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Aircraft Rescue And Fire Fighting Capabilities: Are Today’S Standards Protecting Passenger’S Futures?, Kaetlyn Blocker 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Aircraft Rescue And Fire Fighting Capabilities: Are Today’S Standards Protecting Passenger’S Futures?, Kaetlyn Blocker

Student Works

Few studies have been conducted that have truly considered the relevance and inadequacies of applicable aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF) regulations. Fewer still have studied and explored accident cases that directly exemplify the deficiencies and inconsistencies of various regulatory standards and requirements. This study seeks to expose and explain those inadequacies by utilizing a historical, case-study type research method to examine accident cases during which time the governing regulations played a significant role in the ARFF operations. The findings discovered as a result of this multi-case analysis provide evidence that the current regulations governing United States ARFF operations are both ...


Evaluating Scenarios That Can Startle And Surprise Pilots, Rahim Daud Agha 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Evaluating Scenarios That Can Startle And Surprise Pilots, Rahim Daud Agha

Dissertations and Theses

Startle and surprise on the flight deck is a contributing factor in multiple aviation accidents that have been recognized by multiple aviation safety boards. This study identified the effects startle and surprise had on commercial pilots with single and multiengine ratings. Surprise is defined here as something unexpected (e.g., engine failure), while startle is the associated exaggerated effect of an unexpected condition (e.g., thunder sound). Forty pilots were tested in a basic aviation training device configured to a Cessna 172 (single-engine) and a Baron 58 (multi-engine). Each pilot flew the single- and multiengine aircraft in a scenario that ...


Aircraft Leading Edge Strakes On Conventional Naca Wings, Anthony Pirone 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Aircraft Leading Edge Strakes On Conventional Naca Wings, Anthony Pirone

Discovery Day - Prescott

The prevention of stall on aircraft wings has been a great challenge over the history of airplanes. As the aircraft become more and more complex, it becomes harder to fit high lift devices and leading-edge devices onto high camber, supercritical airfoil aircraft wings. In the fighter jet class of aircraft the obstacle of stall is usually delayed by the implementation of leading-edge root extensions or strakes. Strakes create a tip vortice along the sharp leading edge that transitions over the surface of the wing preventing separation on both the upper and lower surface of the wing allowing the fighter jet ...


Cybersecurity Vulnerability Analysis And Countermeasures Of Commercial Aircraft Avionic Systems, Dhafer Fayez Alqushayri 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Cybersecurity Vulnerability Analysis And Countermeasures Of Commercial Aircraft Avionic Systems, Dhafer Fayez Alqushayri

Dissertations and Theses

Nowadays, most commercial aircraft use systems with innovative technologies and unprecedented infrastructure of avionics applications which include cyber technologies. Airplane passengers are now using aviation cyber technologies when purchasing tickets, checking in at the airline counter, passing through airport security, and connecting to Wi-Fi and the embedded inflight entertainment system.

Cyber technologies and connectivity expose aviation to a dangerous and costly world of cyber threats that pose a major challenge of an attack which makes the risks difficult to understand or to define. In addition, the opportunities for attacks continually grow as new services and systems are developed. This thesis ...


Alaska Part 135 Operations: The Need For Additional Regulatory Oversight And Continuous Aircraft Tracking, April A. Larsen 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Alaska Part 135 Operations: The Need For Additional Regulatory Oversight And Continuous Aircraft Tracking, April A. Larsen

Student Works

With a focus on Alaska, this research illustrates the lack of regulatory oversight pertaining to Title 14 CFR Part 135 operators, including SMS, training, and equipment requirements. As of January 2020, under the Federal Aviation Administration’s NextGen initiative, all aircraft flying in controlled airspace are required to have an Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS– B) system installed and operational. Many Alaskan operators fly in hazardous terrain, and marginal weather, with little to no communication, yet ADS-B is not a requirement as they are in uncontrolled airspace. Alaska also lacks vital aviation infrastructure including adequate instrument approach procedures, weather monitoring ...


Predicting Pilot Misperception Of Runway Excursion Risk Through Machine Learning Algorithms Of Recorded Flight Data, Edwin Vincent Odisho II 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Predicting Pilot Misperception Of Runway Excursion Risk Through Machine Learning Algorithms Of Recorded Flight Data, Edwin Vincent Odisho Ii

Dissertations and Theses

The research used predictive models to determine pilot misperception of runway excursion risk associated with unstable approaches. The Federal Aviation Administration defined runway excursion as a veer-off or overrun of the runway surface. The Federal Aviation Administration also defined a stable approach as an aircraft meeting the following criteria: (a) on target approach airspeed, (b) correct attitude, (c) landing configuration, (d) nominal descent angle/rate, and (e) on a straight flight path to the runway touchdown zone. Continuing an unstable approach to landing was defined as Unstable Approach Risk Misperception in this research. A review of the literature revealed that ...


Empirical Analysis Of Trends In Runway Incursions In The United States From 2001 To 2017, David C. Ison 2020 Northcentral University

Empirical Analysis Of Trends In Runway Incursions In The United States From 2001 To 2017, David C. Ison

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Runway incursions, events in which an aircraft, vehicle, or person is located on a runway surface without authorization, continue to be a constant threat to aviation safety. Previously identified on the ‘‘Most Wanted’’ list of aviation safety issues by the National Transportation Safety Board, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has spent significant amounts of money and effort to address runway incursions. Little empirical evidence has been collected on the effectiveness of such efforts. Moreover, the data that are available provide a confusing landscape of contradicting findings. Some FAA publications claim that runway incursions are decreasing while the evidence provided in ...


Analysis Of Part 135 Aircraft Accidents To Facilitate Flight Data Monitoring, Chenyu Huang 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Analysis Of Part 135 Aircraft Accidents To Facilitate Flight Data Monitoring, Chenyu Huang

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The scheduled and on-demand air services with Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 135 certificate are operating with relatively less stringent safety program criteria compared to Part 121 operations. The Part 135 aircraft flight operation was identified as one of the most wanted transportation safety improvements by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Implementation of flight data monitoring (FDM) programs was recommended to mitigate the risk of Part 135 operations. The FDM program is the process of routinely collecting and analyzing aircraft operational data to provide insight into flight operations for safety improvement. The development of more practical ...


A Proposed Taxonomy For General Aviation Pilot Weather Education And Training, John M. Lanicci, Thomas A. Guinn, Jayde M. King, Beth Blickensderfer, Robert Thomas, Yolanda Ortiz 2020 University of South Alabama

A Proposed Taxonomy For General Aviation Pilot Weather Education And Training, John M. Lanicci, Thomas A. Guinn, Jayde M. King, Beth Blickensderfer, Robert Thomas, Yolanda Ortiz

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

As General Aviation (GA) safety continues to remain a focus of the aviation community, GA pilot weather education and training continues to be an active area of interest within the research community. This study introduces a taxonomy for organizing GA pilot weather education and training materials that was originally conceived as part of the FAA’s Weather Technology In the Cockpit research program. The taxonomy is built upon three main knowledge categories, or tiers:1) Weather Phenomena (which includes hazards); 2) Weather Hazard Products; and 3) Weather Hazard Product Sources and their Application. The concept behind the categorization is to ...


Assessing If Motivation Impacts General Aviation Pilots’ Persistence In Varying Weather Conditions, Sabrina Woods 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Assessing If Motivation Impacts General Aviation Pilots’ Persistence In Varying Weather Conditions, Sabrina Woods

Dissertations and Theses

Continued flight under visual flight rules into instrument meteorological conditions is the predominant cause for fatal accidents by percentage, for general aviation aircraft operations. It is possible that a pilot’s motivation or reason for flying will override other safer, more logical courses of action when a hazard presents itself. The decision appears to stem from a willingness to persist in a course of action despite factors that indicate an alternate and safer course is warranted. This research addresses what is currently presumed about the decision to continue flying under visual flight rules into instrument conditions and marries those ideas ...


Analyzing The Threats Of The Failure Of Visual Awareness During A Visual Approach For Transport Category Aircraft, Shlok Misra 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach

Analyzing The Threats Of The Failure Of Visual Awareness During A Visual Approach For Transport Category Aircraft, Shlok Misra

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk posed by the failure of visual awareness during visual approaches for transport category aircraft. Visual awareness is critical while conducting visual approaches and it is important to study the factors that can limit the capabilities of human beings to maintain visual awareness. Visual approaches expose pilots to multiple and critical visual stimuli that require strong visual awareness for safe operations. The study conducted a detailed analysis of the Flight Safety Foundation accident database to study the reported incidents during visual approaches from 1998-2018. The effect of human factors was studied ...


Managing Safety Risks In Airline Maintenance Outsourcing, Rajee Olaganathan Dr., Mark Miller Dr., Bettina M. Mrusek Dr. 2020 Rajee Olaganathan

Managing Safety Risks In Airline Maintenance Outsourcing, Rajee Olaganathan Dr., Mark Miller Dr., Bettina M. Mrusek Dr.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The U.S aviation industry faced severe financial losses after the 9/11 incident. The financial loss that occurred between 2000 and 2009 in the U.S. alone was $54 billion dollars. One of the operational strategies adopted by air carriers to overcome this hurdle was to outsource aircraft maintenance. Initially, this was accomplished in both home and off-shore locations. Unionized labor relations in the US ultimately forced these organizations to outsource to non-unionized labor sources in foreign countries. However, due to the upsurge in accidents and incidents that resulting from maintenance failures, the concept of outsourcing maintenance became a ...


Taking Off In Africa: Critical Elements Of Aircraft Engine Manufacturer Engagement That Can Affect Airline Safety Performance, Nathan Michael Woods 2020 Antioch University - PhD Program in Leadership and Change

Taking Off In Africa: Critical Elements Of Aircraft Engine Manufacturer Engagement That Can Affect Airline Safety Performance, Nathan Michael Woods

Dissertations & Theses

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is a term used in many industries to describe a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer. In the aviation industry, the aircraft engine OEM refers to the company the manufactures engines powering the aircraft. The OEM manufactures the engine, defines the required maintenance to operate the engines, and recommends product modifications. Product modifications are recommended to improve product safety, durability, reliability, and cost of ownership and are formally communicated through issuance of service bulletins. Properly performing the required maintenance and adopting service bulletins is an important element of maintaining ...


A Step Toward Ending Long Airport Security Lines: The Modified Boarding Pass, Joel Lee 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

A Step Toward Ending Long Airport Security Lines: The Modified Boarding Pass, Joel Lee

Dissertations and Theses

Anyone who has traveled by air has most likely experienced long airport security lines. Yet not much is known about its cause because few have considered if passengers have created this problem for themselves. The present study attempts to fill this research gap by suggesting that when passengers are not well-prepared for security screening, they delay the process by making mistakes and not complying with procedures. This lack of preparedness can be attributed to several shortcomings of security signposts. This study proposes the use of a modified boarding pass as an alternative form of signage to help passengers better prepare ...


Computational Model For Pedestrian Movement And Infectious Diseases Spread During Air Travel: A Molecular Dynamics-Like Numerical Approach, Pierrot Derjany 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Computational Model For Pedestrian Movement And Infectious Diseases Spread During Air Travel: A Molecular Dynamics-Like Numerical Approach, Pierrot Derjany

Dissertations and Theses

There is direct evidence of the transmission of fatal infectious pathogens in large human gatherings. Air transportation is no exception. The mixing of susceptible and infectious individuals in this high-density man-made environment involves pedestrian movement which is generally not taken into account in modeling studies of disease dynamics. This thesis addresses this problem through a multiscale model that combines pedestrian dynamics with stochastic infection spread models. This generic model is applicable to several directly transmitted diseases. Through this multiscale framework, the effectiveness of certain layout and strategies in suppressing the disease spread in highly crowded locations such as airplanes, airports ...


Damage Resistance And Tolerance Of 3d Woven Composites, Justin T. McDermott 2019 University of Maine

Damage Resistance And Tolerance Of 3d Woven Composites, Justin T. Mcdermott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Composite materials have been adopted into primary aircraft structures by virtue of their great strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, fatigue insensitivity, and corrosion resistance. These characteristics are leveraged by aircraft designers to deliver improved fuel effciency and reduced scheduled maintenance burdens for their customers. These benefits have been impressively realized in the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 XWB, with airframes utilizing about 50% composites by weight. Tempering these successes, however, are the inherent vulnerabilities of carbon-fiber reinforced composites. When compared to conventional metallic structure, composite laminates are more sensitive to stress concentrations at mechanical fastenings and damage due to low-velocity impact ...


Automatic Landing Gear, Daniel Battles, Cindi Albrightson 2019 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

Automatic Landing Gear, Daniel Battles, Cindi Albrightson

Student Research

Airplanes that are equipped with retractable landing gear are typically more desirable by pilots because of the benefits that come from this. There are also cons to having retractable landing gear, and having to remember to retract or extend the gear is one example. A switch on the dashboard must be flipped in order to activate the gear at the right time. In the incident that an airplane lands without the landing gear down, this is referred to as a “Gear up landing”. Gear up landings are usually caused from pilot error, which in many cases means that the pilot ...


Fatigue Identification And Management In Flight Training: An Investigation Of Collegiate Aviation Pilots, FLAVIO A. COIMBRA MENDONCA MR, Julius Keller, Chientsung Lu 2019 Purdue University

Fatigue Identification And Management In Flight Training: An Investigation Of Collegiate Aviation Pilots, Flavio A. Coimbra Mendonca Mr, Julius Keller, Chientsung Lu

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate collegiate aviation students’ self-awareness of their fatigue issues; to investigate possible causes of fatigue afflicting collegiate aviation students; and to investigate the collegiate aviation students’ lifestyle and perceptions of personal solutions to fatigue.

Background: Pilot fatigue is a significant safety hazard in aviation operations. Several factors can contribute to fatigue, including inadequate sleep, long work hours, and inadequate nutritional habits. Some factors, such as social and academic activities, could be unique for Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 141 collegiate aviation pilots. Previous studies have addressed fatigue in commercial ...


Cleared To Land: Pilot Visual Detection Of Small Unmanned Aircraft During Final Approach, Ryan J. Wallace, Samuel M. Vance, Jon M. Loffi, Jamey Jacob, Jared C. Dunlap, Taylor A. Mitchell, Robert Thomas, Seabrook R. Whyte 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Cleared To Land: Pilot Visual Detection Of Small Unmanned Aircraft During Final Approach, Ryan J. Wallace, Samuel M. Vance, Jon M. Loffi, Jamey Jacob, Jared C. Dunlap, Taylor A. Mitchell, Robert Thomas, Seabrook R. Whyte

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Sighting reports of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) by pilots, air traffic controllers, and other aviation stakeholders have continued to rise since the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began tracking in 2014. In 2018, the FAA received 2,307 such reports, with 22.8% (n = 526) occurring during the final approach phase of flight. The threat of a midair collision between a manned aircraft and UAS is heightened during the final approach phase of flight, as the aircraft transitions from higher-altitude airspace to the low-altitude arena, now shared with drones. Absent UAS sense and avoid systems, pilots are forced to rely on ...


Segmentation Of Severe Occupational Incidents In Agribusiness Industries Using Latent Class Clustering, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher 2019 San Jose State University

Segmentation Of Severe Occupational Incidents In Agribusiness Industries Using Latent Class Clustering, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki

One of the principle objectives in occupational safety analysis is to identify the key factors that affect the severity of an incident. To identify risk groups of occupational incidents and the factors associated with them, statistical analysis of workers’ compensation claims data is performed using latent class clustering, for the segmentation of 1031 severe occupational incidents in agribusiness industries in the Midwest region of the United States between 2008–2016. In this study, severe incidents are those with workers’ compensation costs equal to or greater than $100,000 (USD). Based on the latent class clustering results, three risk groups are ...


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