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Full-Text Articles in Education

Developing A Learning Object Metadata Application Profile Based On Lom Suitable For Australian Higher Education Context, Shirley Agostinho, Sue Bennett, Lori Lockyer, Barry Harper Jan 2004

Developing A Learning Object Metadata Application Profile Based On Lom Suitable For Australian Higher Education Context, Shirley Agostinho, Sue Bennett, Lori Lockyer, Barry Harper

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper reports recent work in developing of structures and processes that support university teachers and instructional designers incorporating learning objects into higher education focused learning designs. The aim of the project is to develop a framework to guide the design and implementation of high quality learning experiences. This framework is premised on the proposition that learning objects are resources that can be incorporated within a learning design. The learning design serves as the pedagogical model that drives the development. The first phase of the project required an analysis of metadata schemas by which learning objects could be described, to ...


The Effective Provision Of Pre-School Education (Eppe) Project: Findings From Pre-School To End Of Key Stage 1, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart Jan 2004

The Effective Provision Of Pre-School Education (Eppe) Project: Findings From Pre-School To End Of Key Stage 1, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This research brief describes the effects of education in the pre-school period (ages 3 and 4) as measured at primary school entry (rising 5) and in Years 1 and 2 (ages 6 and 7).


The Effective Provision Of Pre-School Education (Eppe) Project: Findings From The Early Primary Years, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart Jan 2004

The Effective Provision Of Pre-School Education (Eppe) Project: Findings From The Early Primary Years, Kathy Sylva, Edward Melhuish, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This brief focuses on the main findings related to pre-school effects on children's development up to age 7.


Keeping The Faith: The Impact Of Human Services Restructuring On Catholic Social Welfare Services, Gail Winkworth, Peter J. Camilleri Jan 2004

Keeping The Faith: The Impact Of Human Services Restructuring On Catholic Social Welfare Services, Gail Winkworth, Peter J. Camilleri

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Church related agencies are major providers of community services in Australia (Lyons, 2001:34-35). While the history of church related welfare service provision is not well known in Australia it is asserted that many have a long tradition of outreach and service provision to marginalised groups regardless of the government social policy of the day (ACSWC, 2000; Mendes, 2003). This paper examines the current environment of human services restructuring and the impact of the shift to contractualism on one church related provider: Catholic social welfare provision in Australia. It explores the significance of the church's social teachings and history ...


A Matter Of Trust - Patient's Views On Decision-Making In Colorectal Cancer, Glenn P. Salkeld, Michael J. Solomon, Leonie Short, Phyllis N. Butow Jan 2004

A Matter Of Trust - Patient's Views On Decision-Making In Colorectal Cancer, Glenn P. Salkeld, Michael J. Solomon, Leonie Short, Phyllis N. Butow

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objectives: To determine which aspects of the treatment decision process, therapy and outcomes are most important to patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Design: Cross-sectional survey. Participants: A total of 102 men and 73 women who had completed primary treatment for CRC in two teaching hospitals in Central Sydney, Australia. Main outcomes measures: Patient's rating of the importance of the decision-making aspects and outcomes of treatment for CRC. Results: Trust in their surgeon and confidence of specialty training are of paramount importance to CRC patients. Patients also have a strong desire to get on with treatment quickly and rate the ...


Inclusion Of Cost Effectiveness In Licensing Requirements Of New Drugs: The Fourth Hurdle, R Taylor, M. Drummond, Glenn P. Salkeld, S Sullivan Jan 2004

Inclusion Of Cost Effectiveness In Licensing Requirements Of New Drugs: The Fourth Hurdle, R Taylor, M. Drummond, Glenn P. Salkeld, S Sullivan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Increasing numbers of countries are considering cost effectiveness in decisions about which drugs to make available for prescription. How do the different approaches work and is it time for standardisation?


Towards Understanding Sure Start Local Programmes: Summary Of Findings From The National Evaluation, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Alastair H. Leyland, Alice Mcleod, Jacky Saul, Alyson Ashton, Angela Anning, Zarrina Kurtz, Jane Tunstill, Mog Ball, Pamela Meadows, Jacqueline Barnes, Martin Frost, Beverley Botting Jan 2004

Towards Understanding Sure Start Local Programmes: Summary Of Findings From The National Evaluation, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Alastair H. Leyland, Alice Mcleod, Jacky Saul, Alyson Ashton, Angela Anning, Zarrina Kurtz, Jane Tunstill, Mog Ball, Pamela Meadows, Jacqueline Barnes, Martin Frost, Beverley Botting

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Sure Start is the Government's programme to support children, families and communities through the integration of early education, childcare, health and family support. Sure Start local programmes are one element of this, based in areas of disadvantage, whose aim is to improve the health and well being of young children under 4 and their families, so that children have a greater opportunity to flourish when they start school. The National Evaluation of Sure Start local programmes has now been in place for 3 years, during which a large amount of information has been collected and reported. This summary draws ...


Pre-School Experience And Social/Behavioural Development At The End Of Year 1 Of Primary School, Louise Quinn, Edward Melhuish, Karen Hanna, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart Jan 2004

Pre-School Experience And Social/Behavioural Development At The End Of Year 1 Of Primary School, Louise Quinn, Edward Melhuish, Karen Hanna, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This longitudinal study assesses the attainment and development of children followed between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Over 700 children were recruited to the study during 1998 and 1999 from 80 pre-school centres. Both qualitative and quantitative methods (including multilevel modelling) are used to explore the effects of pre-school experience on children's cognitive attainment and social/behavioural development at entry to school and any continuing effects on such outcomes up to 7 years of age. In addition to the effects of preschool experience, the study investigates the contribution to children's development of individual and family characteristics ...


Case Studies Of Early Years Settings, Louise Quinn, Karen Hanna, Edward Melhuish, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Gillian Donnelly Jan 2004

Case Studies Of Early Years Settings, Louise Quinn, Karen Hanna, Edward Melhuish, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Gillian Donnelly

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This longitudinal study assesses the attainment and development of children followed from the age of 3 until the end of Key Stage 1. Over 700 children were recruited to the study during 1998 and 1999 from 80 pre-school centres in Northern Ireland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to explore the effects of pre-school experience on children's cognitive attainment and social/behavioural development at entry to school and any continuing effects on such outcomes up to 8 years of age. In addition to the effects of pre-school experience, the study investigates the contribution to children's development of ...


Pre-School Experience And Social/Behavioural Development At The End Of Year 3 Of Primary School, Edward Melhuish, Karen Hanna, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Pam Sammons, Brenda Taggart Jan 2004

Pre-School Experience And Social/Behavioural Development At The End Of Year 3 Of Primary School, Edward Melhuish, Karen Hanna, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Pam Sammons, Brenda Taggart

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This longitudinal study assesses the attainment and development of children followed from the age of 3 until the end of Key Stage 1 (age 8). Over 700 children were recruited to the study during 1998 and 1999 from 80 pre-school centres in Northern Ireland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to explore the effects of pre-school experience on children's cognitive attainment and social/behavioural development at entry to school and any continuing effects on such outcomes up to 8 years of age. In addition to the effects of pre-school experience, the study investigates the contribution to children's ...


Path Integration Deficits During Linear Locomotion After Human Medial Temporal Lobectomy, John W. Philbeck, Marlene Behrmann, Lucien Levy, Samuel J. Potolicchio, Anthony J. Caputy Jan 2004

Path Integration Deficits During Linear Locomotion After Human Medial Temporal Lobectomy, John W. Philbeck, Marlene Behrmann, Lucien Levy, Samuel J. Potolicchio, Anthony J. Caputy

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Animal navigation studies have implicated structures in and around the hippocampal formation as crucial in performing path integration (a method of determining one's position by monitoring internally generated self-motion signals). Less is known about the role of these structures for human path integration. We tested path integration in patients who had undergone left or right medial temporal lobectomy as therapy for epilepsy. This procedure removed approximately 50% of the anterior portion of the hippocampus, as well as the amygdala and lateral temporal lobe. Participants attempted to walk without vision to a previously viewed target 2-6 m distant. Patients with ...


'I Don't Really Know, So It's A Guess': Women's Reasons For Breast Cancer Risk Estimation., Nancy Humpel, Sandra C. Jones Jan 2004

'I Don't Really Know, So It's A Guess': Women's Reasons For Breast Cancer Risk Estimation., Nancy Humpel, Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Women of all ages have been found to overestimate both the incidence and the mortality rate from breast cancer and the reasons for this are unclear. A qualitative study asked eighty three women (mean age = 44 years) how likely they thought they were to get breast cancer and to explain the reasoning behind their choice. Based on their responses, women's perceptions were categorised as: no risk (5%); reasonably accurate (30%); overestimated (22%); and greatly overestimated (43%). Four main themes emerged from the reasons given: 'Don't know/guess', 'family history' of breast cancer, 'age' related reasoning, and making their ...


From Theory To Practice: What Does The Metaphor Of Scaffolding Mean To Educators Today?, Irina Verenikina Jan 2004

From Theory To Practice: What Does The Metaphor Of Scaffolding Mean To Educators Today?, Irina Verenikina

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The current emphasis on rising educational standards in Australian society (eg A Commonwealth Government Quality Teacher Initiative, 2000) has stimulated a growing interest in Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory widely renowned for its profound understanding of teaching and learning. The metaphor of scaffolding commonly viewed as underpinned by socio-cultural theory and the zone of proximal development in particular, has become increasingly popular among educators in Australia (Hammond, 2002). Teachers find the metaphor appealing as it "offers what is lacking in much literature on education - an effective conceptual metaphor for the quality of teacher intervention in learning" (Hammond, 2002, p.2). However ...


Issues In Assessing The Validity Of Nutrient Data Obtained From A Food-Frequency Questionnaire: Folate And Vitamin B12 Examples, Victoria Flood, Wayne T. Smith, Karen L. Webb, Paul Mitchell Jan 2004

Issues In Assessing The Validity Of Nutrient Data Obtained From A Food-Frequency Questionnaire: Folate And Vitamin B12 Examples, Victoria Flood, Wayne T. Smith, Karen L. Webb, Paul Mitchell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To compare methods used to assess the validity of nutrient intake data obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using folate and vitamin B12 as nutrient examples.

Design: Cross-sectional sample from a population cohort.

Setting: Two postcode areas west of Sydney, Australia.

Subjects: In total, 2895 people aged 49 years and older provided dietary data using a semi-quantitative FFQ (79% of 3654 subjects examined). The validity of the FFQ was assessed against three 4-day weighed food records (WFRs) completed by 78 people (mean age 70 years).

Results: Folate and vitamin B12 validity data were assessed using different methods ...


The Relationship Between Education And Food Consumption In The 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey, Anthony Worsley, Roswitha Blasche, Kylie Ball, David Crawford Jan 2004

The Relationship Between Education And Food Consumption In The 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey, Anthony Worsley, Roswitha Blasche, Kylie Ball, David Crawford

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To assess the relationship between education and the intake of a variety of individual foods, as well as groups of foods, for Australian men and women in different age groups.

Design: Cross-sectional national survey of free-living men and women.

Subjects: A sample of 2501 men and 2739 women aged 18 years and over who completed the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 1995.

Methods: Information about the frequency of consumption of 88 food items was obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire in a nation-wide nutrition survey. Irregular and regular consumers of foods were identified according to whether they consumed individual foods less ...


The Ethics Of Pharmaceutical Industry Relationships With Medical Students, Wendy Rogers, Peter R. Mansfield, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Jon N. Jureidini Jan 2004

The Ethics Of Pharmaceutical Industry Relationships With Medical Students, Wendy Rogers, Peter R. Mansfield, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Jon N. Jureidini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

  • Little research has been done on the extent of the relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and medical students, and the effect on students of receiving gifts.

  • Potential harms to patients are documented elsewhere; we focus on potential harms to students.

  • Students who receive gifts may believe that they are receiving something for nothing, contributing to a sense of entitlement that is not in the best interests of their moral development as doctors.

  • Alternatively, students may be subject to recognised or unrecognised reciprocal obligations that potentially influence their decision making.

  • Medical educators have a duty of care to protect students from ...


Doctors' Views About The Importance Of Shared Values In Hiv Positive Patient Care: A Qualitative Study, A Lawlor, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2004

Doctors' Views About The Importance Of Shared Values In Hiv Positive Patient Care: A Qualitative Study, A Lawlor, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Robert Veatch has proposed a model of the doctor-patient relationship that has as its foundation the sharing of values between the doctor and the patient. This paper uses qualitative research conducted with six doctors involved in the long term, specialised care of HIV positive patients in South Australia to explore the practical application of Veatch's value sharing model in that setting. The research found that the doctors in this study linked "values" with sexual identity such that they defined value sharing, in part, as a shared set of values and beliefs about sexual identity and practices. They voluntarily identified ...


The National Evaluation Of Sure Start Local Programmes In England, Angela Anning, Mog Ball, Jacqueline Barnes, Jay Belsky, Beverley Botting, Martin Frost, Zarrina Kurtz, Alastair H. Leyland, Pamela Meadows, Edward Melhuish, Jane Tunstill Jan 2004

The National Evaluation Of Sure Start Local Programmes In England, Angela Anning, Mog Ball, Jacqueline Barnes, Jay Belsky, Beverley Botting, Martin Frost, Zarrina Kurtz, Alastair H. Leyland, Pamela Meadows, Edward Melhuish, Jane Tunstill

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In the latter part of the 20th century evidence was accumulating about the effectiveness of various intervention programmes for young children in disadvantaged families. Some small-scale interventions were evaluated by randomised control trials as in the case of the Abecedarian project (Ramey et al., 2000), the High/ Scope Perry Preschool Project (Schweinhart, Barnes, & Weikart, 1993) and evaluations of home visiting (e.g. Olds, 1997). Others were evaluated by quasi-experimental methods as with the large-scale Head Start project (e.g. Barnett, 1995; Kresh, 1998). Despite some weaknesses in the evidence for large-scale interventions, the accumulating evidence of the benefits of early intervention was very influential in the planning and launch of the Sure Start programme (Glass, 2003), now known as Sure Start local programmes.

Sure Start local programmes are ...


The Impact Of Sure Start Local Programmes On Child Development And Family Functioning: A Report On Preliminary Findings, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Alastair H. Leyland, Angela Anning, Zarrina Kurtz, Jane Tunstill, Mog Ball, Pamela Meadows, Jacqueline Barnes, Martin Frost, Beverley Botting Jan 2004

The Impact Of Sure Start Local Programmes On Child Development And Family Functioning: A Report On Preliminary Findings, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Alastair H. Leyland, Angela Anning, Zarrina Kurtz, Jane Tunstill, Mog Ball, Pamela Meadows, Jacqueline Barnes, Martin Frost, Beverley Botting

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

A principal goal of Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) is to enhance the functioning of children and families by improving services provided in the local programme areas. As a first step in assessing the impact of SSLPs on child and family functioning, the Impact module of the National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) is studying 9- and 36-month old children and their families in 150 SSLP areas and in 50 comparison communities (i.e. areas designated to become SSLP later). In 2003, home visits were carried out in more than 8000 families in the first 75 SSLP areas and 3000 ...


Pre-School Experience And Literacy And Numeracy Development At The End Of Year 2 Of Primary School, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Karen Hanna, Kathy Sylva, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Pam Sammons, Brenda Taggart Jan 2004

Pre-School Experience And Literacy And Numeracy Development At The End Of Year 2 Of Primary School, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Karen Hanna, Kathy Sylva, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Pam Sammons, Brenda Taggart

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This longitudinal study assesses the attainment and development of children followed from the age of 3 until the end of Key Stage 1 (age 8). Over 700 children were recruited to the study during 1998 and 1999 from 80 pre-school centres in Northern Ireland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to explore the effects of pre-school experience on children's cognitive attainment and social/behavioural development at entry to school and any continuing effects on such outcomes up to 8 years of age. In addition to the effects of pre-school experience, the study investigates the contribution to children's ...


Birth Parents And The Reunification Process: A Study Of The Mendocino County Model, Laura Frame, Amy Conley Wright, Jill Duerr Berrick Jan 2004

Birth Parents And The Reunification Process: A Study Of The Mendocino County Model, Laura Frame, Amy Conley Wright, Jill Duerr Berrick

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The purpose of this study is to closely examine key services offered by the Mendocino County Family Service Center (MCFSC), in order to better understand the change process for birth parents in the child welfare system, their service needs, and the potential usefulness of the MCFSC model in meeting those needs. In particular, the study sought to examine the role of the Intake and Empowerment groups, to identify the key components of the group interventions that appeared to facilitate a change process for birth parents; and give voice to the experience of birth parents with respect to this change process ...


Where Is The Story?: Intertextual Reflections On Literary Research And Practices In The Early School Years, Pauline Harris, Jillian Trezise, W N. Winser Jan 2004

Where Is The Story?: Intertextual Reflections On Literary Research And Practices In The Early School Years, Pauline Harris, Jillian Trezise, W N. Winser

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The authors gave the following talk at the 2003 NCTE Annual Convention in San Francisco upon receiving the Alan C. Purves Award, presented to the RTE article from the previous year's volume judged most likely to have an impact on classroom practice. Writing as lead author, Pauline Harris traces the history of her interest in children's intertextuality through her life as a classroom teacher, her doctoral studies in the Bay Area, and her recent work with colleagues Jillian Trezise and W. N. Winser in Australia. As they describe the impetus behind their award-winning article and suggest directions for ...


Holding Environments: Creating Spaces To Support Children's Environmental Learning In The 21st Century, Karen Malone Jan 2004

Holding Environments: Creating Spaces To Support Children's Environmental Learning In The 21st Century, Karen Malone

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

For many children across the globe, whether in low or high income nations, growing up in the 21st century will mean living in overcrowded, unsafe and polluted environments which provide limited opportunity for natural play and environmental learning. Yet Agenda 21, the Habitat Agenda and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child all clearly articulate the importance of urban environments as the context for supporting children's sense of place, community identity and empathy with the natural world. I will argue in this paper that these attributes are all key drivers for supporting children in their role ...


Mapping The Catholic Social Services, Peter J. Camilleri, Gail Winkworth Jan 2004

Mapping The Catholic Social Services, Peter J. Camilleri, Gail Winkworth

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Faith based agencies are the major providers of social services in Australia (Lyons, 2001: 34-35). The Industries Commission into Charitable Institutions in 1995 was the first major review of the role of charities (most of which are faith-based) within the Australian social welfare system. The role of charities has always been of central importance to the social welfare system. In 1995 according to the Industry Commissions Report on Charitable Services, around 11,000 community social welfare organisations received government funding in Australia. The same report recognised that there were an unknown number of other organisations, which relied entirely on volunteers ...


User Control And Task Authenticity For Spatial Learning In 3d Environments, Barney Dalgarno, Barry Harper Jan 2004

User Control And Task Authenticity For Spatial Learning In 3d Environments, Barney Dalgarno, Barry Harper

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper describes two empirical studies which investigated the importance for spatial learning of view control and object manipulation within 3D environments. A 3D virtual chemistry laboratory was used as the research instrument. Subjects, who were university undergraduate students (34 in the first study and 80 in the second study), undertook tasks in the virtual laboratory and were tested on their spatial knowledge through written tests. The results of the study indicate that view control and object manipulation enhance spatial learning but only if the learner undertakes authentic tasks that require this learning. These results have implications for educational designers ...


Six Words Of Writing, Many Layers Of Significance : An Examination Of Writing As Social Practice In An Early Grade Classroom, Pauline Harris, Philip Fitzsimmons, Barbra Mckenzie Jan 2004

Six Words Of Writing, Many Layers Of Significance : An Examination Of Writing As Social Practice In An Early Grade Classroom, Pauline Harris, Philip Fitzsimmons, Barbra Mckenzie

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper explores a six-year-old child's text that he wrote at school. We explore this text in order to demonstrate how even a simple text embodies many complex aspects of writing. These aspects include how writers represent texts, compose meaning, achieve social purposes, and position readers. We more deeply examine these aspects of writing practices in terms of contexts of situation and culture in which a child writes. In this examination, we consider how a child's experiences, predispositions and resources form a significant part of their classroom writing context.


Temporal Requirements For Configuration, Switch, And Shape-Change Detection In Novel Objects, Simone Favelle, Stephen Palmisano Jan 2004

Temporal Requirements For Configuration, Switch, And Shape-Change Detection In Novel Objects, Simone Favelle, Stephen Palmisano

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 27th European Conference on Visual Perception, 22-26 August 2004, Budapest, Hungary


Accelerating Self-Motion Displays Produce The Most Compelling Vection, Stephen Palmisano, F Pekin, Simone Favelle Jan 2004

Accelerating Self-Motion Displays Produce The Most Compelling Vection, Stephen Palmisano, F Pekin, Simone Favelle

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 27th European Conference on Visual Perception, 22-26 August 2004, Budapest, Hungary


What Is The Role Of Theory In Health Behavior Change Interventions?, Simone A. French, Anthony Worsley Jan 2004

What Is The Role Of Theory In Health Behavior Change Interventions?, Simone A. French, Anthony Worsley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Editorial


Consumption Of Foods By Young Children With Diagnosed Campylobacter Infection - A Pilot Case-Control Study, Scott Cameron, Karin Ried, Anthony Worsley, David Topping Jan 2004

Consumption Of Foods By Young Children With Diagnosed Campylobacter Infection - A Pilot Case-Control Study, Scott Cameron, Karin Ried, Anthony Worsley, David Topping

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To determine whether parentally reported habitual intake of specific foods differed between children with diagnosed Campylobacter jejuni infection and children of a comparison group without diagnosed infection.

Design, setting and subjects: Information was collected from the parents or primary caregivers of South Australian children aged 1–5 years with diagnosed C. jejuni (cases, n=172) and an age- and gender-matched group of uninfected children (controls, n=173). Frequency of consumption of 106 food and drink items was determined for the preceding two months by food-frequency questionnaire. Four children in the control group had recorded diarrhoeal episodes during the assessment ...