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Full-Text Articles in Business

Backing Up Into Advocacy: The Case Of Smartphone Driver Distraction, Robert Rosenberger May 2020

Backing Up Into Advocacy: The Case Of Smartphone Driver Distraction, Robert Rosenberger

The Journal of Sociotechnical Critique

For the last decade, I’ve been studying the topic of the driving impairment of smartphones. While this began as an exclusively academic project, it has increasingly compelled public engagement. One example of this came in an opinion piece I wrote in 2018 in response to a new traffic law. I take the opportunity here to fill out the academic backstory of this particular op-ed, reflect on how this larger project has evolved to include an unanticipated public-facing edge, and abstract some lessons about public writing.


Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese May 2020

Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

To meet the environmental challenges of a warming planet and an increasingly complex, high tech economy, government must become smarter about how it makes policies and deploys its limited resources. It specifically needs to build a robust capacity to analyze large volumes of environmental and economic data by using machine-learning algorithms to improve regulatory oversight, monitoring, and decision-making. Three challenges can be expected to drive the need for algorithmic environmental governance: more problems, less funding, and growing public demands. This paper explains why algorithmic governance will prove pivotal in meeting these challenges, but it also presents four likely obstacles that ...


Digital Accessibility In The Hospitality And Tourism Industry: Legal And Ethical Considerations, Debra D. Burke, Kenneth J. Sanney, Dan Clapper May 2020

Digital Accessibility In The Hospitality And Tourism Industry: Legal And Ethical Considerations, Debra D. Burke, Kenneth J. Sanney, Dan Clapper

William & Mary Business Law Review

Federal law requires accessibility for public sector websites. What about the web pages and apps of hotels, restaurants, and tourism providers? The Americans with Disabilities Act may cover private sector websites if they are considered a place of public accommodation, but the law is unclear. This Article will provide an overview of the legal responsibilities of operators to provide accessibility to persons with disabilities, discuss the World Wide Web Consortium’s guidelines for web accessibility, and argue that the hospitality and tourism industry has a unique ethical obligation to fill in the gap where the legal system has failed this ...


Patent And Trademark Resource Center Websites: A Content Analysis, Jared Hoppenfeld May 2020

Patent And Trademark Resource Center Websites: A Content Analysis, Jared Hoppenfeld

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Patent and Trademark Resource Centers (PTRCs) serve as an off-site connection to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Approximately 85 PTRCs exist to assist inventors, entrepreneurs, and researchers by providing facilities, resources, and expertise. Most of these libraries also have a website which, in addition to USPTO webpages, serves as a gateway to the world of patent and trademark research. These websites provide access to various resources while also functioning as an outreach tool to the public.

This study included a content analysis of 79 websites belonging to PTRC libraries. After a literature review of other website studies ...


Quirky Patent Coloring Books: An Outreach Project Focused On Changing The Patent Culture One Patent Coloring Book At A Time, Paulina Borrego May 2020

Quirky Patent Coloring Books: An Outreach Project Focused On Changing The Patent Culture One Patent Coloring Book At A Time, Paulina Borrego

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

No abstract provided.


Broadening The Patent Experience: The Value Of Piug And Attending The Patent Information Users Group (Piug) Annual Conference, Paulina Borrego, Rachel Knapp May 2020

Broadening The Patent Experience: The Value Of Piug And Attending The Patent Information Users Group (Piug) Annual Conference, Paulina Borrego, Rachel Knapp

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

No abstract provided.


Issued Patents In A University’S Institutional Repository, Suzanne Reinman, Janet Ahrberg May 2020

Issued Patents In A University’S Institutional Repository, Suzanne Reinman, Janet Ahrberg

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Beginning in 2016, patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) granted to Oklahoma State University were included in SHAREOK (https://shareok.org/.). The joint institutional repository for the Oklahoma State University Libraries (OSU) and the University of Oklahoma Libraries (OU), SHAREOK serves as the home for the intellectual output of both communities and will ultimately include digital dissertations, faculty publications, digital special collections, open access publications, and open educational resources. Including patents has increased the depth of the collection and allows them to be searched or indexed by date, author, title, and subject/classification. Using DSpace ...


Piug: Patent Information Users Group, Inc.: A History Of The International Society For Patent Information Professionals, Barbara J. Hampton May 2020

Piug: Patent Information Users Group, Inc.: A History Of The International Society For Patent Information Professionals, Barbara J. Hampton

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Efforts to view and analyze patents began soon after the first patents were filed in the novel system founded in the U.S. Constitution. In the succeeding 200 plus years, classification and indexing tools have evolved from paper to digital, with searching demanding ever-higher skills. Answering the need of patent researchers and analysts for advocacy, scholarship, and professional education, leading searchers founded the Patent Information Users Group, Inc., now the pre-eminent professional organization for patent searchers in the United States. It offers formal coursework for prospective patent searchers, colloquia, and conferences where novice searchers can master their craft. Searchers, who ...


Sovereign Immunity Issues For Tech Transfer Programs At State Universities, Agnes Gambill May 2020

Sovereign Immunity Issues For Tech Transfer Programs At State Universities, Agnes Gambill

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Technology transfer is the process of transforming research and ideas into viable commercial opportunities. Notable examples of tech transfer include Google, artificial intelligence, life-saving vaccines, and renewable energy technology. Universities and colleges play an important role in the technology transfer process, ranging from brokering commercial partnerships, negotiating license agreements, and protecting intellectual property. Valuable patents are often at stake, and as a result, universities should anticipate litigation risks. State universities, in particular, face new and unusual challenges as a result of their status as state entities. Under the 11th Amendment, state universities, as an arm of the state, can claim ...


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


New Policies Give Solar Users An Economic Boost, Olivia Fowler May 2020

New Policies Give Solar Users An Economic Boost, Olivia Fowler

Marriott Student Review

The future looks bright for Solar Energy, as more States and Territories in the United States commit to moving to 100% renewable energy. What are the different states and territories committing to exactly, and what economic incentives are they bringing? Find out in this article by author Olivia Fowley.


Business Ethics: Co-Opting Macro-Influences For Corporate Success, Aaron Loertscher May 2020

Business Ethics: Co-Opting Macro-Influences For Corporate Success, Aaron Loertscher

Marriott Student Review

Business ethics matter. Businesses can and should mitigate the macro-influences that their employees face to promote high ethical values which will in turn maximize shareholder value.


Multigenerational Perceptions Of The Law Enforcement Work Environment, William K. Akin May 2020

Multigenerational Perceptions Of The Law Enforcement Work Environment, William K. Akin

Ed.D. Dissertations

Leaders struggle to address shifting characteristics between generational cohorts in a multigenerational workforce. Research has shown that law enforcement culture supports an antiquated approach to leadership and that popular generational stereotypes are not consistent with behaviors in the workplace. This research was designed to help the law enforcement community understand generational values, beliefs, and work ethics, and to recommend ways to reduce generational stereotypes, address employee shortages, and improve the overall connection to their communities. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II was used in an online survey to anonymously collect data from 441 law enforcement participants within the Baby Boomer, Generation ...


The 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: Analyzing Its Financial Impact On Division I Universities, Judge Nash Mcwithey May 2020

The 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act: Analyzing Its Financial Impact On Division I Universities, Judge Nash Mcwithey

Honors Theses

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act has had a substantial impact in the United States since its inception in 2017. This tax code overhaul has had a profound effect on the way Division I universities operate their athletic department operations and fundraising efforts. By creating new channels of federal tax revenues and eliminating deductions, such as the “80/20” premium seating deduction that has been used by universities, athletic programs have already begun to see a shift in how they must operate. This modification is done in order to avoid any major repercussions from the new tax code. This thesis ...


Loans And Marketing Guarantees In Athlete Agent Recruiting: Why They Are Ill-Advised Under Agency Law And Attorney Ethics Regulations Principles, Joshua Lens May 2020

Loans And Marketing Guarantees In Athlete Agent Recruiting: Why They Are Ill-Advised Under Agency Law And Attorney Ethics Regulations Principles, Joshua Lens

Texas A&M Law Review

Athlete agents use various means to recruit prospective clients. Controversial yet common methods include offering loans and marketing guarantees to prospective clients. In each transaction, the agent provides his client with money, in some cases amounting to millions of dollars. The agent typically expects repayment of the loan whereas the marketing guarantee is an advance on future marketing income that the agent will arrange for the athlete. While both National Football League Players Association (“NFLPA”) agent regulations and state athlete agent laws prohibit agents from offering inducements to prospective clients, neither authority considers loans or marketing guarantees illicit or prohibits ...


Discrimination Against Employees Without Covid-19 Antibodies, Debbie N. Kaminer May 2020

Discrimination Against Employees Without Covid-19 Antibodies, Debbie N. Kaminer

Publications and Research

Policies that favor those with immunity to a contagious disease are a novel concept and have not been used in recent United States history. It is important to think about the legal and policy issues associated with banning employees without immunity to Covid-19 from the workplace and the appropriate balance between an individual’s right to work and the public health of the nation. In doing so, it is useful to compare these policies to immunization laws, mandatory retirement laws and the Americans with Disabilities Act.


Cryptocurrencies: An Overview, Investment Investigation, Comparative Analysis, And Regulatory Proposals, Jacob Franzen May 2020

Cryptocurrencies: An Overview, Investment Investigation, Comparative Analysis, And Regulatory Proposals, Jacob Franzen

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

With cryptocurrencies moving out of obscurity and into the public eye, the initial purpose of this research paper is to provide the history of cryptocurrencies, to explain the complex workings in and around cryptocurrencies, investigate their investment potential, and to draw attention to their potential for misuse. To follow, the primary purpose is to create a platform on which to compare cryptocurrencies with more common mediums of exchange, analyze their current international regulatory climate, highlight their trends within influential nations, discuss their pending and future regulation, and provide personal proposals for additional regulation. Due to the complex nature of the ...


The Cost Of Big Data: Evaluating The Effects Of The European Union’S General Data Protection Regulation, Kara Rebecca White May 2020

The Cost Of Big Data: Evaluating The Effects Of The European Union’S General Data Protection Regulation, Kara Rebecca White

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


What Consumers Don’T Know They’Re Giving Away (Data And Privacy Concerns), Bayleigh Reeves May 2020

What Consumers Don’T Know They’Re Giving Away (Data And Privacy Concerns), Bayleigh Reeves

Marketing Undergraduate Honors Theses

The modern world leverages technology and information captured by it in ways the inventors of these technologies likely never imagined. Phones and other devices are gathering information about consumers in the background when they do not even realize it. Pew Research Center found that about 77% of Americans own a smartphone and 88% use the internet. This mass access to technology and information tracking raises many privacy concerns. Basic demographic information is being tracked as well as more in-depth information like shopping tendencies, financial information, and information about known associates. While most of this data is being used for marketing ...


Examining Farm Bill Expenditures Over The Last Decade, Bailey Riggs May 2020

Examining Farm Bill Expenditures Over The Last Decade, Bailey Riggs

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

The American Farm Bill is a bill that is passed by Congress every five to six years. This legislation is omnibus, meaning it covers a wide variety of topics such as nutrition, conservation, rural development, crop insurance, and much more. This thesis will study the effectiveness of the allocation of funding covered in the Farm Bill, specifically Farm Bills from the last 12 years. This bill has a significant impact on farmers who need support from the government to remain profitable and continue their operation. This thesis will examine how shifts in funding can affect farmers growing crops, raising beef ...


Startups And Investors And Trolls, Oh My!: How Commercialization Patents Can Benefit Startup Innovation, Robert Chou May 2020

Startups And Investors And Trolls, Oh My!: How Commercialization Patents Can Benefit Startup Innovation, Robert Chou

Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property

Venture-backed startups play a crucial role in innovation and advancing our technology. However, the development of secondary markets for patents and the proliferation of patent assertion entities starting in the early twenty-first century has made the patent ecosystem a difficult environment for startups to navigate. Startups face challenges that their more established counterparts do not. First, startups must rely heavily on external sources of funding and, as a result, many decide to file for patents early in their lifecycle to signal their value to potential investors. Second, patent assertion entities threaten startups with patent infringement suits at a disproportionately high ...


Commercial Law Intersections, Giuliano Castellano, Andrea Tosato Apr 2020

Commercial Law Intersections, Giuliano Castellano, Andrea Tosato

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Commercial law is not a single, monolithic entity. It has grown into a dense thicket of subject-specific branches that govern a broad range of transactions and corporate actions. When one of these events falls concurrently within the purview of two or more of these commercial law branches - such as corporate law, intellectual property law, secured transactions law, conduct and prudential regulation - an overlap materializes. We refer to this legal phenomenon as a commercial law intersection (CLI). Some notable examples of transactions that feature CLIs include bank loans secured by shares, supply chain financing arrangements, patent cross-licensing, and blockchain-based initial coin ...


An Essay On Pluralism In Financial Market Infrastructure Design: The Case Of Securities Holding In The United States, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Apr 2020

An Essay On Pluralism In Financial Market Infrastructure Design: The Case Of Securities Holding In The United States, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay will appear as a chapter in a forthcoming edited volume published by Oxford University Press. It builds on the earlier article, Beyond Intermediation: A New (FinTech) Model for Securities Holding Infrastructures, 22 U. Pa. J. Bus. L. 386 (2020), which argues that serious consideration should be given to modifications of the deeply intermediated securities holding systems in the United States and elsewhere. Many of the costs and risks imposed by the intermediated holding systems fall within the domain of the regulation of securities markets (internal costs), such as impairments of shareholder voting and bondholder claims against issuers. Others ...


Guarantees And Capital Infusions In Response To Financial Crises B: U.S. Guarantees During The Global Financial Crisis, June Rhee, Andrew Metrick Apr 2020

Guarantees And Capital Infusions In Response To Financial Crises B: U.S. Guarantees During The Global Financial Crisis, June Rhee, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

During 2008-09, the federal government extended multiple guarantee programs in an effort to restore the financial market and contain the panic and crisis in the market. For example, the Treasury provided a temporary guarantee program for the money market funds, the FDIC decided to stand behind certain debts and non-interest-bearing transaction accounts, and the Treasury, the FDIC, and the Federal Reserve agreed to share losses in certain assets belonging to Citigroup. This case reviews these guarantee programs implemented during the global financial crisis by the government and explores the different rationale that shaped certain design features of each program.


Guarantees And Capital Infusions In Response To Financial Crises A: Haircuts And Resolutions, June Rhee, Andrew Metrick Apr 2020

Guarantees And Capital Infusions In Response To Financial Crises A: Haircuts And Resolutions, June Rhee, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

After the mortgage market meltdown in mid-2007 and during the financial crisis in 2008, major financial institutions around the world were on the verge of collapsing one after another. Faced with these troubles, the government had to respond quickly to contain the crisis as efficiently as possible. It was, however, limited in resources, time, and experience. To make matters worse, the complexity and opaqueness of the financial market and these institutions greatly affected the government’s ability to design an efficient and consistent method to contain the crisis. Shortly after Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008, American ...


The Legal Authorities Framing The Government’S Response To The Global Financial Crisis, Scott G. Alvarez Esq., Thomas C. Baxter Jr., Esq., Robert F. Hoyt Esq. Apr 2020

The Legal Authorities Framing The Government’S Response To The Global Financial Crisis, Scott G. Alvarez Esq., Thomas C. Baxter Jr., Esq., Robert F. Hoyt Esq.

Journal of Financial Crises

The 2007–09 global financial crisis required that the Federal Reserve, Treasury Department and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation survey their various legal authorities and consider how they might be used to mitigate the meltdown of the United States financial system. This essay explores the range of legal authorities and procedural issues presented by key facilities implemented during the crisis, many of which were new and creative. This essay also provides valuable examples of how such authorities were used and describes how, in some instances, agencies worked together to design innovative interventions that no separate agency could have achieved alone.


Australian National Audit Office: Evaluating Australian Army Program Performance, Bert Chapman Apr 2020

Australian National Audit Office: Evaluating Australian Army Program Performance, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) evaluates the management and financial performance of Australian government programs for the Australian Parliament, Australian government agencies, Australian taxpayers, and individuals interested in the performance of these programs globally. This article examines how ANAO has examined the performance of Australian Army programs and strengths and weaknesses found in these programs while recommending changes to improve program performance. It also examines how government agencies and corporations which have been the subject of ANAO analyses have reacted to ANAO findings. This assessment also examines how Plan B (the possibility that Australia might have to rely less ...


Citizen Engagement In Aquatics Equity: The Case Of Winston Waterworks, Steven N. Waller Phd, James H. Bemiller Jd, Emliy J. Johnson, Chermaine D. Cole, Jason Scott Phd, Angela Wozencroft, Phd Apr 2020

Citizen Engagement In Aquatics Equity: The Case Of Winston Waterworks, Steven N. Waller Phd, James H. Bemiller Jd, Emliy J. Johnson, Chermaine D. Cole, Jason Scott Phd, Angela Wozencroft, Phd

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Historically, swimming pools have been a source of inequity when it comes to the distribution of recreation services in the United States. Many of the problems that correlate with the inequitable allocation of recreation resources including public swimming pools began with ideas about race, geography, poor planning practices and faulty policymaking (Rothstein, 2017). Moreover, one of the primary outcomes of engaged, inclusive planning is equity in the provision of recreation programs and facilities. In this essay, we offer a summary of key legal cases that help address questions related resource allocation related to public swimming pools. Finally, we present a ...


Lgbtq Training For Aquatic Employees: Impact On Attitudes And Professional Competencies, Austin R. Anderson, Eric Knee, William D. Ramos Apr 2020

Lgbtq Training For Aquatic Employees: Impact On Attitudes And Professional Competencies, Austin R. Anderson, Eric Knee, William D. Ramos

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study examined the impact of a LGBTQ diversity training on the attitudes and professional competencies of aquatic employees within a campus recreational sports setting. While diversity training is often discussed as a key component of inclusive aquatic programming, little empirical research examining the outcomes associated with such trainings exists. As such, members of the research team developed, implemented, and evaluated a four-month long training program consisting of one in-person training session and monthly inclusion handouts discussing issues related to the inclusion of LGBTQ participants. A comparative quantitative research design was used to measure employee’s attitudes towards the LGBTQ ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aquatic Programming At Historically Black Colleges And Universities (Hbcus), Tiffany Monique Quash, Knolan C. Rawlins, Shaun M. Anderson Apr 2020

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aquatic Programming At Historically Black Colleges And Universities (Hbcus), Tiffany Monique Quash, Knolan C. Rawlins, Shaun M. Anderson

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This article provides a comprehensive examination of aquatic programming at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). HBCUs consist of public, private, 2-year, and 4-year institutions (U.S. Department of Education, 2018). Historically, HBCUs provided descendants of the enslaved access to higher education opportunities (Brown, Donahoo, & Bertrand, 2001). HBCUs now serve a more diverse community and the core focus remains on inclusion, social justice, diversity, empowerment, leadership, and cultural competence (Kennedy, 2012; Rawlins, 2018). Consequently, HBCUs may provide an ideal environment to address aquatic activity and the drowning disparity in the African American community. In the current study, researchers sent a survey to 102 HBCUs to better assess the prevalence of aquatics programming at these institutions. Approximately 38 percent of the HBCUs responded to the survey. The ...