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Full-Text Articles in Business

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams Aug 2028

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

When explaining and tackling the undeclared economy in Central
and Eastern Europe, participants have been conventionally viewed
as rational economic actors. They engage in undeclared work
when the benefits outweigh the costs. Participation is thus
deterred by increasing the sanctions and/or probability of being
caught. Recently, however, an alternative social actor approach
has emerged which views participants as engaging in undeclared
work when their norms, values and beliefs (i.e. citizen morale) do
not align with laws and regulations (i.e. state morale). Here, therefore,
initiatives to develop greater symmetry between civic and
state morale are pursued. To evaluate ...


Institutional Asymmetry And The Acceptability Of Undeclared Work: Synthesis Report, Colin C. Williams Jan 2019

Institutional Asymmetry And The Acceptability Of Undeclared Work: Synthesis Report, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This report is part of the project SHADOWSwhich aims to investigate the effectiveness of different policy measures in reducing undeclared work. As such, the project evaluates not only the effectiveness of using a rational economic actor approach (that tackles undeclared work by ensuring that the payoff from undeclared work is outweighed by the costs), and a social actor approach (grounded in a view that undeclared work arises when tax morale is low), but also analyses the interaction effects (between deterrents and tax morale, and vertical and horizontal trust) in various contexts. This report focuses on the social actor approach ...


The Outdoor Apparel Industry:Measuring The Premium For Sustainability With A Hedonic Pricing Model, Elyse Lindahl Jan 2019

The Outdoor Apparel Industry:Measuring The Premium For Sustainability With A Hedonic Pricing Model, Elyse Lindahl

Scripps Senior Theses

Evaluating the existing practices of sustainability within the outdoor apparel industry, this research questions the relationship that certain sustainability aspects have with the price of goods in this specific market. Through a hedonic pricing model, this research provides an estimate of the value placed on certain aspects surrounding environmental and social sustainability. In a growing industry, the application of sustainable practices throughout the supply chain has the potential to influence customer purchasing patterns and pricing models for outdoor apparel brands. This research found the type of material used to have a statistically significant impact on the price of an item ...


An Examination Of The Death Penalty, Alexandra N. Kremer Dec 2018

An Examination Of The Death Penalty, Alexandra N. Kremer

The Downtown Review

The death penalty, or capital punishment, is the use of execution through hanging, beheading, drowning, gas chambers, lethal injection, and electrocution among others in response to a crime. This has spurred much debate on whether it should be used for reasons such as ethics, revenge, economics, effectiveness as a deterrent, and constitutionality. Capital punishment has roots that date back to the 18th century B.C., but, as of 2016, has been abolished in law or practice by more than two thirds of the world’s countries and several states within the United States. Here, the arguments for and against ...


Future And Value: The Library As Strategic Partner, Antje Mays Nov 2018

Future And Value: The Library As Strategic Partner, Antje Mays

Library Presentations

Broader economic trends spawn budget pressures for education and libraries, prompting a plethora of studies on the value and relevance of libraries. Numerous reports on economic decline in libraries and studies with mixed pronouncements on the value of libraries have led to a negative self-image within the library profession. Yet libraries' leadership in connecting learners to knowledge is at the heart of producing many of the key skills sorely needed in robust societies and economies. Librarianship has many untapped opportunities for positioning itself as a prominent strategic partner. This paper outlines current research on the economic and societal context for ...


Economics Of Milk Yield Losses In One Dairy Farm In Macedonia Associated With Clinical Mastitis, Fetai Valdrina, Nakov Dimitar, Jashari Besirm, Trajchev Metodija Nov 2018

Economics Of Milk Yield Losses In One Dairy Farm In Macedonia Associated With Clinical Mastitis, Fetai Valdrina, Nakov Dimitar, Jashari Besirm, Trajchev Metodija

International Journal of Business and Technology

Mastitis remains one of the major disease in dairy herds, causing profound economic losses to the entire milk production chain due to changes in the milk quality and milk yield. A one year cross-sectional longitudinal survey was carried out to evaluate milk yield losses associated with occurrence of clinical mastitis cases in one dairy herd. Cows that had clinical mastitis and clinically healthy cows during lactation were included in the study. The traits analyzed were the average of the monthly test day milk yields, cow parities and days in lactation while first case of clinical mastitis was occurred. For these ...


Globalization And The Flattening Of The World: A Book Review Of “The World Is Flat”, Shannon L. Wade Oct 2018

Globalization And The Flattening Of The World: A Book Review Of “The World Is Flat”, Shannon L. Wade

The Kabod

There is no doubt the world is changing. In cultures, in politics, and in economies, increased awareness of foreign and domestic practices has become a focal point of society. Trade has always proven beneficial to a nation due to the laws of absolute and comparative advantage, but in the modern world, international relations go beyond the boundaries of exchanging products. Now, services and collaboration are added to that realm. In his book “The World is Flat,” Thomas Friedman pinpoints the history and future of globalization in economics. Highlighting how globalization has made the world “flat” by allowing fair competition between ...


Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The under-declaration of work ranges from employers using unregistered employees, through the under-declaration of income by the formal self-employed and formal businesses, to the misuse of collaborative platforms and the digital economy to conceal the full amount of incomes and social security due.
The objective of this thematic discussion on under-declared employment in the European Union is: (i) to exchange information on what works and what does not, (ii) to generate knowledge about under-declared employment, and (iii) to explore how the Platform activities can contribute to tackling under-declared employment.
The intention is to focus upon two types of under-declaring work ...


Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

To tackle undeclared work, the conventional rational economic actor approach
uses deterrents to ensure that the costs of engaging in undeclared work outweigh
the benefits. Recent years have seen the emergence of a social actor approach
which focuses upon improving tax morale. To analyse the association between
participation in undeclared work and these policy approaches, 2,014 face-toface
interviews, conducted in FYROM in 2015, are reported. Logistic regression
analysis reveals no association between participation in undeclared work and the
perceived level of penalties and risk of detection, but there is an association with
the level of tax morale. The paper ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: September 26, 2018, Eric Thompson Sep 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: September 26, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 rose by 1.00% during August of 2018. Solid growth in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that Nebraska economic growth will be solid during the first few months of 2019. Business expectations were a positive component of the leading indicator. Respondents to the August Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. There also was an improvement in manufacturing hours and airline passenger counts, while initial claims for unemployment insurance dropped.


Mayflower: Ode To New Beginnings — A New Column For New Times With A Positive Mission, Antje Mays Sep 2018

Mayflower: Ode To New Beginnings — A New Column For New Times With A Positive Mission, Antje Mays

Library Faculty and Staff Publications

Numerous studies and articles downplay the value of libraries, citing instances of library defunding, layoffs, and outright closures, along with studies on the waning usefulness of libraries based on flawed quantifiables. Such pronouncements spread fear of obsolescence and irrelevance, contributing to dissatisfaction in the library profession. Yet polls in the United States and Great Britain reveal the library profession's enduring value among the most trusted professions.

To kick off the column "Mayflower: Ode to New Beginnings", this article frames library pressures in a context of broader trends affecting economic and educational conditions, examines professional stewardship and the library profession ...


Does Trust Prevent Undeclared Work? An Evaluation Of The Social Actor Approach, Colin C. Williams Aug 2018

Does Trust Prevent Undeclared Work? An Evaluation Of The Social Actor Approach, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

In recent decades, a burgeoning literature has brought out of the shadows the magnitude of the undeclared economy. This reveals that the undeclared economy is a persistent feature of contemporary economies. With the equivalent of 17.9 per cent of GDP not declared to the authorities in the European Union in 2016 [1], undeclared work representing 14.3 per cent of gross value added in the private sector in 2013 [2] and 4 per cent of EU28 citizens conducting undeclared work [3], tackling the undeclared economy is not some minor issue. Addressing this practice is important. This is not only ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: August 22, 2018, Eric Thompson Aug 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: August 22, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 was flat during July of 2018, rising by just 0.05%. A flat value for the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that Nebraska economic growth will slow significantly at the end of 2018 and the beginning of 2019. Business expectations were a positive component of the leading indicator. Respondents to the July Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. However, a rising U.S. dollar and a drop in building permits ...


Book Review: Essentialism Aug 2018

Book Review: Essentialism

Marriott Student Review

No abstract provided.


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: July 25, 2018, Eric Thompson Jul 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: July 25, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 fell by 0.40% during June of 2018. The decline in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the pace of Nebraska economic growth will slow significantly during the 4th quarter of 2018. The indicator fell due to another sharp increase in the value of the U.S. dollar. A rising dollar puts additional pressure on Nebraska businesses which export. A decline in manufacturing hours and an increase in initial claims for unemployment insurance also contributed to the drop in the LEI-N. Business expectations ...


Examining Moral Hazard In The Healthcare Insurance Market, Samuel Ashby Jul 2018

Examining Moral Hazard In The Healthcare Insurance Market, Samuel Ashby

Honors College Theses

This study aims to examine the effect of insurance coverage on medical expenditure in the United States. The data was gathered from the Household Component Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and is a cross-sectional data set with a sample size of approximately 1500 observations. The study also distinguishes between public and private insurance coverage to compare the potential moral hazard in the two separate markets. The results of this study suggest that insurance status, specifically public, has a strong positive effect on healthcare expenditure. This result, combined with a negative relationship between household income and healthcare expenditure, suggests that the source ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: June 20, 2018, Eric Thompson Jun 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: June 20, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 rose by just 0.26% during May of 2018. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the pace of economic growth will slow in Nebraska during the 4th quarter of 2018. The LEI-N rose due to strong business expectations. In particular, respondents to the May Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. There also was an increase in manufacturing hours and passenger enplanements during May and a drop ...


St. Cloud Area Quarterly Business Report Vol. 20 No. 2, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald Jun 2018

St. Cloud Area Quarterly Business Report Vol. 20 No. 2, King Banaian, Richard A. Macdonald

St. Cloud Area Quarterly Business Report

Despite heightened uncertainty from recent retail store closings, looming na­tional tariff policies and the future clo­sure of Electrolux, area firms continue to report strong optimism about future business activity. Area firms reported continuing difficulty attracting qualified workers, which appears to be restraining local employment growth. Local employ­ment grew at a tepid 0.4 percent rate over the year ending April 2018 as worker shortages limit firms' growth poten­tial. The manufacturing, education/health, wholesale trade, and transportation/warehousing/utilities sectors led local job growth, while the retail trade, mining/logging/construction, and leisure/hospitality sectors' employ­ment ...


An Empirical Analysis Of Climatic, Geographic, And Cultural Determinants Of International Tourism, Ethan Straus Jun 2018

An Empirical Analysis Of Climatic, Geographic, And Cultural Determinants Of International Tourism, Ethan Straus

Honors Theses

Each year, billions of people visit different countries all around the world. For many of those countries, tourism is their primary industry, leading to millions of jobs and dollars in revenue. It is expected that by 2020 total International Tourism Receipts will reach 2 trillion US dollars annually. Currently, tourism employs an estimated 200 million people around the world. With the continued progression of climate change, the tourism industry is facing a newfound threat. Global temperatures and the seal level are both expected to rise significantly by the end of the century. Additionally, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has ...


Explaining Informal Sector Entrepreneurship In Kosovo: An Institutionalist Perspective, Colin C. Williams May 2018

Explaining Informal Sector Entrepreneurship In Kosovo: An Institutionalist Perspective, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Institutional theory has been widely used to explain entrepreneurship in the informal economy.
A first wave of institutionalist theory argued that informal entrepreneurship resulted from formal
institutional failures and a second wave that such entrepreneurship results from an asymmetry
between the laws and regulations of formal institutions and the unwritten socially shared rules of
informal institutions. This paper evaluates the validity of these two waves of institutionalist explanation
and a new third wave of institutional theory explaining informal entrepreneurship in terms
of a lack of both vertical and horizontal trust. Reporting data from a 2013 survey in Kosovo
involving 500 ...


Evaluating Competing Theories Of Informal Sector Entrepreneurship: A Study Of The Determinants Of Cross-Country Variations In Enterprises Starting-Up Unregistered, Colin C. Williams May 2018

Evaluating Competing Theories Of Informal Sector Entrepreneurship: A Study Of The Determinants Of Cross-Country Variations In Enterprises Starting-Up Unregistered, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

To advance understanding of the reasons for informal sector entrepreneurship, this article evaluates the determinants of
cross-country variations in the extent to which enterprises are unregistered when they start operating. Reporting the
World Bank Enterprise Survey data on 67,515 enterprises across 142 countries, the finding is that one in five (19.9%) of
the formal enterprises surveyed started-up unregistered, although this varies from all enterprises surveyed in some
countries (e.g. Pakistan) to 1% of surveyed enterprises in Slovakia. To explain these cross-country variations, four
competing theories are evaluated which variously assert that nonregistration is determined by either: economic ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: May 23, 2018, Eric Thompson May 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: May 23, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 rose by 0.67% during April of 2018. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the Nebraska economy will continue to grow through the 4th quarter of 2018. The LEI-N rose due to strong business expectations, an increase in airline passenger counts, and a drop in initial claims for unemployment insurance. In particular, respondents to the April Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. However, there were also ...


Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns, Colin C. Williams May 2018

Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

1.          Introduction
The aim of this study is to review the range of preventative approaches for tackling undeclared work available to Member States, and to focus upon two types of preventative measure, namely service vouchers and the use of awareness raising campaigns.
2.          Rationales for a preventative approach
·       The rationale for a preventative approach is to shift away from resolving problems after they have occurred towards preventing non-compliance in the first place.
·       Article 1 of Decision (EU) 2016/3441, establishing the Platform, explicitly encourages such a preventative approach. It states that ‘”tackling”, in relation to undeclared work, means preventing, deterring ...


A Social Media Analysis Of Users, Their General Happiness, And The Impact On Marketers, Megan Hamberg May 2018

A Social Media Analysis Of Users, Their General Happiness, And The Impact On Marketers, Megan Hamberg

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

As the internet and social media become more prominent in today’s society, it is important for marketers and others to understand who is using these platforms and how this usage affects overall happiness. Using data gathered from the General Social Survey (GSS) 2016 Cross-Section and a survey created and distributed to Western Kentucky University (WKU) Students, this research examines the effect of demographic variables on whether or not respondents utilize Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat. Then, the impact of having accounts on these social media platforms on users’ overall general happiness is analyzed. Several other regressions were run and ...


The Effects Of Food Security On Socioeconomic Mobility In The United States: A Case Study In Allendale County, South Carolina, Taylor St Clarke May 2018

The Effects Of Food Security On Socioeconomic Mobility In The United States: A Case Study In Allendale County, South Carolina, Taylor St Clarke

Senior Theses

This thesis examines the relationship between food security – defined as accessibility to an affordable, nutritious, and sustainable source of food – and socioeconomic mobility in the continental United States. This thesis is primarily focused on the effects of food insecurity on both individuals and communities, examining the chronic long-term effects of such insecurity on areas known as “food deserts,” which are often given status as areas of persistent poverty. This research further examines the effects of a sustained poor diet, brought about by food insecurity, on the individual and overarching community in a food desert and how such a diet impacts ...


Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns: Outputs From Plenary Discussion Of The European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Apr 2018

Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns: Outputs From Plenary Discussion Of The European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The fourth Plenary meeting of the European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work was held in Brussels on 8-9 March 2018. The first day of this meeting was dedicated to the topic of the preventative approach towards tackling undeclared work, with a focus upon service vouchers and awareness raising. This report summarises the discussions at the meeting, drawing also on the forthcoming study on this topic which has been developed as part of the Platform’s work programme


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: April 25, 2018, Eric Thompson Apr 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: April 25, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 rose by 0.88% during March of 2018. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the Nebraska economy will grow steadily through the summer of 2018. Strong business expectations, rising manufacturing hours and rising air passenger enplanements were the reasons for the LEI-N increase. Respondents to the March Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase both sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. Initial claims for unemployment insurance changed little during March but there was a ...


Splitting The Bill: Estimating Personal Consumption In Case Of Wrongful Death, Kathleen Ellis, David I. Rosenbaum Apr 2018

Splitting The Bill: Estimating Personal Consumption In Case Of Wrongful Death, Kathleen Ellis, David I. Rosenbaum

UCARE Research Products

In cases of wrongful death, the decedent’s survivors may sue alleged responsible parties for lost financial support. Forensic experts estimate a deceased individual’s personal consumption rate in order to separate the portion of the decedent’s income spent on him- or herself from the amount available as financial support for dependents. This paper enhances the prevailing estimation process by regressing consumption rates over individual households surveyed by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in its annual Consumer Expenditure Survey. We contend that this method improves the precision of estimates by accounting for the inherent heterogeneity in consumption ...


Starting-Up Unregistered And Firm Performance In Turkey, Colin C. Williams Mar 2018

Starting-Up Unregistered And Firm Performance In Turkey, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Recent years have seen a questioning of the negative representation of
informal sector entrepreneurship and an emergent view that it may offer significant
benefits. This paper advances this rethinking by evaluating the relationship between
business registration and future firm performance. Until now, the assumption has been
that starting-up unregistered is linked to weaker firm performance. Using World Bank
Enterprise Survey data on 2494 formal enterprises in Turkey, and controlling for other
determinants of firm performance as well as the endogeneity of the registration
decision, the finding is that formal enterprises that started-up unregistered and spent
longer unregistered have significantly higher ...


Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: March 21, 2018, Eric Thompson Mar 2018

Nebraska Monthly Economic Indicators: March 21, 2018, Eric Thompson

Leading Economic Indicator Reports

The Leading Economic Indicator – Nebraska (LEI-N) 1 rose by 1.03% during February of 2018. The increase in the LEI-N, which is designed to predict economic activity six months into the future, suggests that the Nebraska economy will grow steadily through the third quarter of 2018. Solid business expectations and a strong labor market were the primary reasons for the increase in the LEI-N. Respondents to the February Survey of Nebraska Business reported plans to increase sales and employment at their businesses over the next six months. Further, there was a decline in initial claims for unemployment insurance during February ...