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Separating Component Signals Of Episodic Simulation Using A Catch Trial Design, Adrian W. Gilmore Dec 2012

Separating Component Signals Of Episodic Simulation Using A Catch Trial Design, Adrian W. Gilmore

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Tasks that require mentally simulating events, such as remembering events from one’s past and imagining events from one’s future, have been shown to involve a highly overlapping set of brain regions. Across a growing number of studies, relatively few regions have been found that show differences in activity between remembered and imagined events. However, studies have not disambiguated neural activity related to task orientation: i.e., preparing to remember events from the past or imagine events in the future) from activity related simulating events, per se. The current experiment uses functional MRI and employs a catch trial design ...


Does Inconsistent-Handedness Lead To A Better Memory Or Does A Better Memory Lead To Inconsistent-Handedness?, Emily K. Carris Dec 2012

Does Inconsistent-Handedness Lead To A Better Memory Or Does A Better Memory Lead To Inconsistent-Handedness?, Emily K. Carris

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of the study is measure the effect of handedness and hand use on memory for how specific tasks were performed. The hypothesis of the present study is that inconsistent-handers will have better memory than consistent-handers for the hand or hands they used to perform tasks. Data analysis was preformed on 30 inconsistent-handers and 45 consistent-handers, as classified by the modified Edinburg Handedness Inventory. Tasks were performed in five different hand-use conditions: always left, usually left, no preference, usually right, and always right. The results were that both consistency of handedness and hand use had an effect on memory ...


Examining Effects Of Picture Content On False Recognition In Consistent And Inconsistent Handers., Rosanna G. Scott Dec 2012

Examining Effects Of Picture Content On False Recognition In Consistent And Inconsistent Handers., Rosanna G. Scott

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Multiple previous studies agree that inconsistent handers exhibit a memory advantage over consistent handers, oftentimes in reference to inconsistents exhibiting lower false alarm rates. Two recent studies have found contrasting data, demonstrating that, compared to consistently handed individuals, inconsistently handed individuals exhibit a higher false alarm rate in recognition memory following the encoding of pictures of objects, regardless of whether lures are pictures or object names. From this research, it is unclear whether inconsistent individuals have difficulty remembering pictures of all types, or only pictures of objects. In the current study, participants studied pictures without focal objects (i.e., landscapes ...


Sac Attack: Assessing The Role Of Recollection In The Mirror Effect, Angela M. Pazzaglia Sep 2012

Sac Attack: Assessing The Role Of Recollection In The Mirror Effect, Angela M. Pazzaglia

Open Access Dissertations

Low-frequency (LF) words have higher hit rates (HRs) and lower false alarm rates (FARs) than high-frequency (HF) words in recognition memory, a phenomenon termed the mirror effect by Glanzer and Adams (1985). The primary mechanism for producing the mirror effect varies substantially across models of recognition memory, with some models localizing the effects during encoding and others during retrieval. The current experiments contrast two retrieval-stage models, the Source of Activation Confusion (SAC; Reder, Nhouyvanisvong, Schunn, Ayers, Angstadt, & Hiraki, 2000) model and the unequal variance signal detection theory (UVSDT) criterion shift model (e.g., DeCarlo, 2002). The SAC model proposes that ...


The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond Aug 2012

The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated mixed evidence on impaired memory functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with the only consensus that there appears to be much heterogeneity. In addition, no research to date has examined the stability of memory in ASD. This study examined the stability of memory function in ASD compared to typically developing age-matched controls. Participants were administered the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) twice, three years apart, in an established longitudinal NIH-supported investigation of ASD. Based on available research contrasting memory development in healthy individuals versus those with ASD, it was hypothesized that memory performance in the ...


Sensory And Cognitive Declines In Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study, Melanie Storm Bauer Aug 2012

Sensory And Cognitive Declines In Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study, Melanie Storm Bauer

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

In a recent cross-sectional study, as has been found in numerous previous studies, Sommers et al.: 2011) found that age-related declines in hearing, as assessed by pure-tone thresholds, begin around age 20 and continue across the lifespan. In another article published from the same cross-sectional dataset, Hale et al.: 2011) found that working memory ability also begins declining around age 20 and continues throughout life. The present study is a longitudinal follow-up of these two studies in which a sub-sample of older adults: ≥65 years old at the time of original testing approximately four years ago) were re-tested on sensory ...


Differences In Iq And Memory Of Monolingual/Bilingual Children Who Suffered A Tbi, Julie Alberty Aug 2012

Differences In Iq And Memory Of Monolingual/Bilingual Children Who Suffered A Tbi, Julie Alberty

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at an average rate of 180 per 100,000 children who are hospitalized for head injury within the United States (Schwartz et al., 2003). Bilinguals are a large proportion of the population living in the United States and in Southern California, particularly. If children who are bilingual incur a TBI, will they have even more difficulty than monolinguals with language tasks because they have a smaller vocabulary base? This study aims to further elucidate whether verbal memory will be more severely impacted than nonverbal memory in this same bilingual pediatric TBI population. 18 children ...


Construct And Criterion Validity Of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Spanish Version In Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Cristobal Neblina Aug 2012

Construct And Criterion Validity Of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Spanish Version In Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Cristobal Neblina

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is among the most commonly used English-language neuropsychological tests of verbal learning and memory. Previous research supports the validity and clinical utility of adaptations of the RAVLT into many diverse languages. In the United States, Hispanics represent the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority group. As the Hispanic populace continues to grow, so does the need for empirically validated Spanish-language neuropsychological measures. In 2002, a Spanish adaptation of the RAVLT was developed in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Vargas, 2002). However, validation studies have not been undertaken with clinical samples, and little is known regarding its psychometric ...


Affect Identification And Interpersonal Skills: An In-Depth Evaluation Of Social Cognition In Schizophrenia, Griffin Pollock Sutton Aug 2012

Affect Identification And Interpersonal Skills: An In-Depth Evaluation Of Social Cognition In Schizophrenia, Griffin Pollock Sutton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The presence of deficits in various sub-domains of social cognition has been investigated to a degree in individuals with schizophrenia. Some of the most commonly researched and documented deficits have included impairments in the identification of affect portrayed in faces. Research has indicated that the performance of individuals with schizophrenia on such tasks is generally impaired as compared to normal controls. However, some have questioned the generalizability of such findings to real-world situations, as day-to-day interactions generally necessitate a constant, fluid assessment of the thoughts and feelings of others and are rarely, if ever, limited to still images of others ...


Effects Of Method And Context Of Note-Taking On Memory: Handwriting Versus Typing In Lecture And Textbook-Reading Contexts, Ian Schoen May 2012

Effects Of Method And Context Of Note-Taking On Memory: Handwriting Versus Typing In Lecture And Textbook-Reading Contexts, Ian Schoen

Pitzer Senior Theses

Both electronic note-taking (typing) and traditional note-taking (handwriting) are being utilized by college students to retain information. The effects of the method of note-taking and note-taking context were examined to determine if handwriting or typing notes and whether a lecture context or a textbook-reading context influenced retention. Pitzer College and Scripps College students were assigned to either handwrite or type notes on a piece of academic material presented in either a lecture or textbook context and were given a test to assess their retention. The results demonstrated that there was a significant main effect for typing notes such that typing ...


Linguistic Devices, Emotionality, And Memorability Of Computer Mediated Communication, Angela M. Mion May 2012

Linguistic Devices, Emotionality, And Memorability Of Computer Mediated Communication, Angela M. Mion

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

I examined whether college students use shortcuts, pragmatics, and errors in text messages differently depending on their gender and the emotionality of the message. Results indicate that the prevalence of particular shortcuts differed across happy, sad, and angry messages, but gender did not influence use of linguistic devices. In a second study, I examined the emotionality and memorability of text messages versus voicemails. Results indicate that texts may be remembered better than voicemails, and happy, sad, and angry messages may be remembered differently by men and women.


Interactive Effects Of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability And Relevance Instructions On Text Processing, Nancy Jo Hamilton May 2012

Interactive Effects Of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability And Relevance Instructions On Text Processing, Nancy Jo Hamilton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Reading is a process that requires the enactment of many cognitive processes. Each of these processes uses a certain amount of working memory resources, which are severely constrained by biology. More efficiency in the function of working memory may mediate the biological limits of same. Reading relevancy instructions may be one such method to assist readers in utilizing working memory resources more efficiently.

This study examines the relationship between perspective relevance instructions and participants' ability to regulate their working memory resources. In a 3 x 2 x 2 design the study extended the literature by utilizing a measure of fluid ...


Temporal Shifts In Weapon Focus: Comparing Retrograde And Anterograde Effects, William Blake Erickson May 2012

Temporal Shifts In Weapon Focus: Comparing Retrograde And Anterograde Effects, William Blake Erickson

Theses and Dissertations

When an eyewitness suffers an impairment of memory for a criminal's face because the criminal used a weapon during the commission of the crime, this impairment is called the weapon focus effect. Literature provides two explanations for how this effect arises: some implicate the narrowing of attentional cues to the weapon during the commission of a crime because arousal of the victim increases, while others claim that the weapon is merely a novel object in most everyday contexts, and novel objects demand more attention than contextually appropriate ones. The current study employed a simulated crime paradigm taking place in ...


Implicit And Explicit Memory Performance In Bilinguals: Implications For Transfer-Appropriate Processing And Vocabulary Learning, Elva Natalia Strobach Jan 2012

Implicit And Explicit Memory Performance In Bilinguals: Implications For Transfer-Appropriate Processing And Vocabulary Learning, Elva Natalia Strobach

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two experiments examined whether translation and sentence context improved memory performance in explicit and implicit memory. For explicit memory, an effect of translation was found such that translation led to better item recognition than read aloud encoding. Sentence context did not benefit recognition memory performance. For implicit memory, neither translation nor sentence context led to priming in a word-stem completion paradigm. The results are discussed in terms of the transfer-appropriate processing framework.


The Truth About Lying: The Memorial Effects Of Deliberately Producing Misinformation, Kathleen M. Vieira Jan 2012

The Truth About Lying: The Memorial Effects Of Deliberately Producing Misinformation, Kathleen M. Vieira

LSU Master's Theses

There are different ways of lying and these lies may have different impacts on memory. In this study, participants studied pictures of objects, and later lied and told the truth about these and other objects by describing them or by denying they had seen them. Forty-eight hours later, participants were tested on their source memory. Results revealed that participants had good memory for having falsely described a never-seen object, but poor memory for having falsely denied seeing a studied object. These results suggest that telling certain types of lies may make a person more likely to forget having lied at ...


Responses To Domestic Violence Public Service Ads: Memory, Attitudes, Affect, And Individual Differences, Courtney Elizabeth Welton-Mitchell Jan 2012

Responses To Domestic Violence Public Service Ads: Memory, Attitudes, Affect, And Individual Differences, Courtney Elizabeth Welton-Mitchell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Public service ads (PSAs) are an increasingly visible part of efforts to decrease the occurrence and consequences of domestic violence. Like other advertising, domestic violence PSAs are designed to grab attention, influence attitudes, and enhance memory for ad content. Over the years, images in domestic violence PSAs have changed substantially; agencies have started using pictures that generate emotions - either vivid negative images (bruised faces or body parts), or positive images (smiling faces) that contrast with the negative text. It is not clear, however, how different types of ad images influence memory for the message and attitudes about domestic violence, and ...


Improving Memory Using N-Back Training, Paul Beavon Jan 2012

Improving Memory Using N-Back Training, Paul Beavon

Theses : Honours

Investigations into n-back training and near transfer to short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) have realised inconsistent results. A significant transfer to STM was reported using dual n-back training (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides, & Perrig, 2008). However, the majority of studies have found no significant transfer to WM as operationalised by complex span tasks using either single or dual n-back training. The current study examined the single n-back task and near transfer to STM and WM as operationalised by the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Mather & Woodcock-Johnson, 2001). Forty-seven participants were divided into experimental treatment (n = 26) and active control (n = 21) groups; and engaged in 20 daily, 20-minute training sessions over a 30-day period using either a single n-back task, or a combination of two general knowledge tasks respectively. STM and WM psychometric tests were administered before and after the 30-day training process. No significant difference was found between pre- and post-training STM or WM scores, indicating both constructs were unlikely near transfer mechanisms for single nback training. There ...


The Role Of Emotional Expression On Person Identity Recognition, Kristen Paris Jan 2012

The Role Of Emotional Expression On Person Identity Recognition, Kristen Paris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Facial information concerning person identity and emotional expression is vital to human social interaction, and therefore, we find it beneficial to remember the faces we see. Little is known, however, about whether emotional expressions facilitate or inhibit recognition for person identity. The present studies examined the role of emotional expression on person identity recognition by manipulating whether such information was presented at encoding (i.e., initial perception of the actor) or at recognition (i.e., later memory for the actor). In Experiment 1, participants recognized more actors displaying an angry rather than a happy expression, when they initially saw actors ...


Does Crowding Obscure The Presence Of Attentional Guidance In Contextual Cueing?, Steven William Fiske Jan 2012

Does Crowding Obscure The Presence Of Attentional Guidance In Contextual Cueing?, Steven William Fiske

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The contextual cueing effect was initially thought to be the product of memory guiding attention to the target location. However, the steep search slopes obtained in contextual cueing indicate an absence of attentional guidance. We hypothesized that crowding could be obscuring the presence of attentional guidance and investigated this possibility in 2 experiments. Crowding was manipulated by varying the density of items in the local target region in a contextual cueing task. We observed a significant reduction in search slopes between the novel and repeated conditions when crowding was reduced. Enhancing crowding eliminated the contextual cueing effect. These findings suggest ...


Visual Memory Improvement In Recognition, Allison Prandl Jan 2012

Visual Memory Improvement In Recognition, Allison Prandl

Theses : Honours

Fluid intelligence and working memory has been improved by training on a visual working memory n-back task (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides & Perrig, 2008). The present study investigated whether n-back training can improve visual memory using a test of visual recognition. A sample of 47 participants were trained for 20 days on either the single n-back task (n = 26) or a general knowledge and vocabulary task (n = 21). The results showed that training using the single n-back task did not significantly increase scores on a test of visual recognition when compared with general knowledge and vocabulary training. However, when initial scores were ...


The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk Jan 2012

The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.