And Gendered Experiences, Ramón S. Barthelemy Aug 2014

The Experiences Of Women In Post Graduate Physics And Astronomy Programs: The Roles Of Support, Career Goals, And Gendered Experiences, Ramón S. Barthelemy

Dissertations

In physics and astronomy the low representation of women is obvious at every stage of the educational pathway from undergraduate students to full professors. These low numbers perpetuate themselves by failing to create new mentors to foster the next generation of women. Women and men also have different experiences as they traverse into physics and astronomy careers. Women often experience chilly climates, discrimination, and challenges coordinating the demands of young families with their careers. In the literature exploring this topic, little focus is put on the experiences of women graduate students in physics and no focus is put on women ...


The Effects Of Reflex Math As A Response To Intervention Strategy To Improve Math Automaticity Among Male And Female At-Risk Middle School Students, Daphne Sarrell Jul 2014

The Effects Of Reflex Math As A Response To Intervention Strategy To Improve Math Automaticity Among Male And Female At-Risk Middle School Students, Daphne Sarrell

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The search for evidence-based math interventions that are easy to use and impact academic achievement are in demand, and the impact that these interventions can have on students who struggle with math achievement is of concern. In this study, the effects of Reflex math computerized intervention to improve the automaticity of basic math facts among male and female middle school students identified as at-risk for academic failure in mathematics was examined according to differences in mean scores and based on gender. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used for the purposes of the study. Convenience sampling among students ...


Deconstructing Maths Anxiety: Helping Students To Develop A Positive Attitude Towards Learning Maths, Sarah Buckley May 2014

Deconstructing Maths Anxiety: Helping Students To Develop A Positive Attitude Towards Learning Maths, Sarah Buckley

Dr Sarah Buckley

Higher maths ability is often believed to go hand-in-hand with greater levels of general intelligence. At the same time, many students have a negative attitude towards maths. Maths anxiety is defined in the research literature as feelings of concern, tension or nervousness that are experienced in combination with maths. In 2005, researchers in the United States estimated that approximately 20 per cent of the US population were highly maths anxious. Given the cultural similarities between the US and Australia, we can assume that the percentage would be comparable here. Research in education, cognitive psychology and neuroscience shows that anxiety can ...


The Effects Of Gender And Type Of Inquiry Curriculum On Sixth Grade Students’ Science Process Skills And Epistemological Beliefs In Science, Kristy L. Zaleta May 2014

The Effects Of Gender And Type Of Inquiry Curriculum On Sixth Grade Students’ Science Process Skills And Epistemological Beliefs In Science, Kristy L. Zaleta

Education Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender and type of inquiry curriculum (open or structured) on science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science of sixth grade students. The current study took place in an urban northeastern middle school. The researcher utilized a sample of convenience comprised of 303 sixth grade students taught by four science teachers on separate teams. The study employed mixed methods with a quasi-experimental design, pretest-posttest comparison group with 17 intact classrooms of students. Students’ science process skills and epistemological beliefs in science (source, certainty, development, and justification) were measured before ...


Lessons From Pisa For Mathematical Literacy, Ross Turner Apr 2014

Lessons From Pisa For Mathematical Literacy, Ross Turner

Ross Turner

Drawing on results from Australia's performance in PISA, the author asks: "How do we encourage our students to see their world through mathematical lenses?"


Increasing Interest Of Young Women In Engineering, Diane Hinterlong, Branson Lawrence, Purva Devol Apr 2014

Increasing Interest Of Young Women In Engineering, Diane Hinterlong, Branson Lawrence, Purva Devol

Publications & Research

The internationally recognized Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA) develops creative, ethical leaders in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. As a teaching and learning laboratory created by the State of Illinois, IMSA enrolls academically talented Illinois students in grades 10 through 12 in its advanced, residential college preparatory program. IMSA also serves thousands of educators and students in Illinois and beyond through innovative instructional programs that foster imagination and inquiry. IMSA also advances education through research, groundbreaking ventures and strategic partnerships.


An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker Sep 2013

An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker

Alisha L. Sarang-Sieminski

The engineering student experience is understood to differ for male and female students; gendered interactions affect the development of academic and professional role confidence, as well as engineering identity. The purpose of this session is twofold. First, we aim to introduce participants to concepts of gender schemas, privilege, and identity using a range of interactive activities, including brainstorming and structured discussion. Second, we intend to share information about and obtain feedback on a Gender Discussion Exploration Kit, which the participants will be encouraged to review, use, and share at their home institutions.


Relationships Between F.I.R.S.T. Robotics Participants’ Roles And Their Educational And Degree Choices, Christine T. Chang Aug 2013

Relationships Between F.I.R.S.T. Robotics Participants’ Roles And Their Educational And Degree Choices, Christine T. Chang

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The annual robotics competition that is held by the non-profit organization For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology (better known as FIRST) implicitly requires that the multifaceted teams subdivide in order to ensure that sufficient team resources are committed to all areas of the competition. The self-stated goal of FIRST is to inspire students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examines the relationship between FIRST participants’ specific roles on their teams and their subsequent academic and career pursuits. Study participants (N = 174) consisting of FIRST Robotics Competition alumni responded to an online ...


Deconstructing Maths Anxiety: Helping Students To Develop A Positive Attitude Towards Learning Maths, Sarah Buckley Jul 2013

Deconstructing Maths Anxiety: Helping Students To Develop A Positive Attitude Towards Learning Maths, Sarah Buckley

Student Learning Processes

Higher maths ability is often believed to go hand-in-hand with greater levels of general intelligence. At the same time, many students have a negative attitude towards maths. Maths anxiety is defined in the research literature as feelings of concern, tension or nervousness that are experienced in combination with maths. In 2005, researchers in the United States estimated that approximately 20 per cent of the US population were highly maths anxious. Given the cultural similarities between the US and Australia, we can assume that the percentage would be comparable here. Research in education, cognitive psychology and neuroscience shows that anxiety can ...


Minority Women In Stem: A Valuable Resource In The Global Economy, Ezella Mcpherson, Diane R. Fuselier-Thompson Jan 2013

Minority Women In Stem: A Valuable Resource In The Global Economy, Ezella Mcpherson, Diane R. Fuselier-Thompson

Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Global Achievement Gap

While there is an expected demographic shift of the ethnic minority population in the United States to become the majority population by 2020, few minority women successfully attain baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) fields. To address this gap, this article employs critical race feminism and narrative analysis methods to examine minority women’s challenges while pursuing undergraduate STEM degrees. Findings suggest that limited access to the field, isolation and alienation, and affordability create barriers that result in many minority women leaving STEM majors. Implications for practice include targeted institutional efforts to increase recruitment and retention efforts ...