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War On Weeds: Winning It For Natural Areas, Jerry E. Asher Dec 2001

War On Weeds: Winning It For Natural Areas, Jerry E. Asher

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

I am delighted to be here with you today to discuss the rapidly accelerating damage that invasive exotic plants are inflicting on natural areas in this country. This problem may seem overwhelming, but you need not despair because there are economical, realistic, and effective strategies available to meet this challenge.

There are two purposes to this presentation: to give you information you can use to convince others that invasive exotic plants are seriously harmful, and to suggest that we can win this war on invasive exotic plants if we engage enough of the right people.


Iowa's Non-Native Graminoids, Thomas R. Rosburg Dec 2001

Iowa's Non-Native Graminoids, Thomas R. Rosburg

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Iowa's non-native graminoids include 60 species of grasses and one species of bulrush. The exotic grass species comprise a large proportion (about 31%) of the total species richness of grasses in Iowa, which are second only to the Asteraceae in terms of total species. About half of the non-native graminoids (52%) occur sporadically and form sparse, non-invasive populations, while eighteen species (about 30%) are commonly encountered in large populations throughout the state. About 60% are annuals and a large majority (89%) has been introduced from either Europe or Asia. The C3 photosynthetic pathway is prevalent, occurring in approximately two-thirds ...


The Role Of Environmental Analogs In Identifying Potentially Invasive Woody Plants In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner Dec 2001

The Role Of Environmental Analogs In Identifying Potentially Invasive Woody Plants In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Americans cultivate a large and diverse range of introduced woody plants as important sources of food and forest products, as well as for urban horticulture, amenity and wildlife plantings, and windbreaks. A small number of these species have become serious pests, disrupting well-established native plant communities or functioning as range and agricultural weeds. More of these species are not serious pests today, but have escaped cultivation and serve as potential sources of future outbreaks. Two other sources of potentially invasive woody plants are found among species that are not or are only rarely cultivated, about which we often know little ...


Ecological Problems With Iowa's Invasive And Introduced Fishes, Neil P. Bernstein, John R. Olson Dec 2001

Ecological Problems With Iowa's Invasive And Introduced Fishes, Neil P. Bernstein, John R. Olson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Since the time of European settlement, at least 59 non-indigenous fish species have been introduced, reached, or moved within Iowa waters. At least 28 nonnative fish species have been introduced into, or reported from Iowa waters since settlement. Of that number, 10 are established at this time through natural reproduction. In addition, many species of native fishes have been translocated within the state, and we provide documentation for 31 of these species. Two translocated species, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and yellow bass (Marone mississippiensis), have had adverse impacts on Iowa's aquatic ecosystems. While many introductions are thought to be ...


Non-Native Amphibians And Reptiles In Iowa, James L. Christiansen Dec 2001

Non-Native Amphibians And Reptiles In Iowa, James L. Christiansen

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Only a few species appear as introductions into Iowa in the last 30 years. The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, was systematically introduced along with fish stocked from hatcheries in the 1930s and this species continues to spread in northern Iowa where it poses a hazard to smaller frogs. Turtles sold as pets, primarily map turtles (Graptemys pseudogeographica and G. geographica) and red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta) continue to be found in scattered ponds, usually rural, throughout the state. The eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolma) has been reported in or on the edge of most major Iowa cities even though no breeding population ...


Back Cover Dec 2001

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Eurasian Watermilfoil: Status And Management In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips Dec 2001

Eurasian Watermilfoil: Status And Management In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

In 1993, Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) was discovered in Crystal Lake, Hancock County, Iowa. During the next three years, new infestations were discovered by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) fisheries personnel in four Iowa lakes. In July 1996, a program was established by the IDNR to address the threat posed by Eurasian watermilfoil to Iowa's aquatic ecosystems. As part of the Eurasian Watermilfoil Program, statewide aquatic vegetation monitoring was begun to identify those lakes currently infested with Eurasian watermilfoil. Monitoring activities were conducted by IDNR field technicians during the summers of 1996 through 2000. During this ...


Forest Invasives In Iowa: Current Problems And Future Issues, John Walkowiak, John Haanstad Dec 2001

Forest Invasives In Iowa: Current Problems And Future Issues, John Walkowiak, John Haanstad

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Iowa's forest resources of primarily deciduous trees covers over 0.8 million hectares (2 million acres) of upland and floodplain sites too steep or too wet for traditional row crop agriculture. These limited natural forests along with urban trees and shelterbelts plantings of trees are critical for environmental and economic enhancement in the state. Although not yet established in the state, exotic insects, such as gypsy moth, Asian longhorned beetle, and pine shoot beetle, threaten native tree vitality. Established exotic diseases such as oak wilt and Dutch elm disease continue to plague the survival of Iowa's oak and ...


Cover - Table Of Contents Dec 2001

Cover - Table Of Contents

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Dec 2001

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Invasive Species In Iowa: An Introduction, James J. Dinsmore, Neil P. Bernstein Dec 2001

Invasive Species In Iowa: An Introduction, James J. Dinsmore, Neil P. Bernstein

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Concern over the increasing spread of invasive species and the potential impacts of those species on native communities has been the subject of several books and hundreds of research papers in recent years. President Clinton's Executive Order on invasive species in February1999 raised national attention to this issue. Natural resource agencies have been plagued by an ever-increasing number of invasive species and now consider this issue the second most important problem (after habitat loss) in their fight to maintain some semblance of natural communities on this planet. One group of experts estimated that in the United States alone, invasives ...


Introduced Fungi: Some Cause Significant Plant Disease Problems, Lois H. Tiffany Dec 2001

Introduced Fungi: Some Cause Significant Plant Disease Problems, Lois H. Tiffany

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Species of the three groups of fungi characterized here on the basis of their energy source acquisition have differing potentials for becoming problem organisms following introduction as alien fungi new to Iowa. The decomposer group of fungi that obtain an energy supply by action of extracellular enzyme activity on dead plant tissues typically have perennial mycelium, are cosmopolitan in distribution, and are unlikely to become problems even if established. The second group, the mycorrhizal/lichen group are highly specific in their relationships. The mycorrhizal fungus group have a potential for being introduced as mycorrhiza already established with the roots of ...


An Overview And Management Plan Of Iowa's Non-Native, Invasive, Terrestrial Forbs, Deborah Q. Lewis, Richard O. Pope Dec 2001

An Overview And Management Plan Of Iowa's Non-Native, Invasive, Terrestrial Forbs, Deborah Q. Lewis, Richard O. Pope

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Non-native, invasive forb species have been a problem in Iowa since the earliest decades of Iowa's European settlement. The history of studies of Iowa's invasive plants began with L. H. Pammel, and these studies continue to present. Three tables cite the occurrence of many of these species in the state, with Table 1 listing 93 non-native forbs reported by Pammel, Table 2 citing ten invasive forbs of natural areas, and Table 3 adding 38 observed or potential aggressive species of Iowa's anthropogenic and natural areas.

There has been a divergence of interest and research in the management ...


More Than A Century Of Change In The Ames, Iowa Flora (1859-2000), William R. Norris, Mark P. Widrlechner, Deborah Q. Lewis, Jimmie D. Thompson, Richard O. Pope Dec 2001

More Than A Century Of Change In The Ames, Iowa Flora (1859-2000), William R. Norris, Mark P. Widrlechner, Deborah Q. Lewis, Jimmie D. Thompson, Richard O. Pope

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

We compared two floras compiled in Ames, Iowa: (1) an "historic" flora based on two published floras (1871, 1890) and on 1450 herbarium voucher specimens of plants collected in Ames between 1859 and 1899, and (2) a "current" flora compiled by us during recent fieldwork (1990-2000). Our goals were to determine 1) long-term changes in composition (i.e., the proportion of native species) over time, 2) long-term changes in the abundance of individual plant species over time, and 3) the extent of gains and losses of native and non-native plant species. We found that the proportion of native species declined ...


Exotic And Invasive Woody Plant Species In Iowa, Donald R. Farrar Dec 2001

Exotic And Invasive Woody Plant Species In Iowa, Donald R. Farrar

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Seventy species and hybrids of exotic woody trees, shrubs, and vines have naturalized in Iowa. Nearly half of these species (31) have become invasive pests in parts of the state or have potential do so. Most of the seriously invasive species are spread by bird ingestion of whole fruits. Widespread dispersal by birds hinders eradication efforts and should be considered a trait indicative of potential invasiveness. The economic and ecological values of Iowa forests are seriously compromised by exotic invasive woody species, especially where forests recovering from cropland and pasture are dominated by exotic species. Thus, a simple measure of ...


Purple Loosestrife: History, Management, And Biological Control In Iowa, Amy P. Wiebe, John J. Obrycki Dec 2001

Purple Loosestrife: History, Management, And Biological Control In Iowa, Amy P. Wiebe, John J. Obrycki

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is an invasive plant species infesting wetlands in North America. Biodiversity and wetland habitat quality are reduced following purple loosestrife establishment. Several management tactics, including cultural, mechanical, and chemical controls, have had limited success in reducing the spread of purple loosestrife. Beginning in the 1990s, a biological control program has introduced several species of natural enemies from Europe that feed on purple loosestrife. Since 1994, Iowa State University has reared and released two species of beetles that feed on purple loosestrife, Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla. Biological control is one component of an integrated purple loosestrife ...


History And Development Of The Eurasian Watermilfoil Program In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips Dec 2001

History And Development Of The Eurasian Watermilfoil Program In Iowa, Gary S. Phillips

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Following a concerted effort by citizens of the Iowa Great Lakes area to address the threat posed by Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) to waterbodies in Iowa, the Iowa Eurasian Watermilfoil Law was passed in 1996 by the Iowa legislature. Passage of this law led to the establishment of the Eurasian Watermilfoil Program in July 1996 to address the requirements specified by this legislation. Since establishment of the Eurasian Watermilfoil Program, numerous activities have been carried out to address the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems by Eurasian watermilfoil. These include public awareness and education, boat access monitoring, aquatic vegetation monitoring ...


Invasive Birds In Iowa: Status, Problems, And Threats, James J. Dinsmore Dec 2001

Invasive Birds In Iowa: Status, Problems, And Threats, James J. Dinsmore

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A total of 18 invasive bird species has been introduced into or have expanded their range to include Iowa. These include ten non-North American species, one North American species that has been displaced and now is established in Iowa, and seven native species that have been released to reestablish Iowa populations. Twelve of those are regularly occurring species in Iowa, and they comprise 3.0% (12 of 404) of the species known from Iowa and 5% (10 of 199) of Iowa's nesting avifauna. These percentages are similar to those found in neighboring states. Several more species are likely to ...


Index For The Journal Of The Iowa Academy Of Science Volume 108 And Erratum Dec 2001

Index For The Journal Of The Iowa Academy Of Science Volume 108 And Erratum

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Dec 2001

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2001

Front Matter

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Tests Of A Rotenone-Impregnated Bait For Controlling Common Carp, Joseph L. Bonneau, Dennis L. Scarnecchia Jan 2001

Tests Of A Rotenone-Impregnated Bait For Controlling Common Carp, Joseph L. Bonneau, Dennis L. Scarnecchia

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

An experimental rotenone-impregnated pelleted (approximately 10 mg/pellet) bait was tested in force-feeding and field-feeding experiments as a method of control for common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Mortality rates of force-fed fish ranged from less than 40% when fed one pellet to 100% when fed more than 10 pellets. Mortality occurred within 48 h. Mortality rates of control fish did not exceed 10%. In reservoir feeding trials in 1994 and 1995, carp were fed for 2-3 weeks on a non-toxic, vegetable-based bait dispensed by automatic feeders, followed by one feeding of the bait with rotenone added. Carp ceased feeding on the ...


Factors Associated With Occurrence And Density Of Wetland Birds In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Steve E. Fairbairn, James J. Dinsmore Jan 2001

Factors Associated With Occurrence And Density Of Wetland Birds In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Steve E. Fairbairn, James J. Dinsmore

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Wetlands within wetland complexes in northwestern, north-central, and central Iowa were surveyed for bird use in 1997 and 1998. Species occurrence, species richness, and density of nesting species were related to wetland habitat variables. A habitat diversity index measuring the evenness of distribution of the different habitats within a wetland was the best predictor of species richness in both years. The habitat diversity index was also the best predictor of the occurrence of individual species in both 1997 and 1998. Eight of 11 species (7 3%) in 1997 and 13 of 18 species (72%) in 1998 had greater densities in ...


Species Specific Odds Of Occurrence Of Blackspot Among Fish From The Maple River In Western Iowa, John W. Mellen Jan 2001

Species Specific Odds Of Occurrence Of Blackspot Among Fish From The Maple River In Western Iowa, John W. Mellen

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Odds ratio analysis was used to evaluate the relative likelihood of occurrence of blackspot (Neascus pyriformil, Chandler) infections among 14 species of fish collected from the Maple River in Buena Vista and Ida Counties in western Iowa. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0% to 47.4% with a mean prevalence of 11.9%. The rank ordering of odds ratios of infection allowed the species to be categorized as those with risks greater than, less than, and not different from average risk to infection within the Maple River sample. The species with the largest odds ratio was the bluntnose minnow, (Pimephales notatus ...


Book Review: I Have A Weird Brother Who Digested A Fly, Jan Handler Jan 2001

Book Review: I Have A Weird Brother Who Digested A Fly, Jan Handler

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

I Have A Weird Brother Who Digested A Fly. Joan Holub. Illustrator, Patrick Girouard. 1999. Albert Whitman & Company, Morton Grove, IL. 21 pages. ISBN 0-8075-3506-0

You may never have been tempted to swallow a fly-nor even challenged to do so 'on a dare'-but there's a solid chance you've wondered about some of the mysteries of digestion. Joan Holub offers an engaging book to share with the young people in your life who may share an interest in the intrigues of human body processes.


Annual Meeting Of The Iowa Academy Of Science Jan 2001

Annual Meeting Of The Iowa Academy Of Science

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Lessons From An Inventory Of The Ames, Iowa, Flora (1859-2000), William R. Norris, Deborah Q. Lewis, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jimmie D. Thompson, Richard O. Pope Jan 2001

Lessons From An Inventory Of The Ames, Iowa, Flora (1859-2000), William R. Norris, Deborah Q. Lewis, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jimmie D. Thompson, Richard O. Pope

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A botanical survey of the vascular flora of the "planning and zoning jurisdiction" of the city of Ames, Iowa (i.e., the area within a boundary 3.2 km beyond the current city limits) was compiled from 1990 to 2000. During this survey, 916 taxa (71 % native) were encountered within chis boundary. Literature reviews and a survey of Iowa State University's Ada Hayden Herbarium for specimens that had been collected in Ames since 1859 add 204 taxa to the flora. This total of 1,120 taxa exceeds the number of taxa known from any comparable area (including counties) in ...


In Memoriam: George Knaphus, Lois H. Tiffany Jan 2001

In Memoriam: George Knaphus, Lois H. Tiffany

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

George Knaphus, 75, died Saturday, 20 May 2000, after a two year battle with lymphoma. He was born at McCallsburg, Iowa and resided on a farm near there except during his WWII service years and his undergraduate college years at UNI until moving to Ames in 1998. He graduated from McCallsburg High School in 1942, served in the U.S. Army from 1943-45 in the 112th Infantry 28th division in Europe, and fought in the Battle of the Bulge, receiving the Bronze Star. He graduated with a B.S. in education from Iowa State Teachers College in 1949, earning master ...


Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors Jan 2001

Editorial Board & Iowa Academy Of Science Officers And Directors

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Back Cover Jan 2001

Back Cover

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.