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Psychology

Memory

2012

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Does Inconsistent-Handedness Lead To A Better Memory Or Does A Better Memory Lead To Inconsistent-Handedness?, Emily K. Carris Dec 2012

Does Inconsistent-Handedness Lead To A Better Memory Or Does A Better Memory Lead To Inconsistent-Handedness?, Emily K. Carris

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of the study is measure the effect of handedness and hand use on memory for how specific tasks were performed. The hypothesis of the present study is that inconsistent-handers will have better memory than consistent-handers for the hand or hands they used to perform tasks. Data analysis was preformed on 30 inconsistent-handers and 45 consistent-handers, as classified by the modified Edinburg Handedness Inventory. Tasks were performed in five different hand-use conditions: always left, usually left, no preference, usually right, and always right. The results were that both consistency of handedness and hand use had an effect on memory ...


Examining Effects Of Picture Content On False Recognition In Consistent And Inconsistent Handers., Rosanna G. Scott Dec 2012

Examining Effects Of Picture Content On False Recognition In Consistent And Inconsistent Handers., Rosanna G. Scott

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Multiple previous studies agree that inconsistent handers exhibit a memory advantage over consistent handers, oftentimes in reference to inconsistents exhibiting lower false alarm rates. Two recent studies have found contrasting data, demonstrating that, compared to consistently handed individuals, inconsistently handed individuals exhibit a higher false alarm rate in recognition memory following the encoding of pictures of objects, regardless of whether lures are pictures or object names. From this research, it is unclear whether inconsistent individuals have difficulty remembering pictures of all types, or only pictures of objects. In the current study, participants studied pictures without focal objects (i.e., landscapes ...


Brooding Deficits In Memory: Focusing Attention Improves Subsequent Recall, Paula T. Hertel, Amanda A. Benbow, Elke Geraerts Dec 2012

Brooding Deficits In Memory: Focusing Attention Improves Subsequent Recall, Paula T. Hertel, Amanda A. Benbow, Elke Geraerts

Psychology Faculty Research

Ruminative habits of thought about one’s problems and the resulting consequences are correlated with symptoms of depression and cognitive biases (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008). In our orienting task, brooders and nonbrooders concentrated on self-focusing phrases while they were also exposed to neutral target words. On each trial in the unfocused condition, participants saw and then reported the target before concentrating on the phrase; in the focused condition, the target was reported after phrase concentration. A brooding-related deficit on a subsequent unexpected test of free and forced recall was obtained in the unfocused condition only. Brooders recalled more successfully in the focused than in the unfocused condition. Thus, impaired recall of material unrelated to self-concerns may be corrected in situations that constrain attention.


Separating Component Signals Of Episodic Simulation Using A Catch Trial Design, Adrian W. Gilmore Dec 2012

Separating Component Signals Of Episodic Simulation Using A Catch Trial Design, Adrian W. Gilmore

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Tasks that require mentally simulating events, such as remembering events from one’s past and imagining events from one’s future, have been shown to involve a highly overlapping set of brain regions. Across a growing number of studies, relatively few regions have been found that show differences in activity between remembered and imagined events. However, studies have not disambiguated neural activity related to task orientation: i.e., preparing to remember events from the past or imagine events in the future) from activity related simulating events, per se. The current experiment uses functional MRI and employs a catch trial design ...


Sac Attack: Assessing The Role Of Recollection In The Mirror Effect, Angela M. Pazzaglia Sep 2012

Sac Attack: Assessing The Role Of Recollection In The Mirror Effect, Angela M. Pazzaglia

Open Access Dissertations

Low-frequency (LF) words have higher hit rates (HRs) and lower false alarm rates (FARs) than high-frequency (HF) words in recognition memory, a phenomenon termed the mirror effect by Glanzer and Adams (1985). The primary mechanism for producing the mirror effect varies substantially across models of recognition memory, with some models localizing the effects during encoding and others during retrieval. The current experiments contrast two retrieval-stage models, the Source of Activation Confusion (SAC; Reder, Nhouyvanisvong, Schunn, Ayers, Angstadt, & Hiraki, 2000) model and the unequal variance signal detection theory (UVSDT) criterion shift model (e.g., DeCarlo, 2002). The SAC model proposes that ...


The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond Aug 2012

The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated mixed evidence on impaired memory functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with the only consensus that there appears to be much heterogeneity. In addition, no research to date has examined the stability of memory in ASD. This study examined the stability of memory function in ASD compared to typically developing age-matched controls. Participants were administered the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) twice, three years apart, in an established longitudinal NIH-supported investigation of ASD. Based on available research contrasting memory development in healthy individuals versus those with ASD, it was hypothesized that memory performance in the ...


Differences In Iq And Memory Of Monolingual/Bilingual Children Who Suffered A Tbi, Julie Alberty Aug 2012

Differences In Iq And Memory Of Monolingual/Bilingual Children Who Suffered A Tbi, Julie Alberty

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at an average rate of 180 per 100,000 children who are hospitalized for head injury within the United States (Schwartz et al., 2003). Bilinguals are a large proportion of the population living in the United States and in Southern California, particularly. If children who are bilingual incur a TBI, will they have even more difficulty than monolinguals with language tasks because they have a smaller vocabulary base? This study aims to further elucidate whether verbal memory will be more severely impacted than nonverbal memory in this same bilingual pediatric TBI population. 18 children ...


Construct And Criterion Validity Of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Spanish Version In Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Cristobal Neblina Aug 2012

Construct And Criterion Validity Of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Spanish Version In Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Cristobal Neblina

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is among the most commonly used English-language neuropsychological tests of verbal learning and memory. Previous research supports the validity and clinical utility of adaptations of the RAVLT into many diverse languages. In the United States, Hispanics represent the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority group. As the Hispanic populace continues to grow, so does the need for empirically validated Spanish-language neuropsychological measures. In 2002, a Spanish adaptation of the RAVLT was developed in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Vargas, 2002). However, validation studies have not been undertaken with clinical samples, and little is known regarding its psychometric ...


Sensory And Cognitive Declines In Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study, Melanie Storm Bauer Aug 2012

Sensory And Cognitive Declines In Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study, Melanie Storm Bauer

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

In a recent cross-sectional study, as has been found in numerous previous studies, Sommers et al.: 2011) found that age-related declines in hearing, as assessed by pure-tone thresholds, begin around age 20 and continue across the lifespan. In another article published from the same cross-sectional dataset, Hale et al.: 2011) found that working memory ability also begins declining around age 20 and continues throughout life. The present study is a longitudinal follow-up of these two studies in which a sub-sample of older adults: ≥65 years old at the time of original testing approximately four years ago) were re-tested on sensory ...


Affect Identification And Interpersonal Skills: An In-Depth Evaluation Of Social Cognition In Schizophrenia, Griffin Pollock Sutton Aug 2012

Affect Identification And Interpersonal Skills: An In-Depth Evaluation Of Social Cognition In Schizophrenia, Griffin Pollock Sutton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The presence of deficits in various sub-domains of social cognition has been investigated to a degree in individuals with schizophrenia. Some of the most commonly researched and documented deficits have included impairments in the identification of affect portrayed in faces. Research has indicated that the performance of individuals with schizophrenia on such tasks is generally impaired as compared to normal controls. However, some have questioned the generalizability of such findings to real-world situations, as day-to-day interactions generally necessitate a constant, fluid assessment of the thoughts and feelings of others and are rarely, if ever, limited to still images of others ...


Effects Of Method And Context Of Note-Taking On Memory: Handwriting Versus Typing In Lecture And Textbook-Reading Contexts, Ian Schoen May 2012

Effects Of Method And Context Of Note-Taking On Memory: Handwriting Versus Typing In Lecture And Textbook-Reading Contexts, Ian Schoen

Pitzer Senior Theses

Both electronic note-taking (typing) and traditional note-taking (handwriting) are being utilized by college students to retain information. The effects of the method of note-taking and note-taking context were examined to determine if handwriting or typing notes and whether a lecture context or a textbook-reading context influenced retention. Pitzer College and Scripps College students were assigned to either handwrite or type notes on a piece of academic material presented in either a lecture or textbook context and were given a test to assess their retention. The results demonstrated that there was a significant main effect for typing notes such that typing ...


Linguistic Devices, Emotionality, And Memorability Of Computer Mediated Communication, Angela M. Mion May 2012

Linguistic Devices, Emotionality, And Memorability Of Computer Mediated Communication, Angela M. Mion

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

I examined whether college students use shortcuts, pragmatics, and errors in text messages differently depending on their gender and the emotionality of the message. Results indicate that the prevalence of particular shortcuts differed across happy, sad, and angry messages, but gender did not influence use of linguistic devices. In a second study, I examined the emotionality and memorability of text messages versus voicemails. Results indicate that texts may be remembered better than voicemails, and happy, sad, and angry messages may be remembered differently by men and women.


Hippocampal Theta And Gamma: Effects Of Aging, Environmental Change, Cholinergic Activation And Learning, Matthew D. Howe May 2012

Hippocampal Theta And Gamma: Effects Of Aging, Environmental Change, Cholinergic Activation And Learning, Matthew D. Howe

Honors Scholar Theses

During aging, hippocampal functioning is impaired; specifically aged humans and rats show reduced performance on spatial memory tasks. An age-related reduction in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been postulated to underlie this impairment. Rhythmic oscillations (theta, gamma) may serve to synchronize activity within the hippocampus and across the brain during learning; these may also change with aging.

To determine what aspects of oscillation are important for memory processing, the effects of aging, encountering a novel situation, learning a new task and cholinergic system activation (with physostigmine) were examined. Both age groups showed increased theta, but not gamma activity when encoding a ...


Temporal Shifts In Weapon Focus: Comparing Retrograde And Anterograde Effects, William Blake Erickson May 2012

Temporal Shifts In Weapon Focus: Comparing Retrograde And Anterograde Effects, William Blake Erickson

Theses and Dissertations

When an eyewitness suffers an impairment of memory for a criminal's face because the criminal used a weapon during the commission of the crime, this impairment is called the weapon focus effect. Literature provides two explanations for how this effect arises: some implicate the narrowing of attentional cues to the weapon during the commission of a crime because arousal of the victim increases, while others claim that the weapon is merely a novel object in most everyday contexts, and novel objects demand more attention than contextually appropriate ones. The current study employed a simulated crime paradigm taking place in ...


Interactive Effects Of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability And Relevance Instructions On Text Processing, Nancy Jo Hamilton May 2012

Interactive Effects Of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability And Relevance Instructions On Text Processing, Nancy Jo Hamilton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Reading is a process that requires the enactment of many cognitive processes. Each of these processes uses a certain amount of working memory resources, which are severely constrained by biology. More efficiency in the function of working memory may mediate the biological limits of same. Reading relevancy instructions may be one such method to assist readers in utilizing working memory resources more efficiently.

This study examines the relationship between perspective relevance instructions and participants' ability to regulate their working memory resources. In a 3 x 2 x 2 design the study extended the literature by utilizing a measure of fluid ...


Processing Of Emotional Reactivity And Emotional Memory Over Sleep, Bengi Baran, Edward F. Pace-Schott, Callie Ericson, Rebecca M. C. Spencer Jan 2012

Processing Of Emotional Reactivity And Emotional Memory Over Sleep, Bengi Baran, Edward F. Pace-Schott, Callie Ericson, Rebecca M. C. Spencer

Rebecca M. C. Spencer

Sleep enhances memories, particularly emotional memories. As such, it has been suggested that sleep deprivation may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder. This presumes that emotional memory consolidation is paralleled by a reduction in emotional reactivity, an association that has not yet been examined. In the present experiment, we utilized an incidental memory task in humans and obtained valence and arousal ratings during two sessions separated either by 12 hours of daytime wake or 12 hours including overnight sleep. Recognition accuracy was greater following sleep relative to wake for both negative and neutral pictures. While emotional reactivity to negative pictures was greatly ...


The Impact Of Sleep Quality On Cognitive Functioning In Parkinson's Disease, Karina Stavitsky, Sandra Neargarder, Yelena Bogdanova, Patrick Mcnamara, Alice Cronin-Golomb Jan 2012

The Impact Of Sleep Quality On Cognitive Functioning In Parkinson's Disease, Karina Stavitsky, Sandra Neargarder, Yelena Bogdanova, Patrick Mcnamara, Alice Cronin-Golomb

Psychology Faculty Publications

In healthy individuals and those with insomnia, poor sleep quality is associated with decrements in performance on tests of cognition, especially executive function. Sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sleep problems occur in over 75% of patients, with sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency being the most common sleep complaints, but their relation to cognition is unknown. We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in PD. In 35 non-demented individuals with PD and 18 normal control adults (NC), sleep was measured using 24-hr wrist actigraphy over 7 days. Cognitive domains tested ...


Melatonin And Its Effect On Learning And Memory, Nechama Leah Bauman (Cahn) Jan 2012

Melatonin And Its Effect On Learning And Memory, Nechama Leah Bauman (Cahn)

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Melatonin is a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland and secreted into the body in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is known to be involved in many vital body functions, including sleep, reproduction, and immune response. Exogenous melatonin, sold as over the counter natural supplements in drugstores, is commonly taken by many people to help cure various ailments. Melatonin also plays a role in the hippocampus. This paper investigates the effects of melatonin on long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Long-term potentiation, described as a long-lasting strengthening of synapses between nerve cells, is thought to be responsible for long-term memory retention. It ...


Age And Premorbid Intelligence Suppress Complaint-Performance Congruency In Raw Score Measures Of Memory, Matthew Merema, Craig Speelman, Elizabeth Kaczmarek, Jonathan Foster Jan 2012

Age And Premorbid Intelligence Suppress Complaint-Performance Congruency In Raw Score Measures Of Memory, Matthew Merema, Craig Speelman, Elizabeth Kaczmarek, Jonathan Foster

ECU Publications 2012

Background: We aimed to examine the role of age and premorbid intelligence (IQ) in suppressing the relationship between subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and raw score memory performance. Methods: We used a community sample of older adults aged 66"90 years (N = 121) to test whether the inclusion of age and a premorbid IQ measure in multiple regression analyses increased semipartial correlations of raw score memory performance in predicting SMCs. Rank contrast correlations were also carried out to observe how age and premorbid IQ are related to complaint"performance congruency. Measures utilized in the study included the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (for ...


Epigenetics: A Possible Mechanism Of Memory, Aliza Grossman Rubenstein Jan 2012

Epigenetics: A Possible Mechanism Of Memory, Aliza Grossman Rubenstein

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

The following is an excerpt from the introduction to this article: The mind-body connection has fascinated philosophers and scientists for centuries. How is it possible that consciousness arises from a lump of matter known as the brain? How does neurons’ firing affect choice and beliefs? How do the electrochemical properties of the brain allow for the memory of events long after they’ve occurred? One of the most studied of these areas is that of memory. Researchers seek to understand the biological basis behind memory and how that biology is affected in individuals suffering from memory disorders.


Implicit And Explicit Memory Performance In Bilinguals: Implications For Transfer-Appropriate Processing And Vocabulary Learning, Elva Natalia Strobach Jan 2012

Implicit And Explicit Memory Performance In Bilinguals: Implications For Transfer-Appropriate Processing And Vocabulary Learning, Elva Natalia Strobach

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two experiments examined whether translation and sentence context improved memory performance in explicit and implicit memory. For explicit memory, an effect of translation was found such that translation led to better item recognition than read aloud encoding. Sentence context did not benefit recognition memory performance. For implicit memory, neither translation nor sentence context led to priming in a word-stem completion paradigm. The results are discussed in terms of the transfer-appropriate processing framework.


Responses To Domestic Violence Public Service Ads: Memory, Attitudes, Affect, And Individual Differences, Courtney Elizabeth Welton-Mitchell Jan 2012

Responses To Domestic Violence Public Service Ads: Memory, Attitudes, Affect, And Individual Differences, Courtney Elizabeth Welton-Mitchell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Public service ads (PSAs) are an increasingly visible part of efforts to decrease the occurrence and consequences of domestic violence. Like other advertising, domestic violence PSAs are designed to grab attention, influence attitudes, and enhance memory for ad content. Over the years, images in domestic violence PSAs have changed substantially; agencies have started using pictures that generate emotions - either vivid negative images (bruised faces or body parts), or positive images (smiling faces) that contrast with the negative text. It is not clear, however, how different types of ad images influence memory for the message and attitudes about domestic violence, and ...


Introduction To The Neurosciences And Music Iv: Learning And Memory, Andrea Halpern Jan 2012

Introduction To The Neurosciences And Music Iv: Learning And Memory, Andrea Halpern

Faculty Conference Papers and Presentations

The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory" was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism ...


Does Crowding Obscure The Presence Of Attentional Guidance In Contextual Cueing?, Steven William Fiske Jan 2012

Does Crowding Obscure The Presence Of Attentional Guidance In Contextual Cueing?, Steven William Fiske

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The contextual cueing effect was initially thought to be the product of memory guiding attention to the target location. However, the steep search slopes obtained in contextual cueing indicate an absence of attentional guidance. We hypothesized that crowding could be obscuring the presence of attentional guidance and investigated this possibility in 2 experiments. Crowding was manipulated by varying the density of items in the local target region in a contextual cueing task. We observed a significant reduction in search slopes between the novel and repeated conditions when crowding was reduced. Enhancing crowding eliminated the contextual cueing effect. These findings suggest ...


The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk Jan 2012

The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Visual Memory Improvement In Recognition, Allison Prandl Jan 2012

Visual Memory Improvement In Recognition, Allison Prandl

Theses : Honours

Fluid intelligence and working memory has been improved by training on a visual working memory n-back task (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides & Perrig, 2008). The present study investigated whether n-back training can improve visual memory using a test of visual recognition. A sample of 47 participants were trained for 20 days on either the single n-back task (n = 26) or a general knowledge and vocabulary task (n = 21). The results showed that training using the single n-back task did not significantly increase scores on a test of visual recognition when compared with general knowledge and vocabulary training. However, when initial scores were ...


Improving Memory Using N-Back Training, Paul Beavon Jan 2012

Improving Memory Using N-Back Training, Paul Beavon

Theses : Honours

Investigations into n-back training and near transfer to short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) have realised inconsistent results. A significant transfer to STM was reported using dual n-back training (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides, & Perrig, 2008). However, the majority of studies have found no significant transfer to WM as operationalised by complex span tasks using either single or dual n-back training. The current study examined the single n-back task and near transfer to STM and WM as operationalised by the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Mather & Woodcock-Johnson, 2001). Forty-seven participants were divided into experimental treatment (n = 26) and active control (n = 21) groups; and engaged in 20 daily, 20-minute training sessions over a 30-day period using either a single n-back task, or a combination of two general knowledge tasks respectively. STM and WM psychometric tests were administered before and after the 30-day training process. No significant difference was found between pre- and post-training STM or WM scores, indicating both constructs were unlikely near transfer mechanisms for single nback training. There ...


The Truth About Lying: The Memorial Effects Of Deliberately Producing Misinformation, Kathleen M. Vieira Jan 2012

The Truth About Lying: The Memorial Effects Of Deliberately Producing Misinformation, Kathleen M. Vieira

LSU Master's Theses

There are different ways of lying and these lies may have different impacts on memory. In this study, participants studied pictures of objects, and later lied and told the truth about these and other objects by describing them or by denying they had seen them. Forty-eight hours later, participants were tested on their source memory. Results revealed that participants had good memory for having falsely described a never-seen object, but poor memory for having falsely denied seeing a studied object. These results suggest that telling certain types of lies may make a person more likely to forget having lied at ...


The Role Of Emotional Expression On Person Identity Recognition, Kristen Paris Jan 2012

The Role Of Emotional Expression On Person Identity Recognition, Kristen Paris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Facial information concerning person identity and emotional expression is vital to human social interaction, and therefore, we find it beneficial to remember the faces we see. Little is known, however, about whether emotional expressions facilitate or inhibit recognition for person identity. The present studies examined the role of emotional expression on person identity recognition by manipulating whether such information was presented at encoding (i.e., initial perception of the actor) or at recognition (i.e., later memory for the actor). In Experiment 1, participants recognized more actors displaying an angry rather than a happy expression, when they initially saw actors ...


Semantic Priming Of Familiar Songs, Sarah K. Johnson, Andrea R. Halpern Jan 2012

Semantic Priming Of Familiar Songs, Sarah K. Johnson, Andrea R. Halpern

Faculty Journal Articles

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck ...