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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Academic Education And Occupational Training, John H. Bishop Jun 2001

Academic Education And Occupational Training, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

“Most of the young people entering professional, technical, and managerial occupations start their occupational training in a school. Higher education is predominantly occupational education and is becoming more 80 each year. In 1980-81, only 17 percent of rnaster9s degrees and 33 percent of bachelor's degrees were in traditional liberal arts fields. Many of those who get these degrees remain in school to get a Ph.D., M.D., D.D.S. or L.L.B., all of which certify three or more years of intensive occupational training. Consequently, almost all college graduates obtain training for a particular occupation before ...


Are National Exit Examinations Important For Educational Efficiency?, John H. Bishop Sep 1999

Are National Exit Examinations Important For Educational Efficiency?, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

“This paper analyses effects of national or provincial exit examinations on education quality. On theoretical grounds, the paper argues that such examinations should increase high school achievement, particularly in examination subjects, and that teachers and students and parents and school administrators should focus more on academic achievement when making school-quality decisions. On the negative side, exit examinations may lead to a tendency to concentrate on learning facts, rather than understanding contexts.”


The Effect Of Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop Mar 1998

The Effect Of Curriculum-Based External Exit Exam Systems On Student Achievement, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Two presidents, the National Governors Association, and numerous blue-ribbon panels have called for the development of state or national content standards for core subjects and examinations that assess student achievement of these standards. The Competitiveness Policy Council, for example, advocated that "external assessments be given to individual students at the secondary level and that the results should be a major but not exclusive factor qualifying for college and better jobs at better wages." It is claimed that curriculum-based external exit exam systems (CBEEESs) based on explicit content standards will improve the teaching and learning of core subjects. What evidence ...


In Search Of A Niche, John H. Bishop Oct 1995

In Search Of A Niche, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

"As enrollment in secondary vocational education programs declines and employers re-evaluate the attributes needed for success in today’s job market, some observers of the U.S. education system have called for schools to limit – or even eliminate – the teaching of occupational skills. Does this mean employers don’t reward such training?"


Do Most Employers And Workers Underinvest In Training And Learning On The Job?, John H. Bishop Jan 1993

Do Most Employers And Workers Underinvest In Training And Learning On The Job?, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

"Many economists question the need for social intervention in training, arguing that the benefits accruing to employers and employees create sufficient incentive for private financing. Research findings indicate that in practice this means depending on employers because it is they who pay for the bulk of employee training, even when the skills being taught are useful at other firms. Yet in practice, private incentives for on-the-job learning and training do not currently generate broader results that are in the public interest. This chapter looks at the theoretical and empirical evidence of market failure in training provisions. It argues that the ...


The Worsening Shortage Of College-Graduate Workers, John H. Bishop, Shani Carter Sep 1991

The Worsening Shortage Of College-Graduate Workers, John H. Bishop, Shani Carter

Articles and Chapters

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projections of occupational employment growth have consistently underpredicted the growth of skilled occupations. BLS currently projects that professional, technical, and managerial jobs will account for 44.5% of employment growth between 1988 and 2000, while we project they will account for 70% of employment growth. Between March 1988 and March 1991 these occupations, in fact, accounted for 87% of employment growth. The BLS's projections of the supply/demand balance for college graduates have also been off the mark-predicting a surplus for the 1980s when, in fact, a shortage developed, and relative wage ratios ...


Making Vocational Education More Effective For At-Risk Youth, John H. Bishop May 1989

Making Vocational Education More Effective For At-Risk Youth, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

"Occupationally specific vocational training pays off for disadvantaged students, but only if graduates work in the jobs they were trained for. Implication: Vocational educators must help make sure that the skills they teach are used."


Why The Apathy In American High Schools?, John H. Bishop Jan 1989

Why The Apathy In American High Schools?, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Yes, it is a classic chicken versus egg problem. We assign teachers the responsibility for setting high standards but we do not give them any of the tools that might be effective for inducing student observance of the academic goals of the classroom. They finally must rely on the force of their own personalities. All too often teachers compromise academic demands because the majority of the class sees no need to accept them as reasonable and legitimate.


Organised Labour And Community Colleges, Lois S. Gray Oct 1976

Organised Labour And Community Colleges, Lois S. Gray

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper will explore areas of labour-community college cooperation, survey jointly planned programmes currently underway, and analyse problem areas.


Some Thoughts On The Cost Effectiveness Of Graduate Education Subsidies, John H. Bishop Jul 1974

Some Thoughts On The Cost Effectiveness Of Graduate Education Subsidies, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] How much should doctorate training be subsidized? The answer proposed is, "Doctorate training should be subsidized to the extent and only to the extent that it produces externality or public benefits – i.e. benefits received by people other than the one receiving the diploma." This value judgment derives from three propositions: (1) In general, an adult knows better than anyone else what is best for himself; (2) the price (measured in both time and money) he is willing to pay for graduate education is the best measure of how much he values it relative to other offerings; and (3 ...