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University of Northern Iowa

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Graduate Research Papers

1997

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Parent/Teacher Communication In A Middle School Setting, Christine Joan Bailey Jan 1997

Parent/Teacher Communication In A Middle School Setting, Christine Joan Bailey

Graduate Research Papers

This paper discusses the importance of parental involvement in a child's education. It examines the barriers that occur which prevent communication from taking place between parents and teachers. Effective communication strategies are presented to foster genuine interaction between families and schools. This paper explores the following question: How do effective middle school teachers create and maintain a positive working relationship with parents.

The purpose of this study is to: 1) research current literature to find different communication techniques being used by teachers, with an emphasis at the middle school level, and determine why parents and teachers communicate less often ...


Qualitative Assessment Of The Writing Process, Laura L. Behrends Jan 1997

Qualitative Assessment Of The Writing Process, Laura L. Behrends

Graduate Research Papers

A strong trend in the language arts is the emphasis placed on the involvement of-students in the language processes to extend their thinking and language abilities. Thus, their involvement needs to be described by qualitative means. Qualitative assessment is necessary in writing because there is a great deal that cannot be measured (Field, 1992). Assessment needs to be continuous and inseparable from instruction, therefore authentic (Tierney, Carter, & Desai, 1991; Valencia, 1990; Barclay & Breheny, 1994; Stone, 1995). Assessment must be an integral part of each day in order for teachers to plan instruction and communicate with parents and the students (Barclay & Breheny, 1994).


Personal Learning Preferences, Perceptions, And Multiple Intelligence Profiles : Affect On Educators' Attitudes About Computer Usage, Mary J. Dove Jan 1997

Personal Learning Preferences, Perceptions, And Multiple Intelligence Profiles : Affect On Educators' Attitudes About Computer Usage, Mary J. Dove

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' learning preferences, self-perceptions of multiple intelligence profiles, and attitudes toward computer usage, including the incorporation of computer technology into their classrooms. Data for this survey were obtained from a population of teaching and administrative faculty from a small, Midwest, rural public school district. Access and education that results in higher levels of experience were found to be critical variables, in agreement with professional literature to date. These factors, however, did appear to influence personal learning preferences in some instances and the multiple intelligence profiles provided valuable insight into ...


The Benefits Of Word Processing In Process Writing, Renee Cecile Leimer Cuvelier Jan 1997

The Benefits Of Word Processing In Process Writing, Renee Cecile Leimer Cuvelier

Graduate Research Papers

The word processor is a valuable writing tool that can have a notable impact on the writing process and on the social context for writing in today"s schools. The majority of the research on writing with a word processor has indicated the word processor does provide specific benefits for our students and may be used to develop skill in writing.

This review defines the process approach to writing, reviews the research on the benefits of using the word processor in process writing as well as the research which doesn't support its use, and discusses variables that affect the ...


Why It Is Important To Keep Recess In Schools, Mary Lou Mcgee Cushing Jan 1997

Why It Is Important To Keep Recess In Schools, Mary Lou Mcgee Cushing

Graduate Research Papers

Recess is a common part of most elementary school schedules yet its benefits are often not clearly articulated. As a result recess may be thought to be expendable from school curricula as school districts adjust already full schedules in an attempt to accommodate every necessary component.

This research review explores the relationship of recess to school schedules, time allotments, activities commonly observed at recess, and developmental (social, cognitive, and psychomotor) aspects of recess in schools. Also addressed are common criticisms of recess in schools.


Leading A Middle School Into The 21st Century : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Barry Jan 1997

Leading A Middle School Into The 21st Century : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Barry

Graduate Research Papers

It needs to be stressed that a middle school ought to be regarded as a general education school. This means that the curriculum should not be limited. "The middle school should deal with widely shared concerns of early adolescents and the world they live in, rather than the narrow interests of academic or vocational specialization." I strongly believe that every community has much to offer in regards to helping teach the youth of the community. A curriculum for a middle school needs to be developed around this thinking. "Teachers need to emphasize the strengths and interests of each student in ...


Total Quality Management : Administrative Applications In Higher Education, Samuel L. Barr Jan 1997

Total Quality Management : Administrative Applications In Higher Education, Samuel L. Barr

Graduate Research Papers

Total Quality Management (TQM) programs are designed to improve each customer's satisfaction with an institution's goods (education) and services (administration) through a systematic redefinition of institutional priorities and employee attitudes. How can an institution attempt such an extensive revamping of itself? The answer appears relatively simple, yet remains elusive to many. The answer is through the hands of its staff.

TQM models have been working their way into institutions of higher education for a number of years. As community colleges, public and private colleges, universities, and proprietary schools find themselves competing for a limited number of potential "clients ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, John Adam Barker Jr. Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, John Adam Barker Jr.

Graduate Research Papers

People have different goals, dreams and aspirations in life. Whereas some aspire to become doctors, lawyers and accountants, others long to serve as engineers, managers and politicians. One of my greatest missions in life is to serve as a school principal. The purpose of this paper is to share my beliefs, values, and vision on being a principal. Beginning with my experiences, it serves to highlight my vision, values, ethics, leadership style and technological plans I intend to implement.


Building And Implementing A Program Review For Gifted Education In An Urban School District, Anna Mae Bagby Jan 1997

Building And Implementing A Program Review For Gifted Education In An Urban School District, Anna Mae Bagby

Graduate Research Papers

In June of 1996, the Board of Education of the Waterloo School District, which is considered an urban school district, requested that all externally funded programs be reviewed. This included the Expanded Learning Program (ELP). The emphasis was to determine strengths and needs of ELP and the needs of gifted students in the regular classroom. A committee was formed, composed of ELP staff and parents of identified gifted students, who developed surveys which were sent to all ELP parents (K-12), all identified students, (K-12), and selected classroom teachers and specialists (K-8). Data were compiled and summarized according to (1) major ...


The Unit Letter : A Strategy For Reconciling Explicit Instruction And Whole Language, Lucy Butin Ashby Jan 1997

The Unit Letter : A Strategy For Reconciling Explicit Instruction And Whole Language, Lucy Butin Ashby

Graduate Research Papers

Though differences between whole language and explicit instruction theories and research may seem irreconcilable, a growing body of research advocates an integration of the two. Combining the meaning-filled and student-empowering environment of whole language with needs-based explicit instruction is the solution most highly recommended. The unit letter activity is a teaching strategy for elementary-aged students which blends explicit instruction and whole language approaches. The activity involves student interaction with a thematic-related letter. The activity's purposes are two-fold : to convey information related to a theme chosen by the students, and to provide an authentic context for learning and practicing reading ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Floyd Athay Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Floyd Athay

Graduate Research Papers

I believe in being a proactive administrator. I do not want to be recognized simply as the authority figure in the school that is rarely seen. My door will always be open, and I will be seen in the classrooms as well as throughout the school. I want to be active in the teaching process.

My first year as a principal will be a time for me to become familiar with the school environment. I will not make any major changes the first year unless I am forced to do so. I believe that this time should be spent becoming ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Anthony F. Dehl Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Anthony F. Dehl

Graduate Research Papers

The education system in the United States is changing rapidly. The role of teacher and administrators should also change. Opening the school to its community is one of the changes taking place, not just for physical use but also planning of the school's future. Part of this change should include more, and better training for our teachers. As part of this training, teachers need to develop technology skills to share with all students. Communication is an important part of this change as we become a globally competitive workforce. Planning for our future will take a cooperative action from members ...


Impact Of A Six-Trait Character Education Program On Sixth-Grade Students' Perceived Attitudes And Behaviors, Cindy S. Baumgartner Jan 1997

Impact Of A Six-Trait Character Education Program On Sixth-Grade Students' Perceived Attitudes And Behaviors, Cindy S. Baumgartner

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a pilot character education program, called BOOMERANG, on students' reported attitudes and behaviors of six character constructs. The subjects consisted of 80 sixth-grade students enrolled in a small Midwestern town during the 1995-96 school year who were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group.

The intervention consisted of a 16-week character education program led by trained high-school students for a weekly, 30-minute session, using a pilot character education curriculum designed by the researcher. The intervention program consisted of six character traits: (a) caring, (b) citizenship, (c ...


Understanding And Treating Selective Mutism In Children : A Guide For Counselors, Chelsea R. Carter Jan 1997

Understanding And Treating Selective Mutism In Children : A Guide For Counselors, Chelsea R. Carter

Graduate Research Papers

Selective mutism is a clinical disorder in which a child remains silent in chosen situations despite the ability for speech. Though there are cases of selective mutism in adults, the major population in which this disorder is diagnosed is in children. This paper will focus on these children who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of selective mutism.

There are three major theoretical schools of thought regarding selective mutism. The first deals with hostility and control; the second, anxiety and social phobia; and the third, family communication in regard to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. This paper explores ...


Math Problem Solving In The Classroom, Mary Jane Conrad Jan 1997

Math Problem Solving In The Classroom, Mary Jane Conrad

Graduate Research Papers

This paper describes the important aspects for teaching problem solving in mathematics. Problem solving was used to introduce the concepts as well as to practice them. This research paper discusses mathematical concepts and skills in a student-centered environment of a multi-aged first and second grade classroom in a parochial school and investigates the effects of the approach on students, teacher, and curriculum.

In many primary classrooms mathematics is taught in ways that fail to connect with young children's prior knowledge and ways of learning. The cumulative effect is such that students tend to do math procedures, rather than apply ...


Motivational Characteristics In Distance Education, Karis E. Collins Jan 1997

Motivational Characteristics In Distance Education, Karis E. Collins

Graduate Research Papers

This review of literature is about motivational characteristics of the distance education learner. Provided is a brief overview of literature in the areas of distance education, the adult learner, and motivation of the adult learner in a distance education setting.


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary/Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, James C. Cline Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary/Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, James C. Cline

Graduate Research Papers

I have decided to become a principal based primarily.on what I have observed during my high school years and while teaching. I have witnessed administrators who did not do a very good job, and I have also observed and worked for administrators who do a superb job. Qualities that I have noticed in good administrators include: being fair; consistent; punctual; honest; a listener; and seen by the students, faculty and community. These administrators are also very good in public relations. These seven traits of good administrators are some goals I am trying to develop as I become an administrator.


An Analysis Of Student Reaction To The Use Of Interactive Video And Hypermedia To Enhance Post-Secondary Biological Science Education, Paulette A. Church Jan 1997

An Analysis Of Student Reaction To The Use Of Interactive Video And Hypermedia To Enhance Post-Secondary Biological Science Education, Paulette A. Church

Graduate Research Papers

The perceived effect on student learning provided by interactive technology in the biological sciences has been studied on a small, private, two-year college campus. The first portion of the study was the perceived effectiveness of interactive video when used for class presentations for biological science majors. The second portion of the study evaluated five campus-produced interactive laserdisc tutorials designed for individual and group use for students taking a general introductory biology lab course.


Kindergarten Writing Program, Kimberly E. Dewulf Jan 1997

Kindergarten Writing Program, Kimberly E. Dewulf

Graduate Research Papers

In the kindergarten writing program, many experiences can help writing become an enjoyable experience for children. The learning environment can nurture pleasure in literature, an enthusiasm for reading and writing, and foster many opportunities to engage in the writing process. Some of the activities can be presented by the teacher while others can be initiated by the children.


Early Interventions In Learning To Read, Kathleen Duax Jan 1997

Early Interventions In Learning To Read, Kathleen Duax

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this literature review is to provide an insight into the world of creating readers; people who love to read and want to read. The review presents information about early interventions by parents and teachers that can increase a child's ability to learn to read. The intent is to help parents and teachers become more aware of the dimensions of literacy, to allow them to become more informed about literacy and the importance of early interventions, and to use this information in ways that can help children become readers.


Rationale For Using Group Therapy With Couples Affected By Domestic Violence, Joyce C. Fehr Jan 1997

Rationale For Using Group Therapy With Couples Affected By Domestic Violence, Joyce C. Fehr

Graduate Research Papers

This paper defines battering and batterers, highlights some of the treatment interventions already in place for batterers, and provides a rationale for using couples group therapy for those people who choose to remain in a relationship after there has been at least one incidence of domestic violence resulting in the arrest of one of the partners. The paper describes what this type of group format might look like, and takes a look at the criticisms of couples group therapy and the cautions associated with such a group. Finally, this paper summarizes the future direction of domestic violence treatment.


Two Treatment Approaches For Young Children With Autism : Common Ground?, Jodi Suzanne Bronson Jan 1997

Two Treatment Approaches For Young Children With Autism : Common Ground?, Jodi Suzanne Bronson

Graduate Research Papers

Students with autism display extreme difficulties with communication skills, social interactions, and often engage in restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior (DSM-IV, 1994 ). As a result of these behaviors, and the often comorbid mental retardation, students with autism have many complex educational needs.

This paper will provide a complete literature review of the historic development of autism, possible etiologies of autism, and current diagnostic criteria. In addition, specifically the literature regarding one current behavioral approach to intervention, the Lovaas Method, and one method of antecedent controlled intervention, the TEACCH model will be reviewed. Additionally, research on other successful interventions for ...


Using Institutional Financial Aid To Discount Tuition, Jon D. Buse Jan 1997

Using Institutional Financial Aid To Discount Tuition, Jon D. Buse

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to examine the increases in institutional spending for financial aid and to discuss the implications for colleges and universities. Specifically, it will examine how these increases have affected the way institutions award financial aid. The consequences of these changes are then discussed and a case study of a mid-sized, public university is presented to provide insight into the systems of awarding institutional aid. The discussion concludes with ideas for easing the need for institutions to commit such large amounts of money towards aid programs.


A Multiuniversity Internet Course Collaboration Using Case Methodology : The University Of Northern Iowa Experience, Richard Gorman Jan 1997

A Multiuniversity Internet Course Collaboration Using Case Methodology : The University Of Northern Iowa Experience, Richard Gorman

Graduate Research Papers

One professor at the University of Northern Iowa decided to use a unique approach to teach her section of Elementary Curriculum. While five or six sections were taught in the traditional manner, one section, taught by Dr. Bonnie Johnson, and assisted by Dr. Dale Johnson, used an Internet-based, case methodology approach. In the Johnson class, students addressed issues that are facing teachers today; using technology, and communicating with students and faculty on other campuses. To accomplish this, students participated in an Internet course collaboration centered at the University of Virginia.

In evaluating the Johnson course, three questions were addressed. They ...


Technology Training In Preservice Education Programs : A Review Of The Literature, Catherine A. Gersema Jan 1997

Technology Training In Preservice Education Programs : A Review Of The Literature, Catherine A. Gersema

Graduate Research Papers

Education is radically changing with the dawn of the information age, where the ability to access, analyze, and manipulate information is a basic survival skill. To become more technologically adept, elementary and secondary schools must provide technical training to their students. However, trained students are the result of trained professionals. Recognizing the burgeoning need to provide skilled professionals, institutions of teacher education are integrating educational technology programs in preservice education.

This review of the literature reports on technology implementation at teacher training institutions where educational technology is being infused into the preservice curriculum through adherence to guidelines from ISTE and ...


A Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Denise R. Aalderks Jan 1997

A Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Denise R. Aalderks

Graduate Research Papers

When I first entered the administration program, I remember thinking that when I finished classes, I would be prepared to become a successful administrator with the wealth of knowledge I had gained. As the time draws nearer, I see that experience, talking to other professionals, and the knowledge that has been afforded me, all balance out as guides for the near future. The knowledge I will have gained from this program will be only a part of my knowledge base. By this I mean, it is important that one does not see oneself as having all of the answers, but ...


Writing Portfolios In A First Grade Classroom, Lisa A. Friday Jan 1997

Writing Portfolios In A First Grade Classroom, Lisa A. Friday

Graduate Research Papers

Much attention has been given to the authentic assessment of children's involvement in the writing process. Such assessment entails descriptive, or qualitative techniques. One descriptive technique is portfolios. In developing portfolios, students can become actively involved in their own learning and in establishing goals for future learning. Thus, instruction can be more closely related to assessment.

How writing portfolios were implemented in a first grade classroom is discussed. Two reluctant writers were particularly focused on as they developed their writing portfolios. These children selected exhibits for their portfolios with support from their teacher. As they developed their collections, the ...


Integrating The Research Process In The Early Primary Curriculum, Laurie Jean Hazel Jan 1997

Integrating The Research Process In The Early Primary Curriculum, Laurie Jean Hazel

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this project was to design a developmentally appropriate curriculum that provides primary teachers with the rationale, planning, procedures, and guidance needed to incorporate research projects into their primary grade curriculum. This program is not limited to talented and gifted students; it is recommended for all students.

The literature review consists of profiling the work of teachers and authors in the field of education who incorporate research techniques into their teaching practice. The literature builds a foundation for the importance and benefits of research skills and projects for students of all ages and ability levels.

When primary students ...


Teachers' Positive And Negative Effects On Student Effort, Jeanne Turner Jan 1997

Teachers' Positive And Negative Effects On Student Effort, Jeanne Turner

Graduate Research Papers

This paper reviews the historical development of concepts regarding students' perceptions of achievement and self-efficacy, examines the literature on teachers' perspectives on ability and effort and the various teaching methods used to increase student achievement in the classroom, and evaluates the effects these methods actually have on student effort. The definition of student effort used in this paper is similar to Schlecty's (1994) definition of student "engagement," which is: a student's persistence in completing a task despite challenges and/or obstacles. This paper, however, will not focus on the related areas of gender bias, socioeconomic variances, and ethnic ...


Teaching Fractions Through The Multiple Intelligences, Lisa K. Freese Jan 1997

Teaching Fractions Through The Multiple Intelligences, Lisa K. Freese

Graduate Research Papers

Fractions are frequently used in daily life. However, many students have difficulty learning fraction concepts. In addition, some students begin the study of fractions with negative impressions.

The writer of this article uses Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences to address the difficulties students face in learning fraction concepts. Dr. Howard Gardner, the creator of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Ml Theory), believes that it is unfair to teach all students in the same way. Students need opportunities to solve relevant problems that are meaningful to their everyday lives. Rather than concentrating on singular viewpoints and exclusive answers when ...