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Psychology

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2004

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The Sociopolitical Development Of Community And Labor Organizers Of Color: A Qualitative Study, Omar Guessous Dec 2004

The Sociopolitical Development Of Community And Labor Organizers Of Color: A Qualitative Study, Omar Guessous

Psychology Theses

This study applies qualitative methodology to the study of sociopolitical development (SPD) among community and labor organizers of color. Participant data (open-ended applications) were obtained from a long-standing training institution, span 18 years (n=200), and equally represent Black, Latino/a, and Asian individuals. This study sought to reveal important dimensions of SPD and to identify contributing life experiences. Three SPD themes emerged: (1) social analysis, (2) commitment, and (3) empowerment. An organizer thus exhibits multidimensional insight into social injustice, commitment to taking action, and genuine belief in his/her individual and collective abilities. Four experiential domains contributed to participants ...


The Relationships Among Perceptions Of Family Disharmony, Parent-Child Relationships, Disharmonious Family Experiences, And Adolescent Cigarette Smoking., Herbert F. Wolfe Dec 2004

The Relationships Among Perceptions Of Family Disharmony, Parent-Child Relationships, Disharmonious Family Experiences, And Adolescent Cigarette Smoking., Herbert F. Wolfe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the following perspectives: perception of family disharmony, parent-child relationships, disharmonious family relationships, and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants from a southeastern university reported about whether they smoke daily, weekly, monthly, never, or no longer smoke. The independent variable was smoking status of participants. Four to eight rating scales served as dependent variables for the three perspectives. Independent groups (smoking status) multivariate analyses of variance with unequal cell sizes were performed on the rating scale measures. Because none of the comparison tests were significant, the results were interpreted to suggest that ...


Gender And Site-Name Recall Of Geographic Sites Varying In Distance., Joshua Sean Godsey Dec 2004

Gender And Site-Name Recall Of Geographic Sites Varying In Distance., Joshua Sean Godsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research project was to replicate, refine, and extend research by Zinser et al. (in press) of the site-name, associative memory of male and female college students of nearby to very distant geographic sites. A test booklet included eight schematic aerial maps. The maps were of 20 to 50 geographic sites participants attempted to match with their names. The number of campus buildings, campus city sites, regional cities, U.S. cities, U.S. states, world cities, world countries, and world continents/bodies of water matched correctly were determined. A demographic questionnaire was also presented. Overall, men performed ...


Positive Self-Talk Statements As A Self-Esteem Building Technique Among Female Survivors Of Abuse., Fred Jackson Teaster Iii Dec 2004

Positive Self-Talk Statements As A Self-Esteem Building Technique Among Female Survivors Of Abuse., Fred Jackson Teaster Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this integrated review of literature was to explore the relationship between and among females in abusive relationships, self-esteem, and positive self-talk. Various models are discussed that provide possible explanations in the understanding of the complex social and psychological nature of cyclic abuse. These models are: learned helplessness, psychological entrapment, self-verification theory, and feminist theory. It is suggested that positive self-talk statements used by the female survivor as a basis for cognitive restructuring can act as a self-esteem building technique, thus promoting healthier cognitions over time. Furthermore, it is argued that self-esteem enhancement can assist females in developing ...


Forgiveness And Rumination: Their Relationship And Effects On Psychological And Physical Health, Kimberly A. Edmondson Dec 2004

Forgiveness And Rumination: Their Relationship And Effects On Psychological And Physical Health, Kimberly A. Edmondson

Doctoral Dissertations

Forgiveness has recently become a popular focus of research in psychology. In addition to philosophical and theological explorations, psychologists have extended the study of forgiveness into physical and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between forgiveness and rumination, as well as the associations among these two factors, health and acute physiological responses. Sixty females participated in a betrayal narrative as well as a rumination period. Two measures of state forgiveness, one measure of trait forgiveness, and two measures of trait rumination were used. Blood pressure and cortisol reactivity were assessed. State forgiveness was associated ...


Assessing The Differential Outcomes Procedure With Children Diagnosed With Autism, Ivy M. Chong Dec 2004

Assessing The Differential Outcomes Procedure With Children Diagnosed With Autism, Ivy M. Chong

Dissertations

The differential outcomes effect (DOE) refers to the phenomenon whereby discrimination learning is enhanced when a correct response to a specific sample stimulus is followed by its own unique reward (Savage, 2001). According to some researchers, the DOE is a consistent and powerful effect that enhances the acquisition and retention of conditional discriminations (e.g., Urcuioli, 1990). This series of experiments sought to extend research on the DOE. In Experiment 1, we examined the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) with four children diagnosed with autism across various task types commonly used in early intervention. In Experiment 2, we examined the DOP ...


Treatment Acceptability Of A Well-Established Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Panic Disorder In A Passamaqyoddy Community, Elizabeth Ranslow Dec 2004

Treatment Acceptability Of A Well-Established Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Panic Disorder In A Passamaqyoddy Community, Elizabeth Ranslow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As a step towards evaluating the cross-cultural effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder, treatment acceptability was used in the current study to gain an understanding of the treatment utility and social validity of that treatment with a group of Passamaquoddy individuals. American Indian communities face substantial psychosocial challenges (e-g., poverty, discrimination, and high rates of violent deaths), which are associated with increased risk for psychopathology, and there is little empirical evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy within these communities. The current study addressed these issues in two phases. In phase 1, qualitative methodology was used to ...


Emotional Intelligence As A Moderator Of Problem Based Arousal On Solution Quality And Quantity, Anne E. Herman Dec 2004

Emotional Intelligence As A Moderator Of Problem Based Arousal On Solution Quality And Quantity, Anne E. Herman

Student Work

The study examined the interactive influence o f the affective qualities of a problem and a problem solver’s emotional intelligence (El), an individual difference in the ability to perceive, express, integrate, understand, and regulate emotion, on the quality and quantity of solutions generated to two different ill-structured problems. The general hypothesis was that emotional intelligence would moderate the effect of the negative emotional arousal of a problem controlling for the influence of cognitive intelligence, such that the discrepancy between those higher and lower in emotional intelligence would be greater for the problem which is high in emotional arousal than ...


Shame And Negative Body Image In Adolescent Females, Erin K. Anderson-Fortier Dec 2004

Shame And Negative Body Image In Adolescent Females, Erin K. Anderson-Fortier

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Current research in the fields of shame, body image, and adolescent female weight has had little convergence until recently. Biological changes that occur during adolescence, particularly weight gain for females, may result in feelings of shame. Shame is an involuntary reaction to the belief that the self is inherently flawed. Body image begins to form in early childhood, and "is a multidimensional construct that refers to subjective perceptual and altitudinal experiences about one's body, particularly one's physical appearance" (Cash, Melnyk, & Hrabosky, 2004, p.305). Body image may be negatively impacted when the adolescent female's belief that her ...


Effects Of Nicotine And Anatoxin-A Exposures On The Operant Performance Of Rats, Kimberly Ann Jarema Dec 2004

Effects Of Nicotine And Anatoxin-A Exposures On The Operant Performance Of Rats, Kimberly Ann Jarema

Dissertations

Tolerance has previously been shown to develop to nicotine's effects on operant behavior. This experiment explored whether tolerance would still develop when nicotine administrations were separated by three weeks. Anatoxin-a, a nicotinic-receptor agonist, was also tested and the results were compared to nicotine. Male Long Evans rats performed under a multiple VR30 VI30-sec food-reinforcement schedule. Phase I rats were divided into 6 groups of 8 that received four weekly subcutaneous injections of nicotine (0.0-1.8 mg/kg) and anatoxin-a (0-250 mcg/kg) prior to testing sessions. An ED50 was derived, for each compound, from the VR dose-response curve ...


A Multicomponent Intervention System Using Human Performance Technology Concepts To Improve Performance In Small Service Businesses, Doug Lafleur Dec 2004

A Multicomponent Intervention System Using Human Performance Technology Concepts To Improve Performance In Small Service Businesses, Doug Lafleur

Master's Theses

A small business servicing dealerships in the chimney lining industry was responsible for training and resupplying contractors in a propriety chimney lining system. A process was developed for sharing and comparing the dealerships' financial reports and business processes. The process involved a small group of dealers attending regular 6- month meetings called Impact Groups. Dealers took turns hosting the meetings and having the attending dealers analyze their business. A detailed list of problems and solutions was provided to each host business.


Examining Restricted And Repetitive Behavior In Children With Autism: A Descriptive Study, Dawn Deann Detweiler Dec 2004

Examining Restricted And Repetitive Behavior In Children With Autism: A Descriptive Study, Dawn Deann Detweiler

Master's Theses

This exploratory study examined the specific topographies and corresponding demographic information of restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, interests and activities of children with autism, and evaluated developmental differences between age groups. Previous literature has largely neglected this core feature of autism despite the need, and frequent call for such foundational data (Bodfish et al., 2000; Kennedy et al., 2000; Mercier et al., 2000; Turner, 1999). Participants included primary caregivers of 104 children who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autism (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and ranged in age from 3 to 7 years (M = 4. 7). The behaviors reported as occurring most ...


Reinforcement Schedules Modulate Discriminative Stimulus Properties Of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine And Cocaine, Daniel Kueh Dec 2004

Reinforcement Schedules Modulate Discriminative Stimulus Properties Of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine And Cocaine, Daniel Kueh

Master's Theses

Drug discrimination is a model used to assess the subjective effects of different psychoactive drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cocaine. However, results from MDMA discrimination studies across different laboratories have not been consistent. Possible confounds for this inconsistency may include the use of different reinforcement schedules such as the fixed-ratio 20 (FR20) and the variable interval 15 seconds (VI15 s) during discrimination training. Studies examining the effects of these two schedules on the discriminative stimulus properties of MDMA and cocaine have not been conducted. Thus, the present study compared the FR20 and the VI15 s schedules to determine ...


Common Sense Parenting (Csp) Learn At Home Kit: A Clinical Effectiveness Evaluation Of A Commercially Available Video Training Program For Parents, Sean T. Smitham Dec 2004

Common Sense Parenting (Csp) Learn At Home Kit: A Clinical Effectiveness Evaluation Of A Commercially Available Video Training Program For Parents, Sean T. Smitham

Dissertations

Much has been made of the gap between psychotherapy research and clinical practice. Most current psychotherapy research is focused on what could be viewed as macro-level efficacy type issues, while practicing clinicians are often most concerned with micro-level effectiveness questions. The current study-an evaluation of a parent training (PT) program provides an example of how scientist-practitioners can contribute meaningfully to psychotherapy research by conducting small scale clinical effectiveness studies. Parent Training (PT) is a well established efficacious treatment approach for child disruptive behaviors and non-compliance. Recent research has also established that self-administered videotape PT programs may also be efficacious. A ...


Personal Narrative Views Of Mothers And Their Children: Setting Events For Mother-Child Interactions?, Meredith P. Schwartzman Dec 2004

Personal Narrative Views Of Mothers And Their Children: Setting Events For Mother-Child Interactions?, Meredith P. Schwartzman

Masters Theses

The personal narratives of mothers and children were examined for coherence and richness. Both were assessed for commonalities in narrative structure and possible links to mother’s responsiveness to child’s aversion behaviors. Narrative structure was empirically manipulated to assess changes on responsiveness and child negativity. A sample of thirty mother-child dyads were recruited for participation from normal populations and ten mother-dyads were recruited through the University of Tennessee Psychological Clinic. Measures include the Child Behavior Checklist 9CBCL; Achenback & Edelbrock, 1983), Personal Narrative (Castlebury & Wahler, 1997), and the Standardized Observation Codes-Revised (SOC-R, see Cerezo, 1988). Mother and child narratives were ...


A Multicomponent Intervention System Using Goal Setting, Feedback, And Incentives To Improve Performance In Small Service Businesses, Doug Lafleur Dec 2004

A Multicomponent Intervention System Using Goal Setting, Feedback, And Incentives To Improve Performance In Small Service Businesses, Doug Lafleur

Dissertations

A small business servicing dealerships in the chimney lining industry was responsible for training and resupplying contractors in a propriety chimney lining system. A process was developed for sharing and comparing the dealerships' financial reports and business processes. The process involved a small group of dealers attending regular 6-month meetings called Impact Groups. A monetary incentive system was used to encourage dealers to join the Impact Groups and to maintain continued attendance and participation. Dealers took turns hosting the meetings and having the attending dealers analyze their business. A detailed list of problems and solutions was provided to each host ...


Evaluating Progress In Behavioral Programs For Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Continuous Versus Intermittent Data Collection, Anne Rena Cummings Dec 2004

Evaluating Progress In Behavioral Programs For Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Continuous Versus Intermittent Data Collection, Anne Rena Cummings

Dissertations

It is well documented that intensive behavioral treatment of early childhood autism can result in significant improvements in adaptive behavior. The typical teaching format in such programs is based on the restricted operant (i.e., discrete trial) in which the performance of an exemplar skill follows a clear instruction and precedes programmed reinforcement or error correction. Because of the often-intensive nature of behavioral treatment, it is not unusual for thousands of learning opportunities to be presented each week. There currently exists a professional debate regarding the frequency of data collection necessary in autism treatment programs. One side of the argument ...


Representation Of The Elderly In Counselor Education Textbooks, Alicia V. Fahr Dec 2004

Representation Of The Elderly In Counselor Education Textbooks, Alicia V. Fahr

Dissertations

The counseling profession requires multicultural competence in meeting the needs of diverse groups. The responsibility for training counseling students to work effectively with the elderly falls upon counselor educators. Textbooks convey cultural values and contribute to what is learned by students. Specifically,textbooks may contribute to how counseling students think about older adults and aging issues. This study was designed to determine how older adults and aging issues are represented in counselor education texts.

The textbooks used most frequently by 11 randomly selected master's degree programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2001 ...


Effects Of Disability Disclosure And Acknowledgment On Ratings Of Interviewees With Visible Disabilities, Lisa Lynn Roberts Oct 2004

Effects Of Disability Disclosure And Acknowledgment On Ratings Of Interviewees With Visible Disabilities, Lisa Lynn Roberts

Dissertations

While some authors stress the benefits of disclosing one's disability prior to the interview in order to eliminate interviewer surprise, attention-related research suggests that such disclosure is likely to result in self-focused thinking by the interviewer, reducing the ability to judge performance accurately. Similarly, verbal acknowledgment of a visible disability during an interview has been predicted to reduce interviewer anxiety, yet some authors contend that acknowledgment is a violation of the rules of interviewing and adds to discomfort. The present research addressed the question: What are the effects of an applicant's pre-interview disability disclosure and disability acknowledgment during ...


A Case Study In The Treatment Approaches And Outcomes Of Adjustment Disorder, Tobiellen Care Oct 2004

A Case Study In The Treatment Approaches And Outcomes Of Adjustment Disorder, Tobiellen Care

Theses and Dissertations

This case study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of an adolescent female in a community agency. The client was diagnosed with adjustment disorder mixed with anxiety and depression. A psychosocial history of the client was presented emphasizing the psychosocial stressors that contributed to the adjustment disorder. A review of empirically supported treatment approaches for adjustment disorders was conducted. The Beck Depression inventory and the Trait Anxiety scale were used as outcome measures. Pre and post comparisons of both measures indicated clinically significant decreases in both anxiety and depression. However, further treatment was needed to extend the ...


The Effect Of Crosswind And Turbulence In Mental Workload And Pilot Tracking Performance, Bruno E. Vivaldi Oct 2004

The Effect Of Crosswind And Turbulence In Mental Workload And Pilot Tracking Performance, Bruno E. Vivaldi

Theses - Daytona Beach

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of crosswind and turbulence on mental workload and pilot tracking performance. Based on previous research, it was believed that as the amount of crosswind and turbulence is increased, mental workload would increase and tracking performance would decrease. The objective was to estimate the impact that crosswind and turbulence, of varying degrees, had on performance and workload. Fifteen full time college student volunteers served as experimental participants in a simulated horizontal and vertical tracking task. Each participant flew twelve instrument approaches, experiencing a different crosswind and turbulence combination during each approach ...


The Effects Of Gender And Regional Dialect On Performance In Aviation Communication, Erin E. Mccollum Oct 2004

The Effects Of Gender And Regional Dialect On Performance In Aviation Communication, Erin E. Mccollum

Theses - Daytona Beach

The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance effects of gender and regional dialect on air traffic control statement recall. Sixty-one student volunteers participated in the experiment. Thirty-one participants held a pilot’s license and 30 participants had no flight experience. Each participant listened to one CD with 60 ATC statements each representing a male and female voice and New England, Southern, and General American dialect. Participants were asked to recall exactly what they heard. If the participant could not understand what they heard, they requested a repeat. The participant’s performance was recorded to CD and analyzed ...


Relationship Of College Students' Response Styles On The Strong Interest Inventory To Scores On The Beck Depression Inventory And The Career Thoughts Inventory, Martha C. Dagenhart Aug 2004

Relationship Of College Students' Response Styles On The Strong Interest Inventory To Scores On The Beck Depression Inventory And The Career Thoughts Inventory, Martha C. Dagenhart

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among college students’ response styles on the Occupations section of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII), as indicated by the “Like,” “Dislike,” and “Indifferent” percent indexes, and their scores on the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-II). The SII is a career interest inventory that measures a person’s level of interest across a wide range of areas including occupations and leisure activities. When presented with an item on the SII, an individual indicates whether he or she likes, dislikes, or is indifferent to that ...


Keeping Quiet: Self-Silencing And Its Association With Relational And Individual Functioning Among Adolescent Romantic Couples, Melinda Schuessler Harper Aug 2004

Keeping Quiet: Self-Silencing And Its Association With Relational And Individual Functioning Among Adolescent Romantic Couples, Melinda Schuessler Harper

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-silencing and aspects of relational and individual functioning among adolescent couple members involved in romantic relationships. Two hundred and eleven adolescent couples dating for a minimum of four weeks completed questionnaires assessing relationship satisfaction, self-silencing behaviors, sexual behaviors, global communication, and experiences of depressive symptomatology. Adolescent couples also participated in a videotaped conflictual interaction and rated perceptions of themselves and their partner on dimensions of frustration, conceding, sarcasm, and discomfort.

Data analyses addressed the effect of self-silencing on aspects of relational and individual functioning for both actor (the person ...


Willingness To Accept Forgiveness In Various Religious Targets., Meridith Ann Brewer Aug 2004

Willingness To Accept Forgiveness In Various Religious Targets., Meridith Ann Brewer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Three scenarios regarding a target man's moral behavior were used to examine 'religious halo' 'religious boomerang', and a 'halo recovery' effect. Initially, participants rated a male target in response to his religious affiliation. Secondly, participants rated the male target following an act of infidelity. Finally, participants provided ratings of the male target with the knowledge that the target received forgiveness from significant others. Results indicated that participants did not discriminate based on knowledge of the target's religious affiliation but did reject the target following an act of infidelity. New to this research, however, was discovery of a 'halo ...


In Theirown Voices: Attitudes About Mental Health Utilization By African American Females At A Predominantly White Institution, Dionne Maria Smith Aug 2004

In Theirown Voices: Attitudes About Mental Health Utilization By African American Females At A Predominantly White Institution, Dionne Maria Smith

Doctoral Dissertations

This study explored the attitudes of mental health utilization by African American female students at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Because African American females have been found to underutilize mental health services, particularly those provided by the university, the study’s goals were to explore participants’ beliefs related to (a) treatment efficacy, (b) barriers to seeking mental health services, and (c) counselor preferences. The data from this study were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify participant attitudes regarding the utilization of mental health services. The findings resulted in the development of a theory of mental health utilization ...


Suggestion And Suggestibility: A Factor Analysis, Anthony F. Tasso Aug 2004

Suggestion And Suggestibility: A Factor Analysis, Anthony F. Tasso

Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this study was to examine the domains of suggestion and suggestibility using factor analytic methodologies. Previous investigations, all of which were carried-out between forty and sixty years ago, yield equivocal results. The present study used nine behavioral measures of suggestibility and hypothesized that three distinct factors would emerge. It was hypothesized that hypnosis, Chevreul pendulum and body-sway would load on the first factor, the odor test, progressive weights, and placebo responsiveness on the second factor, and conformity, persuasibility, and interrogative suggestibility to load on the third factor. 110 college students participated in the study. Factor analyses failed ...


Reducing Adverse Impact While Maintaining Validity: Finding The Balance Between Competing Employee Selection Goals, John Ashley Henderson Aug 2004

Reducing Adverse Impact While Maintaining Validity: Finding The Balance Between Competing Employee Selection Goals, John Ashley Henderson

Doctoral Dissertations

Adverse (or disparate) impact has probably represented one of the most persistent and pervasive problems in employee selection. Innumerable approaches to eliminating its presence have been attempted, but most have been met with limited success. To date, this success has been measured in only slight reductions in adverse impact unless substantial losses in validity are accepted. While a number of reasons for these results have been advanced, this research asserted that part of the problem originated in the narrow perspective with which employee selection is often defined. This narrow perspective has resulted in a singular focus on validity with insufficient ...


A Comparison Of The Shopping Preferences Of College Age Apparel Shoppers In Turkey And The United States, William C. Perrine Aug 2004

A Comparison Of The Shopping Preferences Of College Age Apparel Shoppers In Turkey And The United States, William C. Perrine

Master's Theses

This study compared the store attribute preferences of college-age apparel shoppers in Turkey with those of their United States counterparts. The American respondents were selected from a convenience sample of students from a Midwestern university. The Turkish respondents consisted of a convenience sample of undergraduate and graduate students from two urban universities. Ninety-six surveys were given in Turkey and 113 were given in the United States to currently enrolled female and male undergraduate and graduate students between the ages of 17 and 51, yielding 204 usable surveys at a 97 percent response rate. Twenty-one shopping preferences were included in the ...


The Life-Long Diminution Of Anxiety Response As A Consequence Of Reproductive Experience, Ilan M. Mcnamara Aug 2004

The Life-Long Diminution Of Anxiety Response As A Consequence Of Reproductive Experience, Ilan M. Mcnamara

Master's Theses

Reproductive experience (RE), associated with hormonal fluctuations and enriching environmental stimuli, enhances spatial memory and blunts responses to stress/anxiety. Whereas stress reductions occur during lactation, the persistence of the RE-anxiolytic effects is unclear; and little research has focused on the HP A axis, amygdala, and other anxietyrelated areas. Using an elevated plus maze (EPM), we examined anxiety in nulliparous (NP), primiparous (PP), and multiparous (MP) females (zero, one, or two litters, respectively) at 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 months of age. Brains were subsequently analyzed for neurodegeneration in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). RE significantly dampened anxiety (defined by ...