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Labor Relations Commons

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1998

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Articles 1 - 30 of 60

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Union Administrative Practices: A Comparative Analysis, Paul F. Clark, Kay Gilbert, Lois Spier Gray, Norman Solomon Dec 1998

Union Administrative Practices: A Comparative Analysis, Paul F. Clark, Kay Gilbert, Lois Spier Gray, Norman Solomon

Articles and Chapters

In response to growing challenges, many labor organizations are reevaluating themselves in an effort to become more efficient and effective. Their efforts, however, are limited by their frames of reference. Seldom do unions compare practices across labor movements. To expand these frames of reference we compare union administrative practices in three countries: Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Two specific areas of union administration are examined — human resource/personnel practices and strategic planning. Results from these countries are presented and analyzed to identify and explain similarities and differences.


Do Economics Departments With Lower Tenure Probabilities Pay Higher Faculty Salaries?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Paul J. Pieper, Rachel A. Willis Nov 1998

Do Economics Departments With Lower Tenure Probabilities Pay Higher Faculty Salaries?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Paul J. Pieper, Rachel A. Willis

Articles and Chapters

The simplest competitive labor market model asserts that if tenure is a desirable job characteristic for professors, they should be willing to pay for it by accepting lower salaries. Conversely, if an institution unilaterally reduces the probability that its assistant professors receive tenure, it will have to pay higher salaries to attract new faculty. Our paper tests this theory using data on salary offers accepted by new assistant professors at economics departments in the United States during the 1974-75 to 1980-81 period, along with data on the proportion of new Ph.D.s hired by each department between 1970 and ...


Sexual-Harassment Liability In 1998: Good News Or Bad News For Employers And Employees?, David Sherwyn, J. Bruce Tracey Oct 1998

Sexual-Harassment Liability In 1998: Good News Or Bad News For Employers And Employees?, David Sherwyn, J. Bruce Tracey

Articles and Chapters

In June 1998 the U.S. Supreme Court issued three separate rulings regarding workplace sexual harassment. In an apparent victory for employers, the court ruled in one case that a victim must actually suffer a tangible loss (i.e., a demotion or unwelcome transfer) to establish a case for quid pro quo harassment. The court affirmed, moreover, that employers can absolve themselves of liability in hostile-environment cases by establishing a meaningful and effective policy against sexual harassment. Absent a meaningful policy, however, employers will be liable for a hostile environment created by supervisors. Thus, in another case, the court found ...


[Review Of The Book Meatpackers: An Oral History Of Black Packinghouse Workers And Their Struggle For Racial And Economic Equality], Nick Salvatore Oct 1998

[Review Of The Book Meatpackers: An Oral History Of Black Packinghouse Workers And Their Struggle For Racial And Economic Equality], Nick Salvatore

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The Halpern and Horowitz volume, Meatpackers, follows creditably in this oral history tradition, even if it does not approach the power and complexity of Rosengarten's work. Instead of focusing on one individual, the book presents selections culled from a massive collection of oral interviews conducted by the authors with more than 125 former members of the United Packinghouse Workers of America (UPWA). The interviewees are black, white, and Hispanic, male and female, with records of activism in the union as far back as the 1930s and as recent as the 1980s. The events they recount occurred in five ...


[Review Of The Book Advancing Theory In Labour Law And Industrial Relations In A Global Context], Lance A. Compa Oct 1998

[Review Of The Book Advancing Theory In Labour Law And Industrial Relations In A Global Context], Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The ideas and insights in Advancing Theory are an important contribution to the on-the-ground social justice movement challenging corporate rule in the global economy. It can even help rescue labor law and industrial relations as intellectual disciplines and career trajectories for a new generation of students and practitioners excited about thinking globally and acting locally.


Ex Ante Capacity Effects In Evolutionary Labor Markets With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion Oct 1998

Ex Ante Capacity Effects In Evolutionary Labor Markets With Adaptive Search, Leigh Tesfatsion

ISU Economic Report Series

This study reports on computational experiments for an agent-based labor market-model-with adaptive choice'and refusal of work site' partners and with endogenously evolving work site behaviors. Two treatment factors ^e experimentally varied: market structure; and ex ante capacity constraints on potential work offers and job openings.- Particular attentions focused on experimentally determined correlations between treatment factors and the formation of contractual networks among workers and employers, and between' contractual network"formation and the'types'o!f work site interactions and welfare outcomes that these contractual networks support.


The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer Oct 1998

The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The Manifesto of the Communist Party, published 150 years ago in London in February 1848, is one of the most influential and widely-read documents of the past two centuries. The historian A. J. P. Taylor (1967, p. 7) has called it a "holy book," and contends that because of it, "everyone thinks differently about politics and society." And yet, despite its enormous influence in the 20th century, the Manifesto is very much a period piece, a document of what was called the "hungry" 1840s. It is hard to imagine it being written in any other decade of the 19th ...


The Influence Of London On Labor Markets In Southern England, 1830-1914, George R. Boyer Oct 1998

The Influence Of London On Labor Markets In Southern England, 1830-1914, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Historians have long acknowledged that London, because of its enormous size and rapidly growing demand for labor, acted as a powerful magnet for migrants from throughout southern England. However, while there is a large literature documenting the flow of migrants to London, there have been surprisingly few attempts to determine the consequences of this migration for southern labor markets. This article attempts to redress the imbalance in the literature by examining the influence of London on agricultural labor markets during the nineteenth century. In particular, the article examines the effect of distance from London on wage rates in southern ...


Creative Pressure Tactics, Ken Margolies Sep 1998

Creative Pressure Tactics, Ken Margolies

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Saul Alinsky, a great labor and community organizer, once said that “tactics that drag on become a drag.” Stewards know that tactics used too often can lose their effectiveness and burn members out. That’s why wise stewards are always looking for new and creative ways to put pressure on an employer. Here are some ideas that have worked for other unionists.


Unions, People, And Diversity: Building Solidarity Across A Diverse Membership, Susan Woods Sep 1998

Unions, People, And Diversity: Building Solidarity Across A Diverse Membership, Susan Woods

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Diversity has been an issue for the labor movement from the earliest days of unions. Unions reflect the combined consciousness of their leaders and members. As a consequence, organized labor's record on diversity is complex and mixed. Different unions at various times have either welcomed diversity as a matter of principle and moved to build inclusive organizations, or have adopted strategies of exclusion in efforts to control the supply of labor. Examples of the latter come easily to mind. From the beginning of wage labor, unionized workers have struck to resist working with those they considered different from ...


Democratizing The Trade Debate, Lance A. Compa Aug 1998

Democratizing The Trade Debate, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] A thorough democratization of policy debates and decision-making is a precondition for progress in adding social dimensions to trade and investment regimes. Democratizing the trade debate means conceding social justice advocates a serious participatory role in shaping the rules of economic integration and in the operations of the bodies that implement new rules. Without the proverbial "seat at the table," social justice advocates will continue to see their concerns treated as afterthoughts.


Fanning The Flames (After Lighting The Spark): Multi-Trade Comet Programs, Jeffrey Grabelsky, Adam Pagnucco, Steve Rockafellow Jul 1998

Fanning The Flames (After Lighting The Spark): Multi-Trade Comet Programs, Jeffrey Grabelsky, Adam Pagnucco, Steve Rockafellow

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The COMET (Construction Organizing Membership Education Training) is an educational program utilized by building trades unions to generate rank and file support for organizing new members. Since 1996, the Building and Construction Trades Department of the AFL-CIO has been sponsoring COMET training in multi-trade settings for its fifteen affiliates. Between 1997 and 1998, the Department undertook a systematic evaluation of its multi-trade COMET programs to determine their impact on attitudes toward organizing as well as on the nature and extent of organizing activities. This article summarizes the lessons the Department learned. Among other conclusions, the evaluation reaffirmed that COMET ...


Ask The Jobless If Marx Is Relevant, Jeffrey Grabelsky Jul 1998

Ask The Jobless If Marx Is Relevant, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

No abstract provided.


[Review Of The Book We Can’T Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard], Richard W. Hurd Jul 1998

[Review Of The Book We Can’T Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard], Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In 1988 the fifteen-year campaign to organize office and laboratory workers at Harvard University ended with an NLRB election win. We Can't Eat Prestige is the most comprehensive examination to date of this compelling story, offering new detail and sufficiently bold assertions to re-ignite a smoldering debate about what this victory means for the future of unions. The author is a highly regarded journalist with thirty years of experience reporting on labor issues. Predictably, the book is extraordinarily well written, weaving a fascinating story of the union's evolution.


Reversing The Tide Of Organizing Decline: Lessons From The Us Experience, Kate Bronfenbrenner Jun 1998

Reversing The Tide Of Organizing Decline: Lessons From The Us Experience, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

As increasing numbers of employers and governments in industrialized nations hasten to "Americanize" their economic policies, labor laws, and union-avoidance strategies, it has become critical for unions in other countries to learn what they can from the organizing experience of the US labor movement. Most research on factors contributing to US organizing decline has focused on the role played by factors external to the labor movement such as global competition, de-industrialization, changes in workforce demographics, new work systems, deregulation, aggressive employer opposition, and weak and poorly enforced labor laws. US unions, however, have greatly contributed to their own decline by ...


Codetermination In Comparative Perspective, Kathleen Thelen, Lowell Turner Jun 1998

Codetermination In Comparative Perspective, Kathleen Thelen, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

The trend of western industrialised societies is towards decentralization of collective bargaining and the active participation of the workforce in productivity and efficiency improvements. How well does the German model of co-determination perform in competition with liberal market economies? Compared with other countries, how adaptable is it?


Workplace Change And The New Labor Movement, James Rundle, Kate Bronfenbrenner Apr 1998

Workplace Change And The New Labor Movement, James Rundle, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The authors of this set of papers sharply critique, from a variety of perspectives, the approach to workplace change that has dominated labors thinking for decades. We have not attempted to balance these criticisms with arguments that labor can grow and prosper by fostering win-win methods and outcomes, because those arguments are well-known from a wide range of publications. Instead, we hope that these papers will stimulate and broaden the debate over a critical arena that has not been integrated with labor's new ambitions.


Rethinking Bargaining Unit Determination: Labor Law And The Structure Of Collective Representation In A Changing Workplace, Alexander Colvin Apr 1998

Rethinking Bargaining Unit Determination: Labor Law And The Structure Of Collective Representation In A Changing Workplace, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Arguably the leading issue for current labor law research is whether the existing system of law based on the Wagner Act model can continue to be relevant and appropriate for the contemporary workplace. Changes in the environment of work during the over half-century since this model was developed have brought pressures for re-evaluation and adaptation of key elements of its structure. Criticism of this system has focused on a number of areas, including: the reliance on the formal grievance procedure and arbitration; the separation of the realms of collective bargaining and business decision making; the limitations on employee participation ...


The Effect Of Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop Mar 1998

The Effect Of Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Two presidents, the National Governors Association, and numerous blue-ribbon panels have called for the development of state or national content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess student achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocated that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages." It is claimed that curriculum-based external exit exam systems (CBEEESs) based on explicit content standards will improve the teaching and learning of core subjects. What evidence ...


El Acuerdo De Cooperación Laboral Del Tratado De Libre Comercio De América Del Norte: ¿Dimensión Social O Decepción Social?, Lance A. Compa Jan 1998

El Acuerdo De Cooperación Laboral Del Tratado De Libre Comercio De América Del Norte: ¿Dimensión Social O Decepción Social?, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] En este país los sindicatos continúan criticando los puntos débiles del Acuerdo, especialmente la exclusión de asuntos referentes a la sindicalización, la negociación y las huelgas, los mecanismos de solución de controversias, y la carencia de soluciones ejecutorias bajo el ACL. Al mismo tiempo, se han dado cuenta de que resulta un foro muy útil para exponer casos de violaciones de los derechos de los trabajadores por parte de corporaciones multinacionales que operan en el marco del TLC. Con ello intentan promover una presión popular dirigida a detener la ampliación del TLC a Chile y el resto de América ...


Do Inequality Measures Measure Inequality?, Gary S. Fields Jan 1998

Do Inequality Measures Measure Inequality?, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In the literature, much attention has been paid to a number of aspects of inequality including the distinction between relative and absolute inequality, axiomatization of inequality, the Lorenz criterion for inequality comparisons, properties of various inequality measures, and inequality decomposition. In no way do I wish to argue with the main results derived in these areas. Rather, my purpose here is to add to the theory of inequality measurement by dealing with one aspect of inequality which has been largely ignored by economists and by others. This is the question of how inequality changes - in particular, whether it increases ...


The Political Economy Of Industrialisation And Industrial Relations: A Rejoinder, Sarosh Kuruvilla Jan 1998

The Political Economy Of Industrialisation And Industrial Relations: A Rejoinder, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is always an honour when one’s work receives a degree of attention entailing the production of a formal, written criticism. And this presents an opportunity for the original writer to clarify his/her argument, retract/modify that which has been cogently called into question, and to advance dialogue on issues regarding the interpretation of social reality about which reasonable people disagree. Gregor Gall’s comments on my article present these very opportunities, and I welcome this chance to make a dialogical contribution that hopefully will promote the theoretical development of the field.


It Takes More Than House Calls: Organizing To Win With A Comprehensive Union-Building Strategy, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Tom Juravich Jan 1998

It Takes More Than House Calls: Organizing To Win With A Comprehensive Union-Building Strategy, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Tom Juravich

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Until recently, some national and local union leaders still argued that labor should circle the wagons and take care of existing members rather than spend scarce resources on organizing nonunion workers. Today those voices have largely been silenced by the hard numbers of labor's dramatic decline. As expressed in the platform of the new AFL-CIO leadership slate, the American labor movement must "organize at an unprecedented pace and scale." The question unions face today is no longer whether to make organizing a priority but how that can best be achieved.


Two-Tiered Faculty Systems And Organizational Outcomes, Pamela S. Tolbert Jan 1998

Two-Tiered Faculty Systems And Organizational Outcomes, Pamela S. Tolbert

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this chapter, I present a case study of a department at a large research university in which the use of non-tenured faculty increased dramatically over three decades. I begin by examining the historical sources of the expansion. I describe the arrangements that were implemented to resolve these problems. These arrangements exemplify many of the “best management practices” for non-tenure-track faculty mentioned earlier. Based on discussions with non-tenure-track and tenure-track department members and university administrators, I assess the effectiveness of these employment arrangements in resolving problems and the general consequences for the department of having a large contingent of ...


International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: New Zealand, Regina Pernice, Neil Lunt Jan 1998

International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: New Zealand, Regina Pernice, Neil Lunt

GLADNET Collection

[Excerpt] The International Research Project on Job Retention and Return to Work Strategies for Disabled Workers is an initiative of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Global Applied Research and Information Network on Employment and Training (GLADNET). It reflects ILO and GLADNET joint aims of establishing a base for cross-national research and strengthening links between research analysis and policy reform in the field of employment of disabled people.

The Project is a response to a combination of developments which highlight the need for more effective policies and practices in support of workers whose prospects of remaining in employment are ...


International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: Netherlands, Boukje Cuelenaere, Rienk Prins Jan 1998

International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: Netherlands, Boukje Cuelenaere, Rienk Prins

GLADNET Collection

[Excerpt] The International Research Project on Job Retention and Return to Work Strategies for Disabled Workers is an initiative of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Global Applied Research and Information Network on Employment and Training (GLADNET). It reflects ILO and GLADNET joint aims of establishing a base for cross-national research and strengthening links between research analysis and policy reform in the field of employment of disabled people.

The Project is a response to a combination of developments which highlight the need for more effective policies and practices in support of workers whose prospects of remaining in employment are ...


International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: Sweden, Anders Karlsson Jan 1998

International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: Sweden, Anders Karlsson

GLADNET Collection

The International Research Project on Job Retention and Return to Work Strategies for Disabled Workers is an initiative of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Global Applied Research and Information Network on Employment and Training (GLADNET). It reflects ILO and GLADNET joint aims of establishing a base for cross-national research and strengthening links between research analysis and policy reform in the field of employment of disabled people.

The Project is a response to a combination of developments which highlight the need for more effective policies and practices in support of workers whose prospects of remaining in employment are jeopardised ...


International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: Germany, Martin Albrecht, Hans Braun Jan 1998

International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: Germany, Martin Albrecht, Hans Braun

GLADNET Collection

[Excerpt] The International Research Project on Job Retention and Return to Work Strategies for Disabled Workers is an initiative of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Global Applied Research and Information Network on Employment and Training (GLADNET). It reflects ILO and GLADNET joint aims of establishing a base for cross-national research and strengthening links between research analysis and policy reform in the field of employment of disabled people.

The Project is a response to a combination of developments which highlight the need for more effective policies and practices in support of workers whose prospects of remaining in employment are ...


International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: United Kingdom, Stephen Duckworth, Peter Mcgeer, Daniel Kearns, Patricia Thornton Jan 1998

International Research Project On Job Retention And Return To Work Strategies For Disabled Workers: United Kingdom, Stephen Duckworth, Peter Mcgeer, Daniel Kearns, Patricia Thornton

GLADNET Collection

[Excerpt] The International Research Project on Job Retention and Return to Work Strategies for Disabled Workers is an initiative of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Global Applied Research and Information Network on Employment and Training (GLADNET). It reflects ILO and GLADNET joint aims of establishing a base for cross-national research and strengthening links between research analysis and policy reform in the field of employment of disabled people.

The Project is a response to a combination of developments which highlight the need for more effective policies and practices in support of workers whose prospects of remaining in employment are ...


New York State Afl-Cio Organizing Education Program, Kate Bronfenbrenner Jan 1998

New York State Afl-Cio Organizing Education Program, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

New York State has long been hailed by the labor movement for its high union density and strong and active local labor unions. Yet, like their counterparts in other states, unions in New York State have watched their numbers and their power shrink precipitously in the last few decades under the onslaught of corporate "downsizing," plant closings, decertifications, broken strikes, and concession bargaining. At the same time, an increasingly hostile political climate, combined with rabidly anti-union employers and weak and poorly enforced labor laws, have made it more and more difficult for New York State unions to expand their membership ...