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Theses/Dissertations

Memory

2012

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Quantification Of Neural Substrates Of Vergence System Via Fmri, Yelda Alkan Dec 2012

Quantification Of Neural Substrates Of Vergence System Via Fmri, Yelda Alkan

Dissertations

Vergence eye movement is one of the oculomotor systems which allow depth perception via disconjugate movement of the eyes. Neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measure neural activity changes activity in the brain while subjects perform experimental tasks. A rich body of primate investigations on vergence is already established in the neurophysiology literature; on the other hand, there are a limited number of fMRI studies on neural mechanisms behind the vergence system.

The results demonstrated that vergence system shares neural sources and also shows differentiation within the boundaries of frontal eye fields (FEF) and midbrain of the ...


Landscaping Israel: Power And Resistance On The Ground, Janey Kemp Dec 2012

Landscaping Israel: Power And Resistance On The Ground, Janey Kemp

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


“'They Was Things Past The Tellin’: A Reconsideration Of Sexuality And Memory In The Ex-Slave Narratives Of The Federal Writers’ Project", Lynn Cowles Wartberg Dec 2012

“'They Was Things Past The Tellin’: A Reconsideration Of Sexuality And Memory In The Ex-Slave Narratives Of The Federal Writers’ Project", Lynn Cowles Wartberg

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In 1936, Federal Writers’ Project (FWP) employees began interviewing formerly enslaved men and women, allowing them to speak publicly of their experiences under slavery. Defying racism and the repressions of Jim Crow, ex-slaves discussed intimate details of their lives. Many researchers considered these interviews unreliable, but if viewed through the lens of gender and analyzed using recent scholarship on slavery and sexuality, FWP interviews offer new insights into the lives of enslaved men and women. Using a small number of ex-slave interviews, most of them drawn from Louisiana, this thesis demonstrates the value of these oral histories for understanding the ...


"Sing To The Lord A New Song": Memory, Music, Epistemology, And The Emergence Of Gregorian Chant As Corporate Knowledge, Jordan Timothy Ray Baker Dec 2012

"Sing To The Lord A New Song": Memory, Music, Epistemology, And The Emergence Of Gregorian Chant As Corporate Knowledge, Jordan Timothy Ray Baker

Masters Theses

Following the Christianization of the crumbling Roman Empire, a wide array of disparate Christian traditions arose. A confusion of liturgical rites and musical styles expressed the diversity of this nascent Christendom; however, it also exemplified a sometimes threatening disunity. Into this frame, the Carolingian Empire made a decisive choice. Charlemagne, with a desire to consolidate power, forged stronger bonds withRome by transporting the liturgy ofRome to the Frankish North. The outcome of this transmission was the birth of a composite form of music exhibiting the liturgical properties ofRome but also shaped by the musical sensibilities of the Franks—Gregorian chant ...


Does Inconsistent-Handedness Lead To A Better Memory Or Does A Better Memory Lead To Inconsistent-Handedness?, Emily K. Carris Dec 2012

Does Inconsistent-Handedness Lead To A Better Memory Or Does A Better Memory Lead To Inconsistent-Handedness?, Emily K. Carris

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of the study is measure the effect of handedness and hand use on memory for how specific tasks were performed. The hypothesis of the present study is that inconsistent-handers will have better memory than consistent-handers for the hand or hands they used to perform tasks. Data analysis was preformed on 30 inconsistent-handers and 45 consistent-handers, as classified by the modified Edinburg Handedness Inventory. Tasks were performed in five different hand-use conditions: always left, usually left, no preference, usually right, and always right. The results were that both consistency of handedness and hand use had an effect on memory ...


Examining Effects Of Picture Content On False Recognition In Consistent And Inconsistent Handers., Rosanna G. Scott Dec 2012

Examining Effects Of Picture Content On False Recognition In Consistent And Inconsistent Handers., Rosanna G. Scott

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Multiple previous studies agree that inconsistent handers exhibit a memory advantage over consistent handers, oftentimes in reference to inconsistents exhibiting lower false alarm rates. Two recent studies have found contrasting data, demonstrating that, compared to consistently handed individuals, inconsistently handed individuals exhibit a higher false alarm rate in recognition memory following the encoding of pictures of objects, regardless of whether lures are pictures or object names. From this research, it is unclear whether inconsistent individuals have difficulty remembering pictures of all types, or only pictures of objects. In the current study, participants studied pictures without focal objects (i.e., landscapes ...


Induction Of Stronger And Long Lasting Vaccine Immunity To Tuberculosis, Pearl Bakhru Dec 2012

Induction Of Stronger And Long Lasting Vaccine Immunity To Tuberculosis, Pearl Bakhru

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tuberculosis is a major cause of death due to an infection in mankind. BCG vaccine protects against childhood tuberculosis although, it fails to protect against adult tuberculosis. BCG vaccine localizes to immature phagosomes of macrophages, and avoids lysosomal fusion, which decreases peptide antigen production. Peptides are essential for macrophage-mediated priming of CD4 and CD8 T cells respectively through MHC-II and MHC-I pathways. Furthermore, BCG reduces the expression of MHC-II in macrophages of mice after infection, through Toll-like receptor-1/2 (TLR-1/2) mediated signaling. In my first aim, I hypothesized that BCG-induced reduction of MHC-II levels in macrophages can decrease CD4 ...


Memory Self-Efficacy In Cognitively Normal Older Adults And Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mary Ellen Stolder Dec 2012

Memory Self-Efficacy In Cognitively Normal Older Adults And Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mary Ellen Stolder

Theses and Dissertations

Although there are ample studies confirming that memory self-efficacy (MSE) declines with age, less is known about what factors account for the variation in MSE among older adults.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between MSE, diagnostic and clinical characteristics, and subsequent episodic memory performance in older adults. A nonprobability sample of 200 cognitively normal and older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) participating in a longitudinal population-based study investigating the incidence, prevalence and risk factors for MCI completed a questionnaire about self-referent beliefs of MSE. Bandura's (1989) selfefficacy theory and the Integration Model (Whittemore ...


Separating Component Signals Of Episodic Simulation Using A Catch Trial Design, Adrian W. Gilmore Dec 2012

Separating Component Signals Of Episodic Simulation Using A Catch Trial Design, Adrian W. Gilmore

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

Tasks that require mentally simulating events, such as remembering events from one’s past and imagining events from one’s future, have been shown to involve a highly overlapping set of brain regions. Across a growing number of studies, relatively few regions have been found that show differences in activity between remembered and imagined events. However, studies have not disambiguated neural activity related to task orientation: i.e., preparing to remember events from the past or imagine events in the future) from activity related simulating events, per se. The current experiment uses functional MRI and employs a catch trial design ...


Through A Glass, Darkly: The Changing Past Of Coffee County, Georgia, Jonathan Hepworth Dec 2012

Through A Glass, Darkly: The Changing Past Of Coffee County, Georgia, Jonathan Hepworth

All Theses

In 1954, Coffee County, Georgia, commemorated its centennial with a massive celebration that essentially shut down the county seat of Douglas for a week. Parades, fireworks, speeches, and above all a large-scale historical pageant, the 'Centurama,' were components of the celebration. The history celebrated in 1954, however, did not necessarily match up with Coffee County's actual history. This thesis examines the history of Coffee County and its changing nature, looking at politics, economics, and culture. It finds that historical 'memory' is not always planned out by society's elites, but can change as the result of politics, demographic shifts ...


Sac Attack: Assessing The Role Of Recollection In The Mirror Effect, Angela M. Pazzaglia Sep 2012

Sac Attack: Assessing The Role Of Recollection In The Mirror Effect, Angela M. Pazzaglia

Open Access Dissertations

Low-frequency (LF) words have higher hit rates (HRs) and lower false alarm rates (FARs) than high-frequency (HF) words in recognition memory, a phenomenon termed the mirror effect by Glanzer and Adams (1985). The primary mechanism for producing the mirror effect varies substantially across models of recognition memory, with some models localizing the effects during encoding and others during retrieval. The current experiments contrast two retrieval-stage models, the Source of Activation Confusion (SAC; Reder, Nhouyvanisvong, Schunn, Ayers, Angstadt, & Hiraki, 2000) model and the unequal variance signal detection theory (UVSDT) criterion shift model (e.g., DeCarlo, 2002). The SAC model proposes that ...


Relational Viewing: Affect, Trauma And The Viewer In Contemporary Autobiographical Art, Matthew Ryan Smith Aug 2012

Relational Viewing: Affect, Trauma And The Viewer In Contemporary Autobiographical Art, Matthew Ryan Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines the communicative relationship between contemporary autobiographical art and the viewer. By analyzing the work of six artists, Richard Billingham, Jaret Belliveau, Larry Clark, Nan Goldin, Lisa Steele and Bas Jan Ader, I maintain that lived experience and personal history condition the way viewers respond to autobiographical art. I turn to literary theory as a critical methodology to argue that autobiographical art operates as a catalyst for identification, memory and self-discovery. I use affect and trauma theory to demonstrate how artwork produces meaning and discourse through the viewer’s feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. Consequently, I survey the ...


Writing Her Way Back To The Old South: History, Memory, And Mildred Lewis, Cari A. Depalma Aug 2012

Writing Her Way Back To The Old South: History, Memory, And Mildred Lewis, Cari A. Depalma

History Theses

Mildred Lewis Rutherford, as one of the most prominent members of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, has been scantly researched in the past, however her speeches and writing had a profound impact on southern historical consciousness during the New South Period. Her influence, interestingly, was not entirely based in reality. A poststructural analysis of her speeches reveals that she strategically fabricated and excluded information in order to create a specific memory of the past in the minds of southerners. Rutherford had difficulty discerning whether or not the economic benefits of industrialization outweighed the accompanying social consequences. Yet, she used ...


The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond Aug 2012

The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated mixed evidence on impaired memory functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with the only consensus that there appears to be much heterogeneity. In addition, no research to date has examined the stability of memory in ASD. This study examined the stability of memory function in ASD compared to typically developing age-matched controls. Participants were administered the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) twice, three years apart, in an established longitudinal NIH-supported investigation of ASD. Based on available research contrasting memory development in healthy individuals versus those with ASD, it was hypothesized that memory performance in the ...


Marriage And Memory In Older Adults, Renu Kumar Aug 2012

Marriage And Memory In Older Adults, Renu Kumar

Gerontology Theses

Some loss in memory is considered a part of normal aging; however, there is a considerable heterogeneity in cognitive aging among older adults. Studies show that living arrangements, social interaction, social relationships and size of social network are among the predictors of memory decline for older adults. Moreover, marriage has been associated with physiological health as well as psychological and social well-being. This study has examined the relationship between the marital status and memory performance in older adults. It was hypothesized that (1) being married will be positively related to memory of older adults; (2) participants with larger supportive social ...


Differences In Iq And Memory Of Monolingual/Bilingual Children Who Suffered A Tbi, Julie Alberty Aug 2012

Differences In Iq And Memory Of Monolingual/Bilingual Children Who Suffered A Tbi, Julie Alberty

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at an average rate of 180 per 100,000 children who are hospitalized for head injury within the United States (Schwartz et al., 2003). Bilinguals are a large proportion of the population living in the United States and in Southern California, particularly. If children who are bilingual incur a TBI, will they have even more difficulty than monolinguals with language tasks because they have a smaller vocabulary base? This study aims to further elucidate whether verbal memory will be more severely impacted than nonverbal memory in this same bilingual pediatric TBI population. 18 children ...


Construct And Criterion Validity Of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Spanish Version In Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Cristobal Neblina Aug 2012

Construct And Criterion Validity Of The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Spanish Version In Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury, Cristobal Neblina

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is among the most commonly used English-language neuropsychological tests of verbal learning and memory. Previous research supports the validity and clinical utility of adaptations of the RAVLT into many diverse languages. In the United States, Hispanics represent the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority group. As the Hispanic populace continues to grow, so does the need for empirically validated Spanish-language neuropsychological measures. In 2002, a Spanish adaptation of the RAVLT was developed in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Vargas, 2002). However, validation studies have not been undertaken with clinical samples, and little is known regarding its psychometric ...


Sensory And Cognitive Declines In Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study, Melanie Storm Bauer Aug 2012

Sensory And Cognitive Declines In Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study, Melanie Storm Bauer

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

In a recent cross-sectional study, as has been found in numerous previous studies, Sommers et al.: 2011) found that age-related declines in hearing, as assessed by pure-tone thresholds, begin around age 20 and continue across the lifespan. In another article published from the same cross-sectional dataset, Hale et al.: 2011) found that working memory ability also begins declining around age 20 and continues throughout life. The present study is a longitudinal follow-up of these two studies in which a sub-sample of older adults: ≥65 years old at the time of original testing approximately four years ago) were re-tested on sensory ...


Affect Identification And Interpersonal Skills: An In-Depth Evaluation Of Social Cognition In Schizophrenia, Griffin Pollock Sutton Aug 2012

Affect Identification And Interpersonal Skills: An In-Depth Evaluation Of Social Cognition In Schizophrenia, Griffin Pollock Sutton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The presence of deficits in various sub-domains of social cognition has been investigated to a degree in individuals with schizophrenia. Some of the most commonly researched and documented deficits have included impairments in the identification of affect portrayed in faces. Research has indicated that the performance of individuals with schizophrenia on such tasks is generally impaired as compared to normal controls. However, some have questioned the generalizability of such findings to real-world situations, as day-to-day interactions generally necessitate a constant, fluid assessment of the thoughts and feelings of others and are rarely, if ever, limited to still images of others ...


"And They Never Did Find Him": Dialogues Of History, Geography, And Fear In Adolescent Legend-Tripping, Stephanie M. Monohan Jul 2012

"And They Never Did Find Him": Dialogues Of History, Geography, And Fear In Adolescent Legend-Tripping, Stephanie M. Monohan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Legends are all around us. Our conceptions of who we are and the places we inhabit are shaped and defined by the stories we hear and the ways in which we interact with our physical world. Legend-tripping is a misunderstood yet widely practiced activity in which people visit sites that have a (typically scary) legend attached to them in search of a transformative experience or just to scare themselves and their friends. While legend-triping has come to be associated with teenage delinquency, it is an important way for adolescents to gain a sense of independence, learn about and come to ...


Erinnern Ist Frauensache? - Frauen Als "Erinnerungsspeicher" In Tanja Dückers' Roman "Himmelskörper", Erin Ebnother-Perry Jul 2012

Erinnern Ist Frauensache? - Frauen Als "Erinnerungsspeicher" In Tanja Dückers' Roman "Himmelskörper", Erin Ebnother-Perry

Foreign Languages & Literatures ETDs

The sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff on January 30th 1945 caused the death of nine thousand German refugees, the greatest number of deaths caused by a single sinking ship in maritime history. For a long time, this catastrophe was considered a forgotten' topic, due to the complicated nature of remembering German wartime suffering without simultaneously mitigating the horrific crimes committed by the Germans during the Holocaust. In light of the passing of the first generation of World War II eyewitnesses, the third generation in Germany is confronted with a unique situation. How will they simultaneously remember and retell their grandparents ...


The Extent To Which “Death And Disgust” Thoughts Influence Recall In Survival Processing Scenarios, Melanie Kramer Jun 2012

The Extent To Which “Death And Disgust” Thoughts Influence Recall In Survival Processing Scenarios, Melanie Kramer

Honors Theses

Recently, researchers have found that survival processing enhances retention. This led the authors to speculate that our memory systems have been fine tuned to remember survival relevant information. One question that might be asked is what is it about thinking about one’s survival that aids memory? As an extension of my previous research, this project examines the extent to which death and disgust influence recall in survival processing scenarios, determining whether or not death and disgust play a role in the memory enhancement associated with survival processing scenarios. There are four conditions in this study differing in the amount ...


Effects Of Method And Context Of Note-Taking On Memory: Handwriting Versus Typing In Lecture And Textbook-Reading Contexts, Ian Schoen May 2012

Effects Of Method And Context Of Note-Taking On Memory: Handwriting Versus Typing In Lecture And Textbook-Reading Contexts, Ian Schoen

Pitzer Senior Theses

Both electronic note-taking (typing) and traditional note-taking (handwriting) are being utilized by college students to retain information. The effects of the method of note-taking and note-taking context were examined to determine if handwriting or typing notes and whether a lecture context or a textbook-reading context influenced retention. Pitzer College and Scripps College students were assigned to either handwrite or type notes on a piece of academic material presented in either a lecture or textbook context and were given a test to assess their retention. The results demonstrated that there was a significant main effect for typing notes such that typing ...


The Effect Of Interruptions On Prospective Memory In The Emergency Department, Kate Walders May 2012

The Effect Of Interruptions On Prospective Memory In The Emergency Department, Kate Walders

Theses

Using the activation goal memory framework, this study categorized 256 separate emergency department interruptions in a large research hospital setting. Prior to and following their shift, twelve physicians completed a semi-structured qualitative survey about their experiences with, and perceptions of, interruptions at work. During their shift, these physicians were shadowed and the interruptions they experienced were documented. Frequencies of four types of interruptions were tallied: Direct reminders, indirect reminders, memory lapses and no reported memory change. Memory events were a significant proportion of interruptions (47%). Direct reminders comprised the largest majority, followed by memory lapses, indirect reminders and combination memory ...


Linguistic Devices, Emotionality, And Memorability Of Computer Mediated Communication, Angela M. Mion May 2012

Linguistic Devices, Emotionality, And Memorability Of Computer Mediated Communication, Angela M. Mion

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

I examined whether college students use shortcuts, pragmatics, and errors in text messages differently depending on their gender and the emotionality of the message. Results indicate that the prevalence of particular shortcuts differed across happy, sad, and angry messages, but gender did not influence use of linguistic devices. In a second study, I examined the emotionality and memorability of text messages versus voicemails. Results indicate that texts may be remembered better than voicemails, and happy, sad, and angry messages may be remembered differently by men and women.


Evocation Of Memory And Place, Colleen Pendry May 2012

Evocation Of Memory And Place, Colleen Pendry

Masters Theses

My work investigates the inseparability of memory and emotion. Guided by what remain of my mother’s tattered memoirs, I have investigated a place from her past that suggests an intense search which filters through her writings and in tandem with my own visual remembrance. Through the manipulation of materials, technique and space, my work reveals a simple yet complex connectedness to memory and place.


The Lateran Baptistery: Memory, Space, And Baptism, David Tyler Thayer May 2012

The Lateran Baptistery: Memory, Space, And Baptism, David Tyler Thayer

Masters Theses

In the fourth century, the Lateran Baptistery was sponsored by Constantine the Great; it is the first extant free-standing baptistery known from the Roman world. In the fifth century, Pope Sixtus III renovated the baptistery through a newly-emphasized spatial hierarchy and the appropriation of some of Rome's most cherished structural elements and decorating themes. The result was a unique space that created a dialogue with Roman memory for the specific function of the baptismal rite it hosted. This thesis will analyze the spatial and symbolic forms, and the baptism ritual to show Sixtus III’s interaction with the Roman ...


“Can The Circle Be Unbroken” : An Ensemble Of Memory And Performance In Selected Novels Of Lee Smith, Jessica Frances Hoover May 2012

“Can The Circle Be Unbroken” : An Ensemble Of Memory And Performance In Selected Novels Of Lee Smith, Jessica Frances Hoover

Masters Theses

This project combines performance studies and memory studies to the analysis of three of Lee Smith’s southern Appalachian novels in order to open the texts to broader understandings of Smith’s use of oral performance forms, such as ballads, music, and storytelling, in her characters’ transmissions of tradition. The approach draws on performance work by Joseph Roach and collective memory theory by Maurice Halbwachs to create a lens through which to add to existing Smith scholarship centering on feminist readings and women’s authorship. This blended approach allows room to analyze the oral performance forms so central to Smith ...


Task-Specific Learning Supports Control Over Visual Distraction, Joshua Daniel Cosman May 2012

Task-Specific Learning Supports Control Over Visual Distraction, Joshua Daniel Cosman

Theses and Dissertations

There is more information in the visual environment than we can process at a given time, and as a result selective attention mechanisms have developed that allow us to focus on information that is relevant to us while ignoring information that is not. It is often assumed that our ability to overcome distraction by irrelevant information in the environment requires conscious, effortful processing, and traditional theories of selective attention have emphasized the role of an observer's explicit intentions in driving this control. At the same time, effortful control on the basis of explicit processes may be maladaptive when the ...


Practical Joy, Mary Naree Laube May 2012

Practical Joy, Mary Naree Laube

Theses and Dissertations

I will be presenting my work in two parts. The first section is dedicated to recent paintings that comprise my M.F.A. thesis exhibition: Practical Joy. The second section will investigate Practical Joy as an installation. I will raise questions regarding the relationship between my paintings and the exhibition space in order to situate my work into a contemporary discourse.