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Full-Text Articles in Education

Success In One High-Poverty, Urban Elementary School: A Case Study, Shavonna L. Holman Dec 2011

Success In One High-Poverty, Urban Elementary School: A Case Study, Shavonna L. Holman

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the efforts implemented in a high-poverty, urban elementary school in order to increase academic achievement. The central research question was:

1. How do teachers and administrators in a high-poverty, urban school describe the strategies they use to achieve academic success?

The sub-questions were:

  1. What are the aspects of the instructional program that assure student success for all students?
  2. What changes occurred in the school to achieve its current status?
  3. How have the changes been implemented to assure student success?
  4. What resources have been instrumental to achieve student success in the school ...


Enriching Science And Math Through Engineering, Adrienne Redmond, Julie Thomas, Karen High, Margaret Scott, Pat Jordan, Jean Dockers Dec 2011

Enriching Science And Math Through Engineering, Adrienne Redmond, Julie Thomas, Karen High, Margaret Scott, Pat Jordan, Jean Dockers

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This case study reviewed the collaborative efforts of university engineers, teacher educators, and middle school teachers to advance sixth- and seventh-grade students’ learning through a series of project-based engineering activities. This two-year project enriched regular school curricula by introducing real-world applications of science and mathematics concepts that expanded opportunities for creativity and problem-solving, introduced problem-based learning, and provided after-school programming (for girls only) led by engineering students from the local university. This engineering education initiative showed significant impact on students’ (1) confidence in science and mathematics; (2) effort toward science and mathematics; (3) awareness of engineering; and (4) interest in ...


Living Well: The Value Of Teaching Place, Catherine M. English Nov 2011

Living Well: The Value Of Teaching Place, Catherine M. English

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research: Department of English

This dissertation is a teaching memoir that examines the implementation of a place conscious pedagogy as a means to teach sustainable living practices into a secondary English classroom in a rural Nebraska school. It is framed upon the premise of instilling five senses of place consciousness into students as defined by Haas and Nachtigal (1998) including living well in community or a sense of belonging; living well spiritually or a sense of connection; living well economically or a sense of worth; living well politically or a sense of civic involvement; and living well ecologically or a sense of place. I ...


Schooling, National Affinity(Ies), And Transnational Students In Mexico, Edmund T. Hamann, Víctor Zúñiga Nov 2011

Schooling, National Affinity(Ies), And Transnational Students In Mexico, Edmund T. Hamann, Víctor Zúñiga

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

An examination of responses by 346 students from Nuevo León and Zacatecas, Mexico, who had previously attended schools in the United States, found that 37% asserted a hyphenated identity as "Mexican-American," while an additional 5% identified as "American." Put another way, 42% did not identify singularly as "Mexican." Those who insisted on a hyphenated identity were not a random segment of the larger sample, but rather had distinct profiles in terms of gender, time in the United States, and more. This chapter describes these students, broaches implications of their hyphenated identities for their schooling, and considers how this example may ...


Hyphenated Identities As A Challenge To Nation-State School Practice?, Edmund T. Hamann, William England Nov 2011

Hyphenated Identities As A Challenge To Nation-State School Practice?, Edmund T. Hamann, William England

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This chapter concludes the edited volume Hyphenated Identities and affords a chance to juxtapose how transnational students negotiate school and identity with how school systems in turn view such students, and then it allows the examination of two different strategies -- situational ethnicity versus the assertion of hyphenated identity -- as a glimpse into the cosmology of transnationally mobile students as they come into adulthood.


A Distance-Delivered Teacher Education Program For Rural Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Teacher Candidates, Gayla Lohfink, Amanda Morales, Gail Shroyer, Sally Yahnke, Cecilia Hernandez Oct 2011

A Distance-Delivered Teacher Education Program For Rural Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Teacher Candidates, Gayla Lohfink, Amanda Morales, Gail Shroyer, Sally Yahnke, Cecilia Hernandez

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This article describes a collaborative, distance-delivered, teacher preparation program for rural, culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) teacher candidates. Multiple institutions partnered with one university in order to diversify the teaching force in the region and meet the needs of CLD students living there. In describing the program's design and implementation phases, a focus on cultural responsiveness to the candidates ' needs, their rural settings, and high populations of Latino/a students in the rural areas in which they were trained is presented. Assessment of each implementation phase guided program practice for the participants ' training as effective teachers. Relevant discussion indicates ...


Family Income, Parent Education, And Perceived Constraints As Predictors Of Observed Program Quality And Parent Rated Program Quality, Julia C. Torquati, Helen Raikes, Catherine Huddleston-Casas, James A. Bovaird, Beatrice A. Harris Oct 2011

Family Income, Parent Education, And Perceived Constraints As Predictors Of Observed Program Quality And Parent Rated Program Quality, Julia C. Torquati, Helen Raikes, Catherine Huddleston-Casas, James A. Bovaird, Beatrice A. Harris

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families, and Schools

Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were received from 1313 parents whose children were enrolled in these programs. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that programs with higher proportions of low-income families tend to have lower observed quality than programs with a higher proportion of non-low-income families. Programs with more educated parents tended to have better observed ...


Delayed Beginnings, Jump Start? The Combined Effects On Early Literacy Of Age At Entry Into Kindergarten With Experiences Prior To Entry, Kathryn A. Wilson Aug 2011

Delayed Beginnings, Jump Start? The Combined Effects On Early Literacy Of Age At Entry Into Kindergarten With Experiences Prior To Entry, Kathryn A. Wilson

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

As the first compulsory grade in the elementary school program, kindergarten is designed to prepare students for the numbered grades. Students are eligible for entrance into kindergarten if they turn five before a state-determined cut-off date. These dates range from the June before the start of school until the January after. Because some states do not require that children attend kindergarten until 6, 7, or even 8 years old, some parents are delaying their child’s entry into the program on the assumption that their child will benefit from an extra year to grow cognitively, physically, and emotionally. The result ...


Changing Perceptions Of Science In Undergraduate Students: A Mixed Methods Case Study, Cindy S. Larson-Miller Aug 2011

Changing Perceptions Of Science In Undergraduate Students: A Mixed Methods Case Study, Cindy S. Larson-Miller

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

The purpose of this bounded single-case study was to explore the understanding of the nature and process of science for undergraduate students at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL). The study investigated one professor’s methodology to explicitly teach undergraduate students about the nature and process of science, and documented their understanding and perception of science, both pre- and post-course.

Using a mixed method approach, data were collected to provide a better understanding of teaching the nature and process of science. Three main types of data were analyzed: the process of science (TPOS) assessment; survey questions, and the module curriculum.

Participating ...


Exemplary High School Teacher's Utilization Of Web-Facilitated Instruction: A Multiple-Case Study, Tracy A. Platt Jul 2011

Exemplary High School Teacher's Utilization Of Web-Facilitated Instruction: A Multiple-Case Study, Tracy A. Platt

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

Technology and the web are becoming as necessary to the education of “digital natives” (Prensky, 2001) as the textbook. This qualitative multiple case study focused on the manner in which web-facilitated technologies influenced instruction through planning, preparation, and instructional practices of secondary teachers. Three high school teachers were selected as participants based on their administrator recommending them as an exemplary teacher utilizing web-facilitated technology. A multiple case qualitative design was employed where 8 to 9 observations occurred over a 2-month period. Observations were concluded by researcher journaled thoughts, feelings, and general impressions of what was observed. Post observation interviews queried ...


Use Of Cognitive Artifacts In Chemistry Learning, Ilker Yengin Jul 2011

Use Of Cognitive Artifacts In Chemistry Learning, Ilker Yengin

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

In everyday life, we interact with cognitive artifacts to receive and/or manipulate information so as to alter our thinking processes. CHEM/TEAC 869Q is a distance course that includes extensive explicit instruction in the use of a cognitive artifact. This study investigates issues related to the design of that online artifact. In order to understand design implications and how cognitive artifacts contribute to students’ thinking and learning, a qualitative research methodology was engaged that utilized think aloud sessions. Participants’ described constrained and structured cognitive models while using the artifact. The study also was informed by interviews and researcher's ...


Using The Communication In Science Inquiry Project Professional Development Model To Facilitate Learning Middle School Genetics Concepts, Dale R. Baker, Elizabeth B. Lewis, Sibel Uysal, Senay Purzer, Michael Lang, Perry Baker Jul 2011

Using The Communication In Science Inquiry Project Professional Development Model To Facilitate Learning Middle School Genetics Concepts, Dale R. Baker, Elizabeth B. Lewis, Sibel Uysal, Senay Purzer, Michael Lang, Perry Baker

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This study describes the effect of embedding content in the Communication in Inquiry Science Project professional development model for science and language arts teachers. The model uses four components of successful professional development (content focus, active learning, extended duration, participation by teams of teachers from the same school or grade level) and instructional strategies for inquiry, academic language development, written and oral discourse, and learning principles as components of science activities. Teachers were given a pre/ post-institute genetics assessment. There was a statistically significant increase in scores for the entire sample and a statistically significant difference between science and language ...


The Status Of Students With Special Needs In The Instrumental Musical Ensemble And The Effect Of Selected Educator And Institutional Variables On Rates Of Inclusion, Edward C. Hoffman Iii Jul 2011

The Status Of Students With Special Needs In The Instrumental Musical Ensemble And The Effect Of Selected Educator And Institutional Variables On Rates Of Inclusion, Edward C. Hoffman Iii

Student Research, Creative Activity, and Performance - School of Music

The purpose of this study was to describe the current status of students with special needs in the instrumental musical ensemble and to examine the effect of selected educator and institutional variables on rates of inclusion. An online survey was designed by the researcher and distributed electronically to 600 practicing K-12 instrumental music educators in the states of Idaho, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Rhode Island. While 13.6% of the total school-aged population nationwide received special education services, demographic data provided by respondents revealed that students with special needs accounted for 6.8% of all students participating in ...


Elementary Teachers’ Comprehension Of Flooding Through Inquiry-Based Professional Development And Use Of Self-Regulation Strategies, Elizabeth B. Lewis, Katrien J. Van Der Hoeven Kraft, Nievita Bueno Watts, Dale R. Baker, Meredith J. Wilson, Michael Lang Jul 2011

Elementary Teachers’ Comprehension Of Flooding Through Inquiry-Based Professional Development And Use Of Self-Regulation Strategies, Elizabeth B. Lewis, Katrien J. Van Der Hoeven Kraft, Nievita Bueno Watts, Dale R. Baker, Meredith J. Wilson, Michael Lang

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This study focuses on elementary teachers’ comprehension of flooding before and after inquiry-based professional development (PD). There was an improvement in teachers’ understanding toward a normative view from pre- to post-test (n = 17, mean gain = 4.3, SD = 3.27). Several misunderstandings and a general lack of knowledge about flooding emerged from the geoscience content two-tier pre-test, some of which persisted throughout the PD seminar while other responses provided evidence of teachers’ improved understanding. The concepts that teachers struggled with were also apparent upon examining teachers’ reflections upon their learning and teaching practices throughout the seminar. Teachers were challenged as ...


Personality Temperament's Influence On Instructional Strategy Type Selection By Nebraska And Iowa High School Band Directors In A Concert Band Setting, Matthew Herrick Jun 2011

Personality Temperament's Influence On Instructional Strategy Type Selection By Nebraska And Iowa High School Band Directors In A Concert Band Setting, Matthew Herrick

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

The field of education is constantly searching for techniques to efficiently select effective instructional strategies in order to differentiate instruction for students. Why do teachers select the types of instructional strategies they do to promote learning in the music classroom? Most teachers believe a mixture of educational goals, teacher experience, research, student ability, aptitude, interest, and learning style intuitively guide their strategy selection process (Tomlinson et al., 2003). One possible theory is that teachers' personalities are guiding the intuition that selects the instructional strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the high school band director's personality ...


Extensiveness And Perceptions Of Lecture Demonstrations In The High School Chemistry Classroom, Daniel S. Price Jun 2011

Extensiveness And Perceptions Of Lecture Demonstrations In The High School Chemistry Classroom, Daniel S. Price

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

While lecture demonstrations have been conducted in chemistry classrooms for hundreds of years, little research exists to document the frequency with which such demonstrations are employed or their effect on learners’ motivation and performance. A mixed-methods research study was performed, using quantitative and qualitative survey data, along with qualitative data from follow-up interviews and structured correspondence, to determine the extent to which lecture demonstrations are used in high school chemistry instruction, and the perceived effects of viewing such demonstrations on students’ performance on course assignments and on motivation to excel in current and future chemistry courses. Fifty-two randomly selected chemistry ...


A New 'Star' In The Firmament--Teaching Space And Telecoms Law As A Post-Graduate Ll.M. Programme, Frans G. Von Der Dunk Jun 2011

A New 'Star' In The Firmament--Teaching Space And Telecoms Law As A Post-Graduate Ll.M. Programme, Frans G. Von Der Dunk

Space, Cyber, and Telecommunications Law Program Faculty Publications

Contents

I. Congratulatory message to Professor Doo-Hwan Kim on his 77th anniversary

II. Teaching space law: the beginnings

III. Teaching space law: broadening the picture

IV. Teaching space law and telecommunications law


A Study Of K-12 Music Educators' Attitudes Toward Technology-Assisted Assessment Tools, Lance D. Nielsen Jun 2011

A Study Of K-12 Music Educators' Attitudes Toward Technology-Assisted Assessment Tools, Lance D. Nielsen

Student Research, Creative Activity, and Performance - School of Music

The purpose of this study was to examine K-12 music educators’ attitudes regarding the use of technology in the assessment of music learning. There is a considerable range of musical behaviors with different levels of complexity that can be assessed (Boyle & Radocy, 1987). A variety of software and web-based assessment tools are available for music educators. However, it is unclear how many teachers are taking advantage of incorporating these technological assessment tools into their instructional practice. This study provided current data about the demographics of teachers using technology to assess musical growth and the variables that might motivate a music ...


The Relationship Between Professional Development And Teacher Change In The Implementation Of Instructional Strategies That Support Elementary Students' Science Textbook Reading, Virginia J. Laughridge May 2011

The Relationship Between Professional Development And Teacher Change In The Implementation Of Instructional Strategies That Support Elementary Students' Science Textbook Reading, Virginia J. Laughridge

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This study examined the relationship between a series of professional development workshops and change in three rural elementary teachers’ science textbook reading instructional strategies. The analysis of the qualitative data indicates the degree of teacher change was related to several inner-related factors: (a) teaching experience, (b) teacher perceptions of self, (c) mode of content delivery, and (d) teacher beliefs. Two teachers with the greatest longevity of teaching experience had previously established instructional strategies and modes of content delivery which did not emphasize student textbook reading skills. Their modes of content delivery were related to their self- perceptions as “science teachers ...


Examining The Role Of The Introductory Video In The Development Of Teaching Presence In Online Instruction, Bojan Lazarevic May 2011

Examining The Role Of The Introductory Video In The Development Of Teaching Presence In Online Instruction, Bojan Lazarevic

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This study presents and discusses findings regarding the benefits of video delivery in online instruction. Specifically, the study addresses whether the implementation of a short asynchronous introductory video in a primarily text-based online course has an effect on students’ perception of teaching presence. In addition, the second aim of this study is to test whether an asynchronous introductory video can enhance student’s course engagement and performance. Finally, the study seeks answer if there is an interrelationship between teaching presence, student’s engagement and student’s performance.

This study utilizes a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design. The study also ...


Exploring Student Perceptions To Explain The Relationship Between Physical Activity And Academic Achievement In Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study, Megan J. Hylok Apr 2011

Exploring Student Perceptions To Explain The Relationship Between Physical Activity And Academic Achievement In Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study, Megan J. Hylok

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

A nationwide survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control in 2007 reported 65% of high school students did not meet the recommendation that youth participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity most days of the week (CDC, 2008). While research has focused its attention primarily on bodily health, growing evidence supports the benefits of physical activity on brain health (Ratey & Hagerman, 2008). Physical activity is important and many adolescents are not meeting the recommendation, therefore, it is important to explore the adolescent perceptions to understand which factors influence physical activity participation. The significance of this study is ...


Learning Style Differentiation Between Hispanic And Non-Hispanic College Students In Selected Institutions In The North Carolina Public University System, Robert C. Tripp Apr 2011

Learning Style Differentiation Between Hispanic And Non-Hispanic College Students In Selected Institutions In The North Carolina Public University System, Robert C. Tripp

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

As the Hispanic population increases in North Carolina the number of college graduates of Hispanic descent should follow. Although a gradual increase in Hispanic students attending state universities has been seen, the increase has not kept pace with the increases seen in the general population. Additionally, the numbers of those achieving the baccalaureate degree have not increased. There have been a number of research projects in recent years that have documented qualitative reasons why Hispanic students have been reluctant to go to college and the factors that contribute to their success and failure at institutions of high education. Cultural influences ...


Transnationalism And The Dominican Republic: The Effect On Student Identity And Achievement, April J. Phillips Apr 2011

Transnationalism And The Dominican Republic: The Effect On Student Identity And Achievement, April J. Phillips

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

As transnational movement between the Dominican Republic and United States continues into a new generation, it is important to understand how such movement affects the lives of transnational youth. Unlike adults who choose to move transnationally for a variety of reasons (many times in economic risk-reduction) youth rarely have the power to determine their transnational reality, rather, the adults in their lives choose it for them. Regardless of who controls the power of decision, transnational movement has a great effect on youth especially in their formation of identities and their academic experiences. The following study, which includes an overview of ...


The Need To Create Culturally Responsive Teachers: Implications For Teacher Education Programs, Cass Griffin Apr 2011

The Need To Create Culturally Responsive Teachers: Implications For Teacher Education Programs, Cass Griffin

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

Using nine reflections as a centerpiece, this thesis aims is to inform readers about the power that an international travel experience and/or practica in dual-language environments can have in becoming a more effective teacher, a culturally responsive teacher. From personal experience in a both settings, I think I am now better able to relate to students with culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds because I have been in a similar situation. Students with diverse backgrounds (that are different from their teacher) may have extra difficulty communicating or expressing their thoughts and ideas. Teachers need to recognize these difficulties and respond ...


Children's Voices: Students' Attitudes About Routine And Nonroutine Mathematics, Deborah E. Seacrest Mar 2011

Children's Voices: Students' Attitudes About Routine And Nonroutine Mathematics, Deborah E. Seacrest

Theses, Student Research, and Creative Activity: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This dissertation is a case study focused on the question, "What are students' attitudes toward school mathematics and toward nonroutine math problems and mathematical games?" It addresses the definitions of some of those terms and then moves on to a literature review that suggests that some change in the curriculum may be needed. In an attempt to begin determining whether nonroutine problems and mathematical games could help, students in two different types of classes were introduced to such problems and games. Their attitudes were assessed using a variety of methods, including observation, interview, and journal writing.

The games and problems ...


Common Ground With A Common Faith: Dewey’S Idea Of The “Religious”, Bradley Baurain Jan 2011

Common Ground With A Common Faith: Dewey’S Idea Of The “Religious”, Bradley Baurain

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

In A Common Faith, Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically “religious” attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: 1) Knowledge is unifi ed. 2) Knowledge is democratic. 3) Th e pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. 4) Th e authority for moral ideals is experience as explored via inquiry. Th e author responds from the perspective of his own religious faith and outlines conceptual relationships with modern spirituality in education writers. Th e common ground is that the “religious” must be seen as a signifi cant way ...


What Makes The Anthropology Of Educational Policy Implementation 'Anthropological'?, Edmund T. Hamann, Lisa Rosen Jan 2011

What Makes The Anthropology Of Educational Policy Implementation 'Anthropological'?, Edmund T. Hamann, Lisa Rosen

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

As sociocultural theorists (e.g., Gutierrez and Rogoff, 2003; Orellana, 2009) have recently asserted, "culture" is something one does, rather than something one has. That is, human beings produce, perform, and reproduce culture every day. Policy implementation — or what Milbrey McLaughlin (1987: 175) has called "muddling through" — is deeply implicated in these processes of cultural production and thus invites anthropological inquiry. Indeed, it is possible to link the study of policy implementation to some of the foundational efforts of anthropology, particularly cultural anthropology (Wedel et at., 2005). Our discussion in this chapter thus borrows explicitly and centrally from an early ...


What Makes The Anthropology Of Educational Policy Implementation “Anthropological” ?, Edmund T. Hamann, Lisa Rosen Jan 2011

What Makes The Anthropology Of Educational Policy Implementation “Anthropological” ?, Edmund T. Hamann, Lisa Rosen

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

Many of the roots of interdisciplinary educational policy implementation studies are anthropological. It follows that what constitutes an anthropology of educational policy implementation should be articulated. This chapter draws on the works of Bronislaw Malinowski, Frederick Erickson, and Joseph Maxwell, among many others to identity the anthropological contributions and prospective contributions to inquiry into the study of the interface between educational policy and practice.

As sociocultural theorists (e.g., Gutiérrez and Rogoff, 2003; Orellana, 2009) have recently asserted, “culture” is something one does, rather than something one has. That is, human beings produce, perform, and reproduce culture every day. Policy ...


Secondary Science Teachers’ Translation Of Professional Development Through Affinity- And Institution-Identity, Elizabeth B. Lewis Jan 2011

Secondary Science Teachers’ Translation Of Professional Development Through Affinity- And Institution-Identity, Elizabeth B. Lewis

Talks and Presentations: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

This study provides greater detail concerning how science teachers did, or did not, use a professional development model of a scientific classroom discourse community with their students. Two biology teachers, Cathy and David, from the same urban high school were the subjects of two case studies. Identity was used as an analytic lens to consider teachers in the dual contexts of their classroom environment and professional development. Over time, as Cathy adopted the inquiry-based instructional practices she learned at the professional development seminars, her professional identity became more aligned with the norms and affinity group teaching philosophy and instructional practices ...


Managing Small Group Instruction Through The Implementation Of Literacy Work Stations, Carrie Kracl Jan 2011

Managing Small Group Instruction Through The Implementation Of Literacy Work Stations, Carrie Kracl

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

This case study explored the journey of four first grade teachers in their pursuit to improve the quality of their small group instruction time through increased engagement of students away from the small groups, thus allowing for quality instruction taking place in the small group. The teachers participated in professional development on literacy work stations that included video and an accompanying text. Based on the qualitative data from observations and interviews, all four teachers believed that the quality of their small group instruction improved with the implementation of literacy work stations through increased student engagement and motivation and the subsequent ...