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University of Northern Iowa

Graduate Research Papers

1997

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Talented And Gifted Programs In The Middle School : Critical Components, Patricia R. Kayser Jan 1997

Talented And Gifted Programs In The Middle School : Critical Components, Patricia R. Kayser

Graduate Research Papers

As middle school educators and teachers of the gifted and talented continue to debate issues such as equity vs. excellence, homogeneous vs. heterogeneous grouping, and cognitive vs. affective education, the needs of gifted and talented middle school students in the general education classroom appear to be ignored. This paper reviewed current literature relating to the needs of gifted and talented pre-adolescents in the middle school setting in order to determine what were the critical components necessary for meeting their unique needs in the general education classroom. From the reviewed literature, critical components identified include content differentiation, teaching strategies, grouping for ...


Two Treatment Approaches For Young Children With Autism : Common Ground?, Jodi Suzanne Bronson Jan 1997

Two Treatment Approaches For Young Children With Autism : Common Ground?, Jodi Suzanne Bronson

Graduate Research Papers

Students with autism display extreme difficulties with communication skills, social interactions, and often engage in restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior (DSM-IV, 1994 ). As a result of these behaviors, and the often comorbid mental retardation, students with autism have many complex educational needs.

This paper will provide a complete literature review of the historic development of autism, possible etiologies of autism, and current diagnostic criteria. In addition, specifically the literature regarding one current behavioral approach to intervention, the Lovaas Method, and one method of antecedent controlled intervention, the TEACCH model will be reviewed. Additionally, research on other successful interventions for ...


The Benefits Of Word Processing In Process Writing, Renee Cecile Leimer Cuvelier Jan 1997

The Benefits Of Word Processing In Process Writing, Renee Cecile Leimer Cuvelier

Graduate Research Papers

The word processor is a valuable writing tool that can have a notable impact on the writing process and on the social context for writing in today"s schools. The majority of the research on writing with a word processor has indicated the word processor does provide specific benefits for our students and may be used to develop skill in writing.

This review defines the process approach to writing, reviews the research on the benefits of using the word processor in process writing as well as the research which doesn't support its use, and discusses variables that affect the ...


Why It Is Important To Keep Recess In Schools, Mary Lou Mcgee Cushing Jan 1997

Why It Is Important To Keep Recess In Schools, Mary Lou Mcgee Cushing

Graduate Research Papers

Recess is a common part of most elementary school schedules yet its benefits are often not clearly articulated. As a result recess may be thought to be expendable from school curricula as school districts adjust already full schedules in an attempt to accommodate every necessary component.

This research review explores the relationship of recess to school schedules, time allotments, activities commonly observed at recess, and developmental (social, cognitive, and psychomotor) aspects of recess in schools. Also addressed are common criticisms of recess in schools.


Math Problem Solving In The Classroom, Mary Jane Conrad Jan 1997

Math Problem Solving In The Classroom, Mary Jane Conrad

Graduate Research Papers

This paper describes the important aspects for teaching problem solving in mathematics. Problem solving was used to introduce the concepts as well as to practice them. This research paper discusses mathematical concepts and skills in a student-centered environment of a multi-aged first and second grade classroom in a parochial school and investigates the effects of the approach on students, teacher, and curriculum.

In many primary classrooms mathematics is taught in ways that fail to connect with young children's prior knowledge and ways of learning. The cumulative effect is such that students tend to do math procedures, rather than apply ...


Kindergarten Writing Program, Kimberly E. Dewulf Jan 1997

Kindergarten Writing Program, Kimberly E. Dewulf

Graduate Research Papers

In the kindergarten writing program, many experiences can help writing become an enjoyable experience for children. The learning environment can nurture pleasure in literature, an enthusiasm for reading and writing, and foster many opportunities to engage in the writing process. Some of the activities can be presented by the teacher while others can be initiated by the children.


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary And Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Hiser Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary And Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Hiser

Graduate Research Papers

My views have changed greatly on the responsibilities of an administrator. The job is not as easy as I first thought. There are many demands placed upon a principal. A principal never knows what to expect and I think that is why the job is now more fascinating to me because it presents a challenge.

Gorton (1991) suggests that an administrator is a manager, instructional leader, disciplinarian, human relations facilitator, evaluator, and conflict mediator. I believe this to be true because a principal has to be more than just the disciplinarian and evaluator of the building.


Block Scheduling : Effects On The Visual Arts At The Secondary Level, Laura J. Angove Jan 1997

Block Scheduling : Effects On The Visual Arts At The Secondary Level, Laura J. Angove

Graduate Research Papers

As block scheduling sweeps the educational forefront in many American secondary schools, questions have been raised regarding the effect of "block" on the overall curriculum and the school's sense of community. Arts in general, and the visual arts in particular, have always been easy areas to cut in budgets due to downsizing and many art educators get fearful when they hear of a new educational trend coming to their school. How will block affect the stability and quality of visual art programs in schools once it has been implemented?

To explore this question, a survey was conducted of art ...


A Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Denise R. Aalderks Jan 1997

A Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Denise R. Aalderks

Graduate Research Papers

When I first entered the administration program, I remember thinking that when I finished classes, I would be prepared to become a successful administrator with the wealth of knowledge I had gained. As the time draws nearer, I see that experience, talking to other professionals, and the knowledge that has been afforded me, all balance out as guides for the near future. The knowledge I will have gained from this program will be only a part of my knowledge base. By this I mean, it is important that one does not see oneself as having all of the answers, but ...


Meeting The Needs Of Gifted Students Through Teacher Inservicing, Amy M. Akers Jan 1997

Meeting The Needs Of Gifted Students Through Teacher Inservicing, Amy M. Akers

Graduate Research Papers

Inservicing classroom teachers in compacting, independent study, and mentoring may help them become more effective in meeting the instructional needs of talented and gifted students. It is easier for teachers to apply learning if it is easily applicable to their own classroom instruction, and if the learning seems manageable for the teacher. This project includes an inservice model that contains applicable teaching strategies and an inservice plan for teachers. Teaching talented and gifted students through appropriate teaching strategies and becoming aware of these students' needs in the classroom can assure that students are challenged to realize their full learning potential ...


The Unit Letter : A Strategy For Reconciling Explicit Instruction And Whole Language, Lucy Butin Ashby Jan 1997

The Unit Letter : A Strategy For Reconciling Explicit Instruction And Whole Language, Lucy Butin Ashby

Graduate Research Papers

Though differences between whole language and explicit instruction theories and research may seem irreconcilable, a growing body of research advocates an integration of the two. Combining the meaning-filled and student-empowering environment of whole language with needs-based explicit instruction is the solution most highly recommended. The unit letter activity is a teaching strategy for elementary-aged students which blends explicit instruction and whole language approaches. The activity involves student interaction with a thematic-related letter. The activity's purposes are two-fold : to convey information related to a theme chosen by the students, and to provide an authentic context for learning and practicing reading ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Floyd Athay Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Floyd Athay

Graduate Research Papers

I believe in being a proactive administrator. I do not want to be recognized simply as the authority figure in the school that is rarely seen. My door will always be open, and I will be seen in the classrooms as well as throughout the school. I want to be active in the teaching process.

My first year as a principal will be a time for me to become familiar with the school environment. I will not make any major changes the first year unless I am forced to do so. I believe that this time should be spent becoming ...


Applying Student Development Theories To Intramural Sports Programming, Aaron L. Babcock Jan 1997

Applying Student Development Theories To Intramural Sports Programming, Aaron L. Babcock

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this paper is to examine student development as it is currently related to participation in intramural sports. Intramural sports are defined and a brief history discussed. Next, applying student development theories to intramurals will be examined as well as implications for student affairs administrators. Finally, recommendations will be made for administrators to increase the student development potential of intramural sports programs.


Building And Implementing A Program Review For Gifted Education In An Urban School District, Anna Mae Bagby Jan 1997

Building And Implementing A Program Review For Gifted Education In An Urban School District, Anna Mae Bagby

Graduate Research Papers

In June of 1996, the Board of Education of the Waterloo School District, which is considered an urban school district, requested that all externally funded programs be reviewed. This included the Expanded Learning Program (ELP). The emphasis was to determine strengths and needs of ELP and the needs of gifted students in the regular classroom. A committee was formed, composed of ELP staff and parents of identified gifted students, who developed surveys which were sent to all ELP parents (K-12), all identified students, (K-12), and selected classroom teachers and specialists (K-8). Data were compiled and summarized according to (1) major ...


Parent/Teacher Communication In A Middle School Setting, Christine Joan Bailey Jan 1997

Parent/Teacher Communication In A Middle School Setting, Christine Joan Bailey

Graduate Research Papers

This paper discusses the importance of parental involvement in a child's education. It examines the barriers that occur which prevent communication from taking place between parents and teachers. Effective communication strategies are presented to foster genuine interaction between families and schools. This paper explores the following question: How do effective middle school teachers create and maintain a positive working relationship with parents.

The purpose of this study is to: 1) research current literature to find different communication techniques being used by teachers, with an emphasis at the middle school level, and determine why parents and teachers communicate less often ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, John Adam Barker Jr. Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, John Adam Barker Jr.

Graduate Research Papers

People have different goals, dreams and aspirations in life. Whereas some aspire to become doctors, lawyers and accountants, others long to serve as engineers, managers and politicians. One of my greatest missions in life is to serve as a school principal. The purpose of this paper is to share my beliefs, values, and vision on being a principal. Beginning with my experiences, it serves to highlight my vision, values, ethics, leadership style and technological plans I intend to implement.


Leading A Middle School Into The 21st Century : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Barry Jan 1997

Leading A Middle School Into The 21st Century : A Reflective Essay, Jeffrey A. Barry

Graduate Research Papers

It needs to be stressed that a middle school ought to be regarded as a general education school. This means that the curriculum should not be limited. "The middle school should deal with widely shared concerns of early adolescents and the world they live in, rather than the narrow interests of academic or vocational specialization." I strongly believe that every community has much to offer in regards to helping teach the youth of the community. A curriculum for a middle school needs to be developed around this thinking. "Teachers need to emphasize the strengths and interests of each student in ...


Total Quality Management : Administrative Applications In Higher Education, Samuel L. Barr Jan 1997

Total Quality Management : Administrative Applications In Higher Education, Samuel L. Barr

Graduate Research Papers

Total Quality Management (TQM) programs are designed to improve each customer's satisfaction with an institution's goods (education) and services (administration) through a systematic redefinition of institutional priorities and employee attitudes. How can an institution attempt such an extensive revamping of itself? The answer appears relatively simple, yet remains elusive to many. The answer is through the hands of its staff.

TQM models have been working their way into institutions of higher education for a number of years. As community colleges, public and private colleges, universities, and proprietary schools find themselves competing for a limited number of potential "clients ...


Impact Of A Six-Trait Character Education Program On Sixth-Grade Students' Perceived Attitudes And Behaviors, Cindy S. Baumgartner Jan 1997

Impact Of A Six-Trait Character Education Program On Sixth-Grade Students' Perceived Attitudes And Behaviors, Cindy S. Baumgartner

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a pilot character education program, called BOOMERANG, on students' reported attitudes and behaviors of six character constructs. The subjects consisted of 80 sixth-grade students enrolled in a small Midwestern town during the 1995-96 school year who were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group.

The intervention consisted of a 16-week character education program led by trained high-school students for a weekly, 30-minute session, using a pilot character education curriculum designed by the researcher. The intervention program consisted of six character traits: (a) caring, (b) citizenship, (c ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Joyce M. Bechtel Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Joyce M. Bechtel

Graduate Research Papers

The term instructional leader encompasses many aspects. The instructional portion includes the knowledge base, the master teacher, the evaluator, the mediator, and the communicator with parents, community and teachers. The leader portion includes the perceptive director, the goal directed visionary, and the organizer with enthusiasm and energy.

Teachers depend on the principal to assist them in gaining instructional skills and utilizing curricular material that is necessary to teach effectively. The principal should be their master teacher and evaluator. As an evaluator, a principal will confer with and provide feedback to the staff, and will evaluate the education programs.


Full-Day Kindergarten : Issues And Planning For Implementation, Nancy Jo Bolick Jan 1997

Full-Day Kindergarten : Issues And Planning For Implementation, Nancy Jo Bolick

Graduate Research Papers

Many school districts have begun implementing full-day, every day kindergarten programs as opposed to half-day, every day programs or full-day, alternate day programs. This study focuses on the issues and concerns involved when making the transition from a half-day or alternate day kindergarten program to a developmentally appropriate full-day program. A brief history of kindergarten is presented and research is examined and reported upon concerning areas of financial considerations, classroom set-up, organization and maintenance, curriculum development, and parental involvement for full-day kindergartens.

A survey of parents and guardians of future kindergarten students in a small, rural, Midwest, parochial school system ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Mary L. Boehmer Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Mary L. Boehmer

Graduate Research Papers

Administrators need to continue learning and growing to be effective. Technology, school laws and mandates, the students and community themselves are rapidly changing. Our society is always talking about school reform. Reform from what? To what?

Administrators need direction and vision. We cannot get where we want to go if we have no idea where we want to be. On our journey we cross the paths of many, many people. How we treat them and help with their needs will be remembered for a long time.

Our schools need to look ahead. The classes I have had have shown me ...


Proponents And Opponents For Rewarding Children, Shelly Bromwich Jan 1997

Proponents And Opponents For Rewarding Children, Shelly Bromwich

Graduate Research Papers

This paper is a review of the literature concerning the types and uses of rewards. The primary focus of this paper was to look at opposing sides of whether rewarding children has benefits or whether there are problems with using rewards. Also, I looked at how children can be given credit for their efforts to accomplish their goals with using encouragement and natural and logical consequences.

As stated by Alfie Kohn, "A reward .. .is a desired object or event made conditional on having fulfilled some criterion" (Kohn, 1993, p. 53). There is a controversy today concerning the use of rewards ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Elizabeth M. Calhoun Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary Schools : A Reflective Essay, Elizabeth M. Calhoun

Graduate Research Papers

The principal is the first teacher of the school, the instructional leader of the learning place. He / she has the professional responsibility to bring into action a new form of leadership. The role of principal is essential for creating a school where learning is the center of student experience, and learning how to cause learning will be the central mission of the staff. The principal will need to create communication, decision making, and management approaches which make this kind of learning place possible. Hill (1992) said ''teachers must be selected who have a talent for leading professional peers and not ...


Understanding And Treating Selective Mutism In Children : A Guide For Counselors, Chelsea R. Carter Jan 1997

Understanding And Treating Selective Mutism In Children : A Guide For Counselors, Chelsea R. Carter

Graduate Research Papers

Selective mutism is a clinical disorder in which a child remains silent in chosen situations despite the ability for speech. Though there are cases of selective mutism in adults, the major population in which this disorder is diagnosed is in children. This paper will focus on these children who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of selective mutism.

There are three major theoretical schools of thought regarding selective mutism. The first deals with hostility and control; the second, anxiety and social phobia; and the third, family communication in regard to the onset and maintenance of this disorder. This paper explores ...


Childhood Physical Or Sexual Abuse As A Possible Indicator Of Subsequent Adult Anxiety Disorders, Lynn Merry Cornwell Jan 1997

Childhood Physical Or Sexual Abuse As A Possible Indicator Of Subsequent Adult Anxiety Disorders, Lynn Merry Cornwell

Graduate Research Papers

In recent years, there has been a growing acceptance that childhood physical and sexual abuse lead to higher rates of psychiatric morbidity in adulthood. Childhood abuse experiences have been reported to be highly prevalent among patients with anxiety disorders. Similarly, childhood incest victims have been found to suffer from a significantly higher rate of anxiety disorders in adulthood especially agoraphobia, than a non-victimized, matched comparison group. Epidemiology studies also support a relationship between childhood abuse and the subsequent development of anxiety disorders. Two separate community surveys found that childhood sexual victimization predicted the later onset of agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and ...


Motivational Characteristics In Distance Education, Karis E. Collins Jan 1997

Motivational Characteristics In Distance Education, Karis E. Collins

Graduate Research Papers

This review of literature is about motivational characteristics of the distance education learner. Provided is a brief overview of literature in the areas of distance education, the adult learner, and motivation of the adult learner in a distance education setting.


Where Am I Going? Where Have I Been?, Teresa R. Coenen Jan 1997

Where Am I Going? Where Have I Been?, Teresa R. Coenen

Graduate Research Papers

The task of writing a reflective essay is to describe my educational philosophy and beliefs, how they were framed and formed, and how I hope to apply them in future applications. In order to understand my goals, one must first look at the path that has lead me to these goals. Before I can truly understand where I am going, I must first review where I have been. I have never – not even for one minute – regretted my decision to become an educator. In the last seven years, I have never wished to skip a single day of work. I ...


A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary/Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, James C. Cline Jan 1997

A Preferred Vision For Administering Elementary/Secondary Schools : A Reflective Essay, James C. Cline

Graduate Research Papers

I have decided to become a principal based primarily.on what I have observed during my high school years and while teaching. I have witnessed administrators who did not do a very good job, and I have also observed and worked for administrators who do a superb job. Qualities that I have noticed in good administrators include: being fair; consistent; punctual; honest; a listener; and seen by the students, faculty and community. These administrators are also very good in public relations. These seven traits of good administrators are some goals I am trying to develop as I become an administrator.


Literature Based Social Studies Versus Textbook Based Social Studies, Kathrine Jean Kellogg Jan 1997

Literature Based Social Studies Versus Textbook Based Social Studies, Kathrine Jean Kellogg

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of literature based social studies versus textbook based social studies in mastery of information. Using a pre-test and a post-test, control group, experimental design, and a t-test for non-independent variables, it was found that the experimental group achieved higher test scores than the control group. Results of the t-test yield a t-value of 3.00 with 18 degrees of freedom with a .05 level of significance. This shows that the results are 95% certain that the differences between the two groups' performances on the post test are due to the ...