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2012

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Sndo Hector's Helpers Youth Engaging The Community Through Social Media: Annual Progress Report, Period Covering June 1, 2012 - December 31, 2012, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2012

Sndo Hector's Helpers Youth Engaging The Community Through Social Media: Annual Progress Report, Period Covering June 1, 2012 - December 31, 2012, Margaret N. Rees

Anti-littering Programs

The Hector’s Helpers Youth Engaging the Community through Social Media project was designed to develop civic and environmental stewardship skills as students receive training in administering social media accounts (e.g., Facebook, twitter, Youtube). The project is an extension of the Hector’s Helpers program developed through a cooperative agreement and run under the branding of Don’t Trash Nevada. Participants in the project are known as the Social Media Squad (SMS). The following activities were completed:

  • Supervision of youth completing the pilot program initiated in an earlier cooperative agreement
  • Recruitment of youth to apply for the Social Media ...


College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2012, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Dec 2012

College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2012, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas

Senior Projects (COE)

Senior Design Experience

Part of every UNLV engineering student's academic experience, the Senior Design project stimulates engineering innovation and entrepreneurship. Each student in their senior year chooses, plans, designs and prototypes a product in this required element of the curriculum. Working in teams, the senior design project encourages students to use everything learned in the engineering and computer design programs to create a practical, real world solution to an engineering challenge.

Beyond the classroom ...

Because of the requirement to work in teams, students also build good communication skills, presentation skills and even business writing skills. They also have to ...


Leading Transformational Change In A Large Urban School District, Leslie Jean Brinks Dec 2012

Leading Transformational Change In A Large Urban School District, Leslie Jean Brinks

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This abstract reflects the findings of the understanding of the skills necessary to lead transformative change in a non-affluent neighborhood in a large urban district. Current research and understandings of transformative leadership has been limited to traits and organizational concepts rather than the work associated with transforming schools. Studies seldom addressed if leaders even valued the actions central to transformative work or if they have the capacity and expertise to do the task. The purpose of this study was to understand the kinds of knowledge, skills, and dispositions that support what is viewed as transformative leading. Additionally the inquiry probed ...


Understanding Adolescent Perceptions Of Science Education, Ellen Kress Ebert Dec 2012

Understanding Adolescent Perceptions Of Science Education, Ellen Kress Ebert

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study used the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) survey (Sjoberg & Schreiner, 2004) to examine topics of interest and perspectives of secondary science students in a large school district in the southwestern U.S. A situated learning perspective was used to frame the project. The research questions of this study focused on (a) perceptions students have about themselves and their science classroom and how these beliefs may influence their participation in the community of practice of science; (b) consideration of how a future science classroom where the curriculum is framed by the Next Generation Science Standards might foster students' beliefs and perceptions about science education and their legitimate peripheral participation in the community of practice of science; and (c) reflecting on their school science interests and perspectives, what can be inferred about students' identities as future scientists or STEM field professionals? Data were collected from 515 second year science students during a 4-week period in May of 2012 using a Web-based survey. Data were disaggregated by ...


The Retention And Success Of Alternatively Admitted Student Athletes: A Case Study Of The Unlv Athletic Department, Adrienne Ekas-Mueting Dec 2012

The Retention And Success Of Alternatively Admitted Student Athletes: A Case Study Of The Unlv Athletic Department, Adrienne Ekas-Mueting

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The aim of this exploratory study is to determine why student athletes admitted under University of Nevada, Las Vegas's (UNLV) alterative-admissions policy are successful, specifically by looking at the UNLV Athletic Department's institutional practices. Alternatively admitted athletes are the recipients of these practices. Although there is some research on the predictors of success for college-student athletes, the literature on alternatively admitted student-athlete success is negligible. This appears to be a specialty subgroup of students, and the institutional practices that contribute to their success should be identified and explored.

The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate and ...


Superintendent Leadership During Economic Austerity: A Multiple Case Study, Douglas Paul Finch Dec 2012

Superintendent Leadership During Economic Austerity: A Multiple Case Study, Douglas Paul Finch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In contrast with recent decades of economic growth and stability, today's education funding landscape appears to be entrenched in a pattern of diminishing financial resources that may persist for a number of years. This is occurring also amid unprecedented efforts by lawmakers and public officials to intervene in school reform work. School leaders, specifically superintendents of the public school districts, are expected to make difficult leadership decisions in cutting back and downsizing the district organization while still maintaining an innovative and positive environment in schools. The effective leader must be well informed of best practices in positively influencing critical ...


School Reform: Where Does Policy Come From? Where Should It Go?, Kim Karman Friel Dec 2012

School Reform: Where Does Policy Come From? Where Should It Go?, Kim Karman Friel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Policy analysis helps to develop a greater understanding of societal problems and provide possible solutions for elected and non-elected government decision makers. Ultimately, the product of analysis is advice relating to public decisions and informed by social values. In light of the pressures placed on education by policy-makers concerning implementation of educational reform there are surprisingly few studies concerning the changing role of the federal government from a historical perspective. Looking at the past, with the present in mind, reminds us that the current shape of education was not inevitable.

This qualitative dissertation study analyzes the evolution of the intentions ...


Community Perspectives On Black Parent Engagement In West Las Vegas Before And After Desegregation: A Case Study, Tonia Faye Holmes-Sutton Dec 2012

Community Perspectives On Black Parent Engagement In West Las Vegas Before And After Desegregation: A Case Study, Tonia Faye Holmes-Sutton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

According to research on parent engagement in K-12 schools, disconnects often exist between parent involvement as defined by school leaders and the African American families and communities they serve (Delgado-Gaitan, 1991; Tillman, 2009). Unfortunately, these competing definitions and conceptions of parent involvement often result in school leaders and administrators perceiving that Black students do not achieve as well as their White peers because Black parents are not involved or engaged in the education of their children (Cooper, 2010; Cooper, 2009; Fields-Smith, 2005). This perception undermines the development of positive home-school relations between school leaders, educators, and Black parents, and in ...


Antecedent Influences: Factors That Guide African American Men To The Field Of Education, Michael James Maxwell Dec 2012

Antecedent Influences: Factors That Guide African American Men To The Field Of Education, Michael James Maxwell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Over the last four decades black men have become increasingly underrepresented in all aspects of the teaching profession. Identifying the factors that influence African American men to enter or avoid the education field can help increase the recruitment of black men into the field of education. The dearth of black men in our classrooms can be reduced by collecting data as to the reasons that influence their decisions about the education field.

This qualitative study examined the experiences and perspectives of African American men serving as classroom teachers to identify common factors that may influence African Americans, in general, to ...


Response To Intervention Data In Grade Retention Decisions: How Is It Used?, Cheryl Anne Mayfield Dec 2012

Response To Intervention Data In Grade Retention Decisions: How Is It Used?, Cheryl Anne Mayfield

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

For over 100 years, retention has been an intervention used with students who are not performing at expected levels. Despite the lack of evidence that retention is an effective means of improving academic outcomes, retention continues to be used today. Response to Intervention (RTI) is a strategy to provide support to struggling students in an effort to increase their academic performance, with the caveat that students who do not respond to interventions are candidates for special education evaluation. With RTI, data are generated. The impetus for the creation of the RTI model was its use for identifying students who may ...


Facing The Music: Student Power Relations In Student Leadership Within High School Band Programs, Curtis James Melton Dec 2012

Facing The Music: Student Power Relations In Student Leadership Within High School Band Programs, Curtis James Melton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Bullying among children in our nation's schools has gripped the nation's collective interest, leading to grief, anger, and inquisition. Recent headlines suggest that the public is asking why bullying is taking place among our youth, so much so that it is costing children their lives. Recent teen deaths have swept the airwaves and headlines in the last two to three years, and it appears to be a problem that is starting to become a national epidemic.

The purpose of this study was to examine bullying within student-sanctioned programs within a school, specifically, whether or not student leaders in ...


A Study Of District Leadership Practices In The Principal Professional Learning Community, Danielle Grace Miller Dec 2012

A Study Of District Leadership Practices In The Principal Professional Learning Community, Danielle Grace Miller

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This qualitative study was implemented in an urban, Title I school district in the southern portion of the United States. The problem the study addressed was that the various phenomena pertaining to the implementation of the principal professional learning community (PPLC), as perceived by the 14 participating elementary school principals, had not been examined to determine their influence. Qualitative data were acquired from the principals through personal interviews.

Findings suggested that, with the regular opportunities for principals to share ideas and thoughts with their colleagues, PPLC participants perceived improved performance involving (a) the attributes of high skillfulness and high participation ...


Division I Student-Athlete Degree Choice Assessment, Tony Terrell Dec 2012

Division I Student-Athlete Degree Choice Assessment, Tony Terrell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Though the NCAA has established rules that require student-athletes to complete their college degree in an expeditious manner, the 40/60/80% rule may impinge on student-athlete academic decisions (i.e., degree choice).Yet limited empirical data exist regarding the nature and prevalence of student-athlete degree impingement. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Student-Athlete Degree Choice Questionnaire (SA-DCQ). The SA-DCQ assesses factors that influence Division I student-athletes' degree choice. An initial 40 item, 4 component SA-DCQ instrument was piloted with 170 Division I student-athletes. In order to develop scales, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted ...


Examining Competencies For The Human Resources Professional Within Idaho State Government, Cecil R. Torres Jr Dec 2012

Examining Competencies For The Human Resources Professional Within Idaho State Government, Cecil R. Torres Jr

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examines the vital competencies of the Human Resource (HR) professional within Idaho state government. Through the lens of comparability and factor analysis, the competencies examined in this study utilize the Human Resource Competency Survey (HRCS) study framework as a basis for study. Since the HRCS model was primarily designed for the private sector, this study examines these study findings in light of public services on a state government level.

This study establishes a competency model that the human resource professional in state level government can use in various facets related to their individual performance, training and development, recruitment ...


Education Interest Groups: The Influence Of Networks On Rulemaking And Policy In Public School Reform, Brian Curtis Myli Dec 2012

Education Interest Groups: The Influence Of Networks On Rulemaking And Policy In Public School Reform, Brian Curtis Myli

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A problem for educators and scholars is that there is little understanding of how the agendas of particular interest groups reflect the intent of federal agencies or lawmakers as education policies take shape during the rulemaking process. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether federal education policy is influenced by outside interest groups. The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the influence of interest groups during the informal stage of federal rulemaking in education policy. The research questions being examined include: 1) In what ways do different influence the rulemaking process in the development ...


School Leadership Readiness: Traditional Vs. Online Administrative Preparation, Jose Delfin Dec 2012

School Leadership Readiness: Traditional Vs. Online Administrative Preparation, Jose Delfin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

According to the National Center of Educational Statistics (2006-2007) report, 92% of two and four-year Title IV degree-granting postsecondary institutions offered distance education courses due to students' demand for flexible scheduling. That same report cited that 82% of those institutions were seeking to increase student enrollment via distance education. There is little empirical research that pertain to the topic of degrees earned through online, or hybrid methods that have any bearing on job preparedness for past, present, and future educational leadership candidates. For all concerned, online programs are here to stay. Arguably, online courses are fast becoming the norm rather ...


The Meaning Of The Lived Experience Of Nursing Faculty On A Dedicated Education Unit, Deborah Ann Demeester Dec 2012

The Meaning Of The Lived Experience Of Nursing Faculty On A Dedicated Education Unit, Deborah Ann Demeester

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In 2011, 58,327 qualified applicants were denied admission to U.S. baccalaureate programs due to an inadequate number of qualified faculty, insufficient clinical placement sites, and resource constraints. Nursing faculty leaders are being challenged to increase enrollment to address a projected worsening nursing shortage and to transform prelicensure nursing education to ensure that program graduates have the nursing skills and competencies to meet the health care needs of the population.

Collaborative educational partnerships offer promising strategies to diminish the nursing faculty shortage, educate more students, and provide stable, rich learning environments. The Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) model is one ...


Closing Up Shop: Meditations On The Departmental/Programmatic Elimination Experience, Susan Beth Donoff Dec 2012

Closing Up Shop: Meditations On The Departmental/Programmatic Elimination Experience, Susan Beth Donoff

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Departmental and programmatic eliminations represent a new paradigm in the history of American higher education. Hastened by a national economic recession and competing state funding priorities, public post-secondary institutions have turned to academic attrition as a solution to continuous budgetary shortfalls. As a means of addressing the lived experience of faculty members and department chairs, the following qualitative case study explores perceptions of implementing departmental and/or programmatic eliminations.

Utilizing uncertainty reduction theory as a conceptual framework, interviewed faculty in saved units experienced considerable strategic uncertainty, failing to understand why they had been selected for elimination. Guided by a college-wide ...


Factors Contributing To The Educational Success Of Single-Mother Welfare Recipients At An Urban Southwestern Community College: Case Studies Of Six Success Stories, Rhonda Rose Faul Dec 2012

Factors Contributing To The Educational Success Of Single-Mother Welfare Recipients At An Urban Southwestern Community College: Case Studies Of Six Success Stories, Rhonda Rose Faul

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study gave voice to the issues, needs, and concerns of economically disadvantaged single mothers and determined the motivational and institutional factors that helped lead them to their successful completion of a community college degree or certificate program while at the same time coping with the challenges of financially surviving on meager public welfare assistance, raising their children, and meeting welfare-mandated work activity requirements. While American society has a long tradition of regarding higher education as a means of achieving long-term financial security and self-sufficiency, current welfare policy unfortunately adds additional obstacles for welfare recipients who may be motivated to ...


A Historical Case Study Of School Desegregation And Resegregation In Las Vegas, Nevada, 1968-2008, Felicia Forletta Dec 2012

A Historical Case Study Of School Desegregation And Resegregation In Las Vegas, Nevada, 1968-2008, Felicia Forletta

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to document and examine the perspectives of members of a historically African American community located in Las Vegas, Nevada (historic West Las Vegas) concerning equal education and school desegregation and resegregation in the Clark County School District from 1968 to 2008. Using historical case study methods, this study sought to provide a historical description and analysis of the social, political, and cultural contexts that shaped decades of school desegregation and resegregation in this historically African American community. Data sources included: legal cases and court documents; archived news, newsletters, newspaper and magazine articles; (3) Clark ...


The Motivating Language Of Principals: A Sequential Transformative Strategy, William Tobias Holmes Dec 2012

The Motivating Language Of Principals: A Sequential Transformative Strategy, William Tobias Holmes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study implemented a Sequential Transformative Mixed Methods design with teachers (as recipients) and principals (to give voice) in the examination of principal talk in two different school accountability contexts (Continuously Improving and Continuously Zigzag) using the conceptual framework of Motivating Language Theory. In phase one, teachers were surveyed using the ML Toolbox. The survey was administered using the Dillman Tailored Design Method, and the return rate was 67.48%. The major findings that emerged were: (a) significant differences in Motivating Language (ML), Direction-Giving Language (DG), Empathetic Language (E), and Communication Competence (CC) variables between the Continuously Improving and Zigzag ...


The Leadership Orientations And Effectiveness Of College And University Career Services Directors, Jacob A. Livengood Dec 2012

The Leadership Orientations And Effectiveness Of College And University Career Services Directors, Jacob A. Livengood

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Career service directors lead the third most common division within student affairs departments, but the leadership of a collegiate career services office has not been represented in higher education research. Obtaining a "good job" has consistently been noted as a main reason to attend college (Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Santos & Korn, 2007). The rising costs of higher education have also yielded the question, "What can college do for me?" financially and with future career opportunities (Baum & Payea, 2005; Moretti, 2004; Pryor, Hurtado, Saenz, Santos & Korn, 2007; Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009). The functions of career services staff are at the center of addressing these expectations.

This nationwide study examined the leadership orientations and effectiveness of college and university career service directors by obtaining responses from: (1) the Bolman and ...


A Case Study Using Principal-Agent Theory To Explore How A Public, Four Year University Interacts With A System Office, Annie Macias Dec 2012

A Case Study Using Principal-Agent Theory To Explore How A Public, Four Year University Interacts With A System Office, Annie Macias

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The focus of this research was to examine the funding relationship between a single public institution of higher education and its accompanying system office. Such a study is important in order to obtain insight into the relationship between a System Office and an institution, and thus how institutions carry out their fiscal responsibilities, not directly to the state but to the System Office they serve. The study provides insight into how the System Office communicates and transacts with an institution regarding financial allocations. Also important is whether that institution receives effective communication and whether the institution's perceived expectations are ...


Safety First -In Search Of Justice -School & Law Enforcement Agency Partnerships, Michael Anthony Pickett Dec 2012

Safety First -In Search Of Justice -School & Law Enforcement Agency Partnerships, Michael Anthony Pickett

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

ABSTRACT

Educational problems are many and varied. At-risk students, achievement gaps and poor student outcomes are hot topics that beg for improvement in equity across the board and stand in the way of achieving excellence. These educative, albeit, social justice issues are not new, but rather, are old problems revisited (Kaestle, 1983; Morrison, 2003). Additionally, the issue of violence in schools is also recognized as not only a social justice problem but also a public health problem (Mercy & O'Carroll, 1988) and is perhaps the most pressing societal issue related to children and youth today. "Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world...and the protection of children in schools is a constant challenge for societies around the world," (Rosiak, J., 2009, p.1). Violence in schools is a complex issue: student's assault teachers, strangers harm children, students hurt each other, and any one of the parties may come to school already damaged or violated. The kind of violence an individual encounters is widespread, "theft, bullying, drugs, and weapons in school" (Dinkes, R., Kemp, J., Baum K., Snyder, T., 2009 p.3) including rape and murder. School professionals, parents, and citizens alike are alarmed by the apparent level of violent acts that plague our school communities.

The notion that schools should be safe havens is a concept that has found support in law throughout the history of public schools. For teachers to teach and children to learn, there must be a safe and inviting learning environment. Students and school personnel need a secure environment, free from the danger and threat of violence and harm, drug use, and lack of discipline, in order to ensure that all children achieve to their full potential.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that focused on ensuring such a safe haven for school children; the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's School Violence Initiative. The program evaluation methodology used both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate ...


Comparing Division Ia Scholarship And Non-Scholarship Student-Athletes: A Discriminant Analysis Of Academic Performance, Lisa Melanie Rubin Dec 2012

Comparing Division Ia Scholarship And Non-Scholarship Student-Athletes: A Discriminant Analysis Of Academic Performance, Lisa Melanie Rubin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Many research studies have examined the academic performance and graduation rates of college student-athletes. The limited focus on scholarship student-athletes has overlooked the majority of NCAA student-athletes, those participating in collegiate athletic programs without athletic scholarships. Therefore, this study contributes to a gap in the literature about non-scholarship student-athletes. The following dissertation examined the academic performance, time-to-degree, and demographic and profile characteristics of Division IA scholarship and non-scholarship student-athletes. The theoretical framework for this study was work motivation viewing athletic scholarships as extrinsic rewards. The researcher applied descriptive discriminant analysis utilizing secondary data to compare scholarship and non-scholarship student-athletes across ...


An Exploration Of Contextual Factors That May Influence The Expulsion Rates Of Middle School Students, Tracy Schroeder Dec 2012

An Exploration Of Contextual Factors That May Influence The Expulsion Rates Of Middle School Students, Tracy Schroeder

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

On March 6, 2012, the New York Times released an article in the education section describing a study by the Department of Education Office of Civil Rights. The study showed that the education system continues to create inequities for minority students. In particular, according to the Office of Civil Rights, Black students made up 18% of the sample size, yet 35% were suspended once and 39% were expelled (U.S. Department of Education, 2012). In a review of the literature, the statistics of the discipline inequities that minorities face became a recurring theme. However, very little research explored other factors ...


Innovators And Laggards? Faculty Adoption Of Online Distance Education, Thomas Tailor Scott Dec 2012

Innovators And Laggards? Faculty Adoption Of Online Distance Education, Thomas Tailor Scott

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Over the past decade, institutions of higher education have seen enrollments in distance education, especially in the form of online learning, proliferate in striking numbers. In fact, some traditional colleges and universities are only experiencing real institutional growth in the areas of online learning. Even though a major push to increase the availability of distance education technology has occurred, effective adoption has not always followed suit. In hopes of speeding up the diffusion process, many colleges and universities have begun to contemplate the increased integration and institutional adoption of online learning. One of the most critical factors administrators must consider ...


Comparing Public And Private Institutions That Have And Have Not Implemented Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp) Systems: A Resource Dependence Perspective, Geetha Rathna Sendhil Dec 2012

Comparing Public And Private Institutions That Have And Have Not Implemented Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp) Systems: A Resource Dependence Perspective, Geetha Rathna Sendhil

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this national study was to utilize quantitative methods to examine institutional characteristics, financial resource variables, personnel variables, and customer variables of public and private institutions that have and have not implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, from a resource dependence perspective. Resources were examined within the context of resource dependency theory as it relates to organizations seeking to manage their environments by: using strategies to enhance their autonomy and pursue their organizational interests; acquiring, maintaining and controlling critical resources from the environment, and understanding that social context matters in the relationship between organizations and their external environment ...


Credentialing Success In Respiratory Therapy Education: Revisiting Bourdieu's Concepts Of Field And Capital, Karen Lightbody Shaw Dec 2012

Credentialing Success In Respiratory Therapy Education: Revisiting Bourdieu's Concepts Of Field And Capital, Karen Lightbody Shaw

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The field of Respiratory Therapy (RT) is expected to experience a workforce shortfall over the next decade. The numbers of both program applicants and graduates have declined in recent years, necessitating strategies to improve board exam pass rates for future graduates. In response to the pending employment crisis, the Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care has published Programmatic Outcomes Data detailing individual program statistics. A theoretical framework adapted from Pierre Bourdieu's Concepts of Field and Capital was proposed to explain a possible re-stratification of RT programs. It states, in part, that a modification of position-takings within the RT educational ...


Exploring The Relationship Between First Year First Generation College Students And Their Parents, Jerica L. Turek Dec 2012

Exploring The Relationship Between First Year First Generation College Students And Their Parents, Jerica L. Turek

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The first year of college is one that is crucial for all students entering higher education due to the major transition issues that must be successfully navigated in order to persist to the sophomore year. Parental support has been shown to have a positive effect during this transition by providing positive coping mechanisms and allowing children to develop higher level of autonomy. The level of parental support is at a high level for members of the Millennial Generation, which is characterized by a close parent-child relationship, as well as a high level of parental involvement in the education process. While ...