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Archaeology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 618

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Archaeology And Conservation Of The Middle Phrygian Gate Complex At Gordion, Turkey, Semih Gönen, Richard F. Liebhart, Naomi F. Miller, Elspeth Dusinberre May 2018

Archaeology And Conservation Of The Middle Phrygian Gate Complex At Gordion, Turkey, Semih Gönen, Richard F. Liebhart, Naomi F. Miller, Elspeth Dusinberre

Classics Faculty Contributions

In 2016, a project was undertaken at Gordion, Turkey, to stabilize and conserve the remains of a rubble platform built early in the Middle Phrygian period (ca. 800–700 b.c.e.) under the vast Gate Complex leading to the megarons on the Citadel Mound. In the process, aspects of Middle Phrygian building strategies came to light that enhanced our understanding gained from the original excavation in the 1950s. This article outlines the archaeology of the Middle Phrygian Gate Complex and the sophisticated internal structures that lent stability to the rubble platform upon which it was built, and examines the ...


Kinetic Landscape And Unalloyed Potential: Rethinking The Extractive Landscape Of Michigan's Native Mass Copper Mining Industry, Sean Gohman Jan 2018

Kinetic Landscape And Unalloyed Potential: Rethinking The Extractive Landscape Of Michigan's Native Mass Copper Mining Industry, Sean Gohman

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation examines the extractive landscape and persistent lifespan of native mass copper mining in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. The historic native copper mining industry of Michigan lasted for over a century, though its impacts on the landscape can be broken into two distinct, though overlapping, phases of extractive practice: mass mining and disseminated lode mining. Each mined specific native copper deposits, utilized related but specialized technologies, and relied upon different sources of energy to power its practices. A first, formative phase of mass mining exploited fissures of pure metallic copper using traditional technology and organic sources of fuel. A ...


Victorious Athena: The Cult And The Temple Of Athena Nike, Brynlie-Sage Johnston Jan 2018

Victorious Athena: The Cult And The Temple Of Athena Nike, Brynlie-Sage Johnston

Senior Projects Spring 2018


Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


Historic Preservation Law In A Nutshell (2d Ed.), Sara C. Bronin, Ryan M. Rowberry Dec 2017

Historic Preservation Law In A Nutshell (2d Ed.), Sara C. Bronin, Ryan M. Rowberry

Ryan Rowberry

The purpose of this book is to provide a concise, coherent reference for the emerging field of historic preservation law for lawyers, policymakers, planners, architects, and students alike. We consider preservation law to be “emerging” because it began to fully develop in the United States only in the last fifty years. Two key transition points happened at the federal level: the 1966 passage of the National Historic Preservation Act and the 1978 Penn Central Supreme Court decision, which upheld a landmarks law against a constitutional challenge and consequently encouraged other localities to adopt similar ordinances. (Of course, this book covers ...


Nothing But A Thing: A Visual Glossary Of California Mission Era Traditional Technologies And Material Cultures, Rubén G. Mendoza, Kate M. Mayer Oct 2017

Nothing But A Thing: A Visual Glossary Of California Mission Era Traditional Technologies And Material Cultures, Rubén G. Mendoza, Kate M. Mayer

Rubén Mendoza

No abstract provided.


María Santísima Nuestra Señora De La Soledad: The Archaeology And Architectural History Of The Ex-Misión De La Soledad, 1791-1835, Rubén Mendoza Oct 2017

María Santísima Nuestra Señora De La Soledad: The Archaeology And Architectural History Of The Ex-Misión De La Soledad, 1791-1835, Rubén Mendoza

Rubén Mendoza

No abstract provided.


An Iterative 3d Gis Analysis Of The Role Of Visibility In Ancient Maya Landscapes: A Case Study From Copan, Honduras, Heather Richards-Rissetto Mar 2017

An Iterative 3d Gis Analysis Of The Role Of Visibility In Ancient Maya Landscapes: A Case Study From Copan, Honduras, Heather Richards-Rissetto

Anthropology Faculty Publications

For several decades, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) have held center stage in archaeological studies of ancient landscapes. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) technologies such as airborne LiDAR and aerial photogrammetry are allowing us to acquire inordinate amounts of georeferenced 3D data to locate, map, and visualize archaeological sites within their surrounding landscapes. GIS offers locational precision, data overlay, and complex spatial analysis. Three-dimensionality adds a ground-based perspective lacking in two-dimensional GIS maps to provide archaeologists a sense of mass and space more closely attuned with human perception. This article uses comparative and iterative approaches ‘tacking back and forth’ between GIS and 3D ...


The Archaeology Of Sam Rayburn Reservoir, Edward B. Jelks Jan 2017

The Archaeology Of Sam Rayburn Reservoir, Edward B. Jelks

CRHR Research Reports

This is an archeological study of the McGee Bend Reservoir (Sam Rayburn Reservoir) area of eastern Texas as revealed through the analysis of 14 sites that were excavated there between 1956 and 1962. The reservoir, currently under construction on the Angelina River near Jasper, will be some 50 miles long when completed in 1965, with major arms extending up Ayish and Attoyac bayous. The lake will be named for the late Sam Rayburn.

Most of the archeological work was done during extended field seasons in the fall months of 1956, 1957, and 1960; a brief season in the fall of ...


Holmpatrick Graveyard — A Description, Frank Prendergast Jan 2017

Holmpatrick Graveyard — A Description, Frank Prendergast

Other Resources

The term ‘graveyard’ describes a burial ground attached to a church, and ‘historic graveyard’ describes any graveyard or burial ground in use prior to the early twentieth-century. In such places, communities connect with their own history and ancestry, and identify with their place of origin. They have cultural and heritage significance too and, for these reasons, their conservation and interpretation are necessary.

Holmpatrick Graveyard is situated in the centre of Skerries, a small coastal town 27 km north of Dublin City. An archipelago of three small islands fringes the local coastline. One of these is locally known as Church Island ...


2016 Archaeological Investigations At The Sanders Site (41lr2), Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters Jan 2016

2016 Archaeological Investigations At The Sanders Site (41lr2), Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mark Walters

CRHR Research Reports

The T. M. Sanders site (41LR2) is a large and impressive ancestral Caddo mound center and village situated on an alluvial terrace (450 ft. amsl) at the mouth of Bois d’Arc Creek and the Red River. With the permission of the landowners (the Crawford family and the Sanders family), periodic archaeological and geophysical investigations have been conducted across much of the 200+ acres of the Sanders site since 2013; this article primarily discusses the work done in March 2016. These archaeological investigations, including controlled surface collections and shovel testing, recovered significant new information from many of the 39 non-mound ...


3d Tool Evaluation And Workflow For An Ecological Approach To Visualizing Ancient Socio-Environmental Landscapes: A Case Study From Copan, Honduras, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Shona Sanford-Long, Jack Kerby-Miller Jan 2016

3d Tool Evaluation And Workflow For An Ecological Approach To Visualizing Ancient Socio-Environmental Landscapes: A Case Study From Copan, Honduras, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Shona Sanford-Long, Jack Kerby-Miller

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Architectural reconstructions are the centerpieces of ancient landscape visualization. When present, vegetation is relegated to the background, resulting in underutilized plant data—an integral data source for archaeological interpretation—thus limiting the capacity to take advantage of 3D visualization for studying ancient socio-environmental dynamics. Our long-term objective is to develop methods of 3D landscape visualization that have value for examining changes in land use and settlement patterns. To begin to work toward this objective, we have (1) identified 3D tools and techniques for vegetation modeling and landscape visualization, (2) evaluated the pros and cons of these tools, (3) investigated biological ...


Reconstructing Critical Perspectives: An Excursus On The Archaeological Interpretations Of Power & Ideology In The William Paca Garden, Erica Frances Witzenburg Jan 2016

Reconstructing Critical Perspectives: An Excursus On The Archaeological Interpretations Of Power & Ideology In The William Paca Garden, Erica Frances Witzenburg

Senior Projects Spring 2016

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Bioarchaeological Investigations Of Nineteenth-Century African American Burials At The Pioneer Cemetery (41bo202) In Brazoria, Texas, Aaron R. Norment, Jeremy W. Pye, Cory J. Broehm, Douglas K. Boyd Jan 2016

Bioarchaeological Investigations Of Nineteenth-Century African American Burials At The Pioneer Cemetery (41bo202) In Brazoria, Texas, Aaron R. Norment, Jeremy W. Pye, Cory J. Broehm, Douglas K. Boyd

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A search for unmarked graves in the state-owned right of way and underneath the pavement of State Highway 332 resulted in the discovery and archeological excavation of 11 unmarked graves associated with Pioneer Cemetery, an African American burial ground in Brazoria, Texas. Prewitt and Associates, Inc., conducted the fieldwork for the Texas Department of Transportation’s Archeological Studies Program. Between 2008 and 2012, the 11 unmarked graves were discovered, exhumed, analyzed, and then reinterred in Pioneer Cemetery in September 2012. This report describes the bioarcheological investigations of those burials along with 3 other unmarked burials that were previously exhumed and ...


An Architectural Perspective On Structured Sacred Space—Recent Evidence From Iron Age Ireland, Frank Prendergast Jan 2015

An Architectural Perspective On Structured Sacred Space—Recent Evidence From Iron Age Ireland, Frank Prendergast

Book/Book Chapter

N/A


Archaeological Investigations At The Christopher Columbus Italian Society Property And Columbus Park: 41bx1968, The Possible First Site Of Mission San Antonio De Valero, Kristi Miller Nichols Jan 2015

Archaeological Investigations At The Christopher Columbus Italian Society Property And Columbus Park: 41bx1968, The Possible First Site Of Mission San Antonio De Valero, Kristi Miller Nichols

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In May of 2013, the Center for Archaeological Research of The University of Texas at San Antonio was contracted by the San Antonio Conservation Society (SACS) to explore the Spanish Colonial archaeological deposits and a feature that were recently identified in a lot owned by the Christopher Columbus Italian Society and next to the San Francesco di Paola Church in north-central San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. Based on a number of historical descriptions, the deposits were thought to possibly be associated with the first location of Mission San Antonio de Valero that was established in 1718. Thirty-one shovel tests were ...


Archaeological Investigations Within San Pedro Springs Park (41bx19), San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, Raymond Mauldin, Stephen Smith, Sarah Wigley, Antonia Figueroa, Clinton Mckenzie Jan 2015

Archaeological Investigations Within San Pedro Springs Park (41bx19), San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, Raymond Mauldin, Stephen Smith, Sarah Wigley, Antonia Figueroa, Clinton Mckenzie

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The University of Texas at San Antonio Center for Archaeological Research (UTSA-CAR) contracted with Adams Environmental, Inc. to provide archaeological services to Capital Improvement Management (CIMS) of the City of San Antonio (COSA) related to the archaeological investigation of selected areas of San Pedro Springs Park in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. The CAR conducted archaeological testing at this National Register Site, 41BX19, from early December 2013 to mid-January of 2014. The goals of archaeological investigations were to identify and investigate any proto-historic and historic archaeological deposits associated with Colonial Period occupants of the area, including evidence of the first ...


The Ransom And Sarah Williams Farmstead: Post-Emancipation Transitions Of An African American Family In Central Texas Vol. 2, Douglas K. Boyd, Aaron R. Norment, Terri Myers, Maria Franklin, Nedra Lee, Leslie L. Bush, Brian S. Shaffer Jan 2015

The Ransom And Sarah Williams Farmstead: Post-Emancipation Transitions Of An African American Family In Central Texas Vol. 2, Douglas K. Boyd, Aaron R. Norment, Terri Myers, Maria Franklin, Nedra Lee, Leslie L. Bush, Brian S. Shaffer

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In conjunction with the proposed construction of the southwest segment of State Highway 45 in southern Travis County, the Texas Department of Transportation sponsored archeological testing and data recovery efforts at the Ransom Williams farmstead. Prewitt and Associates, Inc., conducted an interdisciplinary community-based historic archeological study of the farmstead from 2005 through 2011. Extensive archival research reveals that the 45-acre farm was owned and occupied by Ransom Williams and his wife Sarah, both former slaves, from about 1871 to ca. 1905. The Williams family lived in the predominantly white rural community of Bear Creek, but they had connections to the ...


Eligibility Assessment Of The Slippery Slope Site (41ms69) In Txdot Right-Of-Way In Mason County, Texas, J. Michael Quigg, Paul M. Matchen, Charles D. Frederick, Robert A. Ricklis Jan 2015

Eligibility Assessment Of The Slippery Slope Site (41ms69) In Txdot Right-Of-Way In Mason County, Texas, J. Michael Quigg, Paul M. Matchen, Charles D. Frederick, Robert A. Ricklis

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A private landowner reported archeolgical materials were looted along a steep road cut on the southwestern side of Farm to Market (FM) road 1871 along the Llano River south of Mason, Texas (CSJ: 1111-04-002). The landowner was concerned that looting had undermined massive oak trees enough that they might fall directly onto the roadway below. The looting was occurring within Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) right-of-way and east of the existing fence line.

In June 2004, archeologists from the Planning, Permitting and Licensing Practice of TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) Austin office conducted a site specific recording, geoarcheological investigation, and archeological ...


Archaeological Data Recovery At Fish Creek Slough Site (41dl436), David L. Nickels Jan 2015

Archaeological Data Recovery At Fish Creek Slough Site (41dl436), David L. Nickels

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Fish Creek Slough site (41DL436) is a well stratified, multi-component, open campsite situated on an alluvial terrace on the west bank of Fish Creek in Dallas County, Texas. Discovered in 2005, the site contains an abundance of faunal material, charcoal, and burned clay within multiple, discrete stratified zones. The site was evaluated by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT ) as eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Because the site was within the right-of-way for a planned road and bridge construction project, and as directed by the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, TxDOT elected to ...


Archaeological And Geological Test Excavations At Site 41hm61, Hamilton County, Texas, Richard A. Weinstein Jan 2015

Archaeological And Geological Test Excavations At Site 41hm61, Hamilton County, Texas, Richard A. Weinstein

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

ᆳchaeological testing at 41HM61 to determine if thatsite is eligible for inclusion in the National Registerof Historic Places (NRHP). The site, which is located in northern Hamilton County, Texas, would beaffected by replacement of the current U.S. Highway281 bridge over the Leon River. ᆳᆳogists had previously examined the bridge locationthrough a series of 14 backhoe trenches in the searchfor buried cultural remains. Although such remainswere found, it was uncertain at the time whether theywere in situ or had been eroded out of several known sites located just upstream and then transporteddownriver to the bridge location. CEI was contracted by ...


The Ransom And Sarah Williams Farmstead: Post-Emancipation Transitions Of An African American Family In Central Texas Vol. 1, Douglas K. Boyd, Aaron R. Norment, Terri Myers, Maria Franklin, Nedra Lee, Leslie L. Bush, Brian S. Shaffer Jan 2015

The Ransom And Sarah Williams Farmstead: Post-Emancipation Transitions Of An African American Family In Central Texas Vol. 1, Douglas K. Boyd, Aaron R. Norment, Terri Myers, Maria Franklin, Nedra Lee, Leslie L. Bush, Brian S. Shaffer

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In conjunction with the proposed construction of the southwest segment of State Highway 45 in southern Travis County, the Texas Department of Transportation sponsored archeological testing and data recovery efforts at the Ransom Williams farmstead. Prewitt and Associates, Inc., conducted an interdisciplinary community-based historic archeological study of the farmstead from 2005 through 2011. Extensive archival research reveals that the 45-acre farm was owned and occupied by Ransom Williams and his wife Sarah, both former slaves, from about 1871 to ca. 1905. The Williams family lived in the predominantly white rural community of Bear Creek, but they had connections to the ...


Data Recovery Investigations: Murvaul Creek Site (41pn175), Panola County, Texas, Arlo Mckee, Charles D. Frederick, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Leslie L. Bush, Leonard Kemp, Brittney Gregory, Chad Yost, Linda Scott Cummings, Jeffrey R. Ferguson, Michael D. Glascock, Steve Tomka, Leslie Cecil, Caroline Masiello, Xiaodong Gao, Christopher Goodmaster, Virgil Beasley Iii Jan 2015

Data Recovery Investigations: Murvaul Creek Site (41pn175), Panola County, Texas, Arlo Mckee, Charles D. Frederick, Timothy K. Perttula, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Leslie L. Bush, Leonard Kemp, Brittney Gregory, Chad Yost, Linda Scott Cummings, Jeffrey R. Ferguson, Michael D. Glascock, Steve Tomka, Leslie Cecil, Caroline Masiello, Xiaodong Gao, Christopher Goodmaster, Virgil Beasley Iii

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This report summarizes the archeological findings of the 2011 data recovery investigations at the Murvaul Creek site, 41PN175, in far northeastern Texas in Panola County. The site is located along Farm-to-Market Road (FM) 10 approximately 1 mile north of Gary, Texas (Figure 1). Geo-Marine, Inc. (GMI), performed this work under contract to the Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division (TxDOT ENV) under the Texas Antiquities Permit Number 5879 (Work Authorization [WA] 579 06 SA005; WA 590 08 SA005; CSJ:1222-01-014; Geo-Marine project numbers 22005.00.06 and 22005.00.09). The fieldwork for this project was conducted in advance ...


Archeological Testing Of Txdot Right-Of-Way Through Site 41bl278, Bell County, Texas, J. Michael Quigg, Charles D. Frederick Jan 2015

Archeological Testing Of Txdot Right-Of-Way Through Site 41bl278, Bell County, Texas, J. Michael Quigg, Charles D. Frederick

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In January 2004, Blanton & Associates, Inc., conducted an archeological survey of 8.5 hectares (21.1 acres) for a proposed roadway improvement and bridge replacement project (CSJ: 0396-04-059) along roughly 1,800 meters (m) of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) right-ofway where State Highway (SH) 317 crosses the Leon River in Bell County, Texas (Ringstaff 2004). That investigation consisted of three shovel tests, ten backhoe trenches, and five hand-excavated columns. Five backhoe trenches and the screened trench columns were excavated in the alluvial terrace on the southern side of the Leon River and encountered a single cultural component buried ...


Seeing Red: Characterizing Historic Bricks At Sylvester Manor, Long Island, Ny 1652-1735, Martin John Schmidheiny Dec 2014

Seeing Red: Characterizing Historic Bricks At Sylvester Manor, Long Island, Ny 1652-1735, Martin John Schmidheiny

Graduate Masters Theses

The goal of this project is to develop a basic material characterization of the bricks excavated at the site of Sylvester Manor on Shelter Island, New York. In the early Manor period of 1650-1690, this early Northern provisioning plantation supplied Barbadian sugar operations and pursued mercantile interests independent of state control. Accounting for the range of production defects and material characteristics of the bricks suggests on-site or local manufacture as a regional ceramic industry developed. Qualitative visual analysis and petrographic thin-sections were used to characterize the internal composition, variation and production evidence in the bricks. Interpreting the results of this ...


Dolbadarn Castle, Caernarfonshire: A Thirteenth Century Royal Landscape, Spencer Smith Nov 2014

Dolbadarn Castle, Caernarfonshire: A Thirteenth Century Royal Landscape, Spencer Smith

Spencer Gavin Smith

No abstract provided.


From Monuments To Ruins: An Analysis Of Historical Preservation In Jordan, Mason Seymore Oct 2014

From Monuments To Ruins: An Analysis Of Historical Preservation In Jordan, Mason Seymore

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The city of Amman, Jordan manages a plethora of archaeological sites that date back several millennia. Unfortunately, with the limited resources the government has at its disposal, the city is unable to conserve the sites in the best way possible. Because of this, a public disconnect between the value of history and attempts that are made to preserve it has emerged. This study explored the effects of historical conservation in Jordanian society. More specifically, the study focused on the relationship between how the public and the government perceives historical conservation efforts in Jordan. This study attempted to answer two research ...


Roman Baths At Antiochia Ad Cragum: A Preliminary Evaluation Of Bath Architecture As Social Signals In The Ancient Mediterranean World, Holly J. Staggs Jul 2014

Roman Baths At Antiochia Ad Cragum: A Preliminary Evaluation Of Bath Architecture As Social Signals In The Ancient Mediterranean World, Holly J. Staggs

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

In Rough Cilicia, monumental public architecture was built in the initial phase of the social and political formation of Asia Minor into the Roman Empire during the Imperial Period. As bathing complexes are the most abundant and diverse types of architecture in this region, it would be beneficial to analyze the role of the baths along with their importance in this new Greco-Roman society. This study will focus on two baths at the site of Antiochia ad Cragum, seating this effort in multi-level signaling theory to understand local scale patterning and revised world systems theory to understand regional scale patterning ...


Christians In The Amphitheater? The «Christianization» Of Spectacle Buildings And Martyrial Memory, Kimberly Bowes Jan 2014

Christians In The Amphitheater? The «Christianization» Of Spectacle Buildings And Martyrial Memory, Kimberly Bowes

Departmental Papers (Classical Studies)

In order to place the site of Sant’Agnese in Agone in its broader late antique and early medieval context, this article presents an overview of the archaeological evidence for Christian spaces inside spectacle buildings – stadia, hippodromes, theaters and amphitheaters. It suggests that the «Christianization» of such buildings was very rare, and in only a few cases linked to martyrial commemoration. The paper concludes by suggesting some reasons why spectacle buildings should have been so infrequently associated with martyrial memory.


Eligibility Testing At 41bu75, Burleson County, Texas, Jennifer K. Mcwilliams, Karl W. Kibler, John E. Dockall, Eloise Frances Gadus, Ross C. Fields Jan 2014

Eligibility Testing At 41bu75, Burleson County, Texas, Jennifer K. Mcwilliams, Karl W. Kibler, John E. Dockall, Eloise Frances Gadus, Ross C. Fields

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Prewitt and Associates, Inc., conducted test excavations at site 41BU75 in Burleson County, Texas, to determine its eligibility for listing in the National Register of Historic Places and designation as a State Antiquities Landmark. The work was performed in 2007 under Texas Antiquities Permit No. 4525 for the Texas Department of Transportation, Environmental Affairs Division, in conjunction with a planned widening of FM 60, which will require up to 45 m of new right of way. The excavations consisted of six Gradall trenches and five 1x1-m hand-dug test units totaling 6.9 m3, all on state-owned land. Excavations yielded a ...


Data Recovery Investigations At The Tank Destroyer Site (41cv1378) At Fort Hood, Coryell County, Texas, Douglas K. Boyd, John E. Dockall, Karl W. Kibler, Gemma Mehalchick, Laura M. Short Jan 2014

Data Recovery Investigations At The Tank Destroyer Site (41cv1378) At Fort Hood, Coryell County, Texas, Douglas K. Boyd, John E. Dockall, Karl W. Kibler, Gemma Mehalchick, Laura M. Short

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Data recovery investigations at the Tank Destroyer site (41CV1378) were conducted in August 2007 for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). This work was required because of potential impacts to the site from TxDOT’s planned improvements of Tank Destroyer Boulevard and State Highway 9. The investigations focused on a burned rock mound (Feature 1), one-half of which has been destroyed by an adjacent tank trail. The mound contained two internal features: an off-centered earth oven and a small cluster of Rabdotus sp. shells. With the exception of the location of its earth oven, the mound at the Tank Destroyer ...