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University of Northern Iowa

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Graduate Research Papers

1997

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Articles 31 - 60 of 65

Full-Text Articles in Education

Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computer Technology And Factors Influencing Their Attitudes And Adoption Of Computer Technology In Classroom Instruction : A Literature Review, Huiping Ding Jan 1997

Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computer Technology And Factors Influencing Their Attitudes And Adoption Of Computer Technology In Classroom Instruction : A Literature Review, Huiping Ding

Graduate Research Papers

With the introduction of computer literacy into curriculum, teachers' attitudes toward computer technology and computer adoption in the classroom teaching remain major concerns for educators. This paper is intended to review the literature on teachers' attitudes toward the use of computer technology as an instructional tool in classroom teaching and factors influencing their attitudes toward their use of computers. Their attitudes differ but are positive about teaching with computers if some barriers are overcome and some problems are solved, such as lack of training and accessibility.

The literature review reveals that teachers have concerns and anxieties concerning computer technology, its ...


Block Scheduling : Effects On The Visual Arts At The Secondary Level, Laura J. Angove Jan 1997

Block Scheduling : Effects On The Visual Arts At The Secondary Level, Laura J. Angove

Graduate Research Papers

As block scheduling sweeps the educational forefront in many American secondary schools, questions have been raised regarding the effect of "block" on the overall curriculum and the school's sense of community. Arts in general, and the visual arts in particular, have always been easy areas to cut in budgets due to downsizing and many art educators get fearful when they hear of a new educational trend coming to their school. How will block affect the stability and quality of visual art programs in schools once it has been implemented?

To explore this question, a survey was conducted of art ...


Meeting The Needs Of Gifted Students Through Teacher Inservicing, Amy M. Akers Jan 1997

Meeting The Needs Of Gifted Students Through Teacher Inservicing, Amy M. Akers

Graduate Research Papers

Inservicing classroom teachers in compacting, independent study, and mentoring may help them become more effective in meeting the instructional needs of talented and gifted students. It is easier for teachers to apply learning if it is easily applicable to their own classroom instruction, and if the learning seems manageable for the teacher. This project includes an inservice model that contains applicable teaching strategies and an inservice plan for teachers. Teaching talented and gifted students through appropriate teaching strategies and becoming aware of these students' needs in the classroom can assure that students are challenged to realize their full learning potential ...


Applying Student Development Theories To Intramural Sports Programming, Aaron L. Babcock Jan 1997

Applying Student Development Theories To Intramural Sports Programming, Aaron L. Babcock

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to examine student development as it is currently related to participation in intramural sports. Intramural sports are defined and a brief history discussed. Next, applying student development theories to intramurals will be examined as well as implications for student affairs administrators. Finally, recommendations will be made for administrators to increase the student development potential of intramural sports programs.


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Mary L. Boehmer Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Mary L. Boehmer

Graduate Research Papers

Administrators need to continue learning and growing to be effective. Technology, school laws and mandates, the students and community themselves are rapidly changing. Our society is always talking about school reform. Reform from what? To what?

Administrators need direction and vision. We cannot get where we want to go if we have no idea where we want to be. On our journey we cross the paths of many, many people. How we treat them and help with their needs will be remembered for a long time.

Our schools need to look ahead. The classes I have had have shown me ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Elizabeth M. Calhoun Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Elizabeth M. Calhoun

Graduate Research Papers

The principal is the first teacher of the school, the instructional leader of the learning place. He / she has the professional responsibility to bring into action a new form of leadership. The role of principal is essential for creating a school where learning is the center of student experience, and learning how to cause learning will be the central mission of the staff. The principal will need to create communication, decision making, and management approaches which make this kind of learning place possible. Hill (1992) said ''teachers must be selected who have a talent for leading professional peers and not ...


Understanding And Treating Selective Mutism In Children : A Guide For Counselors, Chelsea R. Carter Jan 1997

Understanding And Treating Selective Mutism In Children : A Guide For Counselors, Chelsea R. Carter

Graduate Research Papers

Selective mutism is a clinical disorder in which a child remains silent in chosen situations despite the ability for speech. Though there are cases of selective mutism in adults, the major population in which this disorder is diagnosed is in children. This paper will focus on these children who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of selective mutism.

There are three major theoretical schools of thought regarding selective mutism. The first deals with hostility and control; the second, anxiety and social phobia; and the third, family communication in regard to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. This paper explores ...


Motivational Characteristics In Distance Education, Karis E. Collins Jan 1997

Motivational Characteristics In Distance Education, Karis E. Collins

Graduate Research Papers

This review of literature is about motivational characteristics of the distance education learner. Provided is a brief overview of literature in the areas of distance education, the adult learner, and motivation of the adult learner in a distance education setting.


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary And Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Hiser Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary And Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Hiser

Graduate Research Papers

My views have changed greatly on the responsibilities of an administrator. The job is not as easy as I first thought. There are many demands placed upon a principal. A principal never knows what to expect and I think that is why the job is now more fascinating to me because it presents a challenge.

Gorton (1991) suggests that an administrator is a manager, instructional leader, disciplinarian, human relations facilitator, evaluator, and conflict mediator. I believe this to be true because a principal has to be more than just the disciplinarian and evaluator of the building.


Self-Monitoring : An Efficient And Effective Intervention For Academic And Behavioral Targets In The School, Stacy S. Huisinga Jan 1997

Self-Monitoring : An Efficient And Effective Intervention For Academic And Behavioral Targets In The School, Stacy S. Huisinga

Graduate Research Papers

This research paper will review current research concerning the use of self-monitoring as an intervention technique for academic and behavioral targets in the school. The history and theory will be described, as well as the elements and implementation of self-monitoring as an intervention technique. Classroom applications with academic and behavioral targets are reviewed, as well as caveats on the use of self-monitoring as a classroom intervention technique. Recommendations concerning the need for additional research on the applicability of self-monitoring as an intervention technique are also described.


The Role Of Phonemic Awareness In The Development Of Emergent Literacy, Cheryl M. Geurts Jan 1997

The Role Of Phonemic Awareness In The Development Of Emergent Literacy, Cheryl M. Geurts

Graduate Research Papers

Phonemic awareness is discussed as one possible prerequisite and predictor of later reading ability. The role of phonemic awareness in the development of emergent literacy is investigated through a thorough review of relevant literature. The usefulness of phonemic awareness as a predictor of later reading and spelling achievement is discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of phonemic awareness intervention is discussed. Suggestion for future research are presented.


Mental Health Services For The Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Laura Scheffert James Jan 1997

Mental Health Services For The Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Laura Scheffert James

Graduate Research Papers

In an effort to help increase the reader's understanding of the deaf and hard-of-hearing community, the author of this paper will attempt to describe and define this population. Specific mental health concerns of this population reviewed in the literature will be noted, and mental health needs of the population will be identified. Ethical and legal considerations found in the literature will be reviewed. Characteristics of specialized training programs for counselors working with the deaf and hard-of-hearing will be discussed, and recommendations for the establishment of more effective, comprehensive, and specialized training programs for counselors working with deaf and hard-of-hearing ...


Rationale For Using Group Therapy With Couples Affected By Domestic Violence, Joyce C. Fehr Jan 1997

Rationale For Using Group Therapy With Couples Affected By Domestic Violence, Joyce C. Fehr

Graduate Research Papers

This paper defines battering and batterers, highlights some of the treatment interventions already in place for batterers, and provides a rationale for using couples group therapy for those people who choose to remain in a relationship after there has been at least one incidence of domestic violence resulting in the arrest of one of the partners. The paper describes what this type of group format might look like, and takes a look at the criticisms of couples group therapy and the cautions associated with such a group. Finally, this paper summarizes the future direction of domestic violence treatment.


A Comprehensive Review Of Treatment Options For Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Kristin Vanderah Jan 1997

A Comprehensive Review Of Treatment Options For Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Kristin Vanderah

Graduate Research Papers

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a disorder affecting between 3 and 5 percent of school-age children, manifests as a combination of three core skill deficits: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The deficits have been found to present children with many difficulties in both home and school settings. Thus, comprehensive treatment for individuals with ADHD is of paramount importance to their development and their academic and social experiences. The content of this paper is comprised of a review of the recent research that has been published regarding the three major theoretical orientations of ADHD interventions (pharmacological, behavioral, and multimodal treatment). All of ...


Teachers' Positive And Negative Effects On Student Effort, Jeanne Turner Jan 1997

Teachers' Positive And Negative Effects On Student Effort, Jeanne Turner

Graduate Research Papers

This paper reviews the historical development of concepts regarding students' perceptions of achievement and self-efficacy, examines the literature on teachers' perspectives on ability and effort and the various teaching methods used to increase student achievement in the classroom, and evaluates the effects these methods actually have on student effort. The definition of student effort used in this paper is similar to Schlecty's (1994) definition of student "engagement," which is: a student's persistence in completing a task despite challenges and/or obstacles. This paper, however, will not focus on the related areas of gender bias, socioeconomic variances, and ethnic ...


A Summary Of Assessment Strategies For A Multi-Age Classroom, Tamera Frost Jan 1997

A Summary Of Assessment Strategies For A Multi-Age Classroom, Tamera Frost

Graduate Research Papers

Many schools are implementing multi-age programs. This non-traditional teaching approach calls for methods of assessing students' learning that are consistent with the ways in which they are taught. The traditional methods of assessment require teachers to use the same assessment tool with every child. This is not consistent with the individualized approach to pedagogy that is fundamental in multi-age classrooms. Furthermore standardized assessment does not challenge some students, it frustrates other students, and does not provide the kinds of information needed for formative evaluation.

The author of this project has developed a summary of assessment tools to implement in eight-to ...


Choosing An Effective Kindergarten Program : Comparing Full-Day And Half-Day Schedules, Lori A. Frost Jan 1997

Choosing An Effective Kindergarten Program : Comparing Full-Day And Half-Day Schedules, Lori A. Frost

Graduate Research Papers

Due to changes in American society and education during the last twenty years the popularity of all-day, everyday kindergarten programs has grown. Among the many issues cited as reasons for implementing all-day kindergarten programs are ". . . a growing need for child care, the need for more opportunity for socialization among young children, and a demand for more academically challenging programs" (Rust, 1993, p. 8).

The "whole child" approach is what we strive for today. However, that focus has been compromised in some instances by placing financial, parental, or school needs ahead of what is best for kindergarten students.

The literature is ...


Writing A Defensible Personal Education Plan : Rationale And Design, Mary Kay Desenberg Johnson Jan 1997

Writing A Defensible Personal Education Plan : Rationale And Design, Mary Kay Desenberg Johnson

Graduate Research Papers

Iowa requires documentation of qualitatively differentiated curriculum for identified talented and gifted students by schools using allowable growth funding. In response to this directive, a local special education Individual Education Plan (IEP) documentation format was modified to a Personal Education Plan (PEP) format for gifted learners.

Construction and refinement of the format continued over a seven year period. The use of the familiar IEP process seemed to afford credibility and was readily accepted by staff, parents, and administration. The PEP format held the program for gifted and talented to a high standard of accountability, and a six step model evolved ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Jean M. Johnson Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Jean M. Johnson

Graduate Research Papers

As a future school administrator, I have established what I feel are my personal beliefs or philosophies about how I might effectively minister or serve others. This reflective essay discusses two of those beliefs – the beliefs that effective communication, and the acquisition and utilization of organizational skills, are essential in any leadership role.


A Preferred Vision For Administering Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Joyce M. Bechtel Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Joyce M. Bechtel

Graduate Research Papers

The term instructional leader encompasses many aspects. The instructional portion includes the knowledge base, the master teacher, the evaluator, the mediator, and the communicator with parents, community and teachers. The leader portion includes the perceptive director, the goal directed visionary, and the organizer with enthusiasm and energy.

Teachers depend on the principal to assist them in gaining instructional skills and utilizing curricular material that is necessary to teach effectively. The principal should be their master teacher and evaluator. As an evaluator, a principal will confer with and provide feedback to the staff, and will evaluate the education programs.


Early Interventions In Learning To Read, Kathleen Duax Jan 1997

Early Interventions In Learning To Read, Kathleen Duax

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this literature review is to provide an insight into the world of creating readers; people who love to read and want to read. The review presents information about early interventions by parents and teachers that can increase a child's ability to learn to read. The intent is to help parents and teachers become more aware of the dimensions of literacy, to allow them to become more informed about literacy and the importance of early interventions, and to use this information in ways that can help children become readers.


Gender Differences In Science, David Harbaugh Jan 1997

Gender Differences In Science, David Harbaugh

Graduate Research Papers

This literature review examines the research that was available about the trends and the status of gender differences in science. The major factors identified by researchers and educators that contribute to this gender difference are discussed. Suggestions are presented which may minimize the gender differences and provide specific practices that can help improve the situation. The results of this review indicate that although a difference exists, there are ways that educators, parents, and students can make changes to decrease the difference.


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Kathleen F. Hartzler Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Kathleen F. Hartzler

Graduate Research Papers

As a future principal, there are four areas that I feel I will be doing the most work. Those four areas are: parental involvement, community involvement, leadership style and technology. The bottom line in all of this is student learning. We always ask, whether a teacher or administrator, what is best for children? I will reflect on leadership style, parent involvement, community involvement and technology all as part of improving our school system to achieve the best education our students can get.


Where Am I Going? Where Have I Been?, Teresa R. Coenen Jan 1997

Where Am I Going? Where Have I Been?, Teresa R. Coenen

Graduate Research Papers

The task of writing a reflective essay is to describe my educational philosophy and beliefs, how they were framed and formed, and how I hope to apply them in future applications. In order to understand my goals, one must first look at the path that has lead me to these goals. Before I can truly understand where I am going, I must first review where I have been. I have never – not even for one minute – regretted my decision to become an educator. In the last seven years, I have never wished to skip a single day of work. I ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary/Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, James C. Cline Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary/Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, James C. Cline

Graduate Research Papers

I have decided to become a principal based primarily.on what I have observed during my high school years and while teaching. I have witnessed administrators who did not do a very good job, and I have also observed and worked for administrators who do a superb job. Qualities that I have noticed in good administrators include: being fair; consistent; punctual; honest; a listener; and seen by the students, faculty and community. These administrators are also very good in public relations. These seven traits of good administrators are some goals I am trying to develop as I become an administrator.


Kindergarten Writing Program, Kimberly E. Dewulf Jan 1997

Kindergarten Writing Program, Kimberly E. Dewulf

Graduate Research Papers

In the kindergarten writing program, many experiences can help writing become an enjoyable experience for children. The learning environment can nurture pleasure in literature, an enthusiasm for reading and writing, and foster many opportunities to engage in the writing process. Some of the activities can be presented by the teacher while others can be initiated by the children.


Potential Technology Application In English Instruction In The People's Republic Of China, Ping Gao Jan 1997

Potential Technology Application In English Instruction In The People's Republic Of China, Ping Gao

Graduate Research Papers

The primary purpose of this paper is to present a vision of potential technology application as an effective teaching aid for English instruction in the People's Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China). In order to provide a clear picture of why technology should be applied in English teaching situations in China, major factors influencing the current English teaching methodologies – grammar translation and audiolingual method – have been analyzed. A theoretical analysis of modern Western teaching pedagogy, the communicative approach, has been explored to offer an in-depth understanding of foreign language learning and teaching processes. The close relationship of ...


A Multiuniversity Internet Course Collaboration Using Case Methodology : The University Of Northern Iowa Experience, Richard Gorman Jan 1997

A Multiuniversity Internet Course Collaboration Using Case Methodology : The University Of Northern Iowa Experience, Richard Gorman

Graduate Research Papers

One professor at the University of Northern Iowa decided to use a unique approach to teach her section of Elementary Curriculum. While five or six sections were taught in the traditional manner, one section, taught by Dr. Bonnie Johnson, and assisted by Dr. Dale Johnson, used an Internet-based, case methodology approach. In the Johnson class, students addressed issues that are facing teachers today; using technology, and communicating with students and faculty on other campuses. To accomplish this, students participated in an Internet course collaboration centered at the University of Virginia.

In evaluating the Johnson course, three questions were addressed. They ...


Invitations To Sing : A Home-School Literacy Partnership, Connie J. Gordon Jan 1997

Invitations To Sing : A Home-School Literacy Partnership, Connie J. Gordon

Graduate Research Papers

This paper focuses on fostering parent involvement in their children's school life, particularly the writing process. While acquiring literacy, children model behaviors of those around them, both at home and school. Schools need to build genuine partnerships that honor the voices of teachers, parents, and children.


Creating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, Sally M. Goodenbour Jan 1997

Creating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, Sally M. Goodenbour

Graduate Research Papers

Many teachers enter teaching situations in which the culture of the students is very different from their own. Human relations classes help to make one aware of the different cultures that may exist, but the classes often do not provide instruction on how to link the cultural situation to instructional practices. This project was designed to help preservice and practicing teachers become aware that our nation is becoming more diverse, to build their knowledge about multicultural education(including becoming familiar with the cultural background of their students}, and to understand that there are many instructional strategies that can assist in ...