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African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson 2020 American Museum of Natural History

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs ...


Grandmotherhood In Ukraine: Behavioral Variation And Evolutionary Implications, Sofiya Shreyer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Grandmotherhood In Ukraine: Behavioral Variation And Evolutionary Implications, Sofiya Shreyer

Masters Theses

Grandmothers are known to increase the health and well-being of their grandchildren in many different populations. However, grandmothers may vary in their contributions based on their relatedness to their grandchildren. In some populations, maternal grandmothers decrease the risk of mortality and increase the health of their grandchildren more than paternal grandmothers. Grandmaternal influence also sometimes varies based on the gender of the grandchild. The behavioral mechanisms of grandmaternal investment are not well understood and have not been explored in the heavily intergenerational context of Eastern Europe. This study examines the behavioral variation of sixty-two Ukrainian grandmothers through interviews and a ...


Nutrition At Tipu: A Comparative Analysis Of Juvenile Health In Maya Populations, Sydnie A. Bianchi 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

Nutrition At Tipu: A Comparative Analysis Of Juvenile Health In Maya Populations, Sydnie A. Bianchi

Master's Theses

The site of Tipu in west central Belize provided a foothold for Spanish missionaries in the 17th century. The effects of contact on adults among the 550 burials recovered in the cemetery there have been well studied, but the children have received less attention. Therefore, this study examined juvenile health through four markers: Linear Enamel Hypoplasia (LEH), a non-specific marker of health disruptions; Porotic Hyperostosis (PH), an indicator of anemia; and Periostitis, an indicator of infection. Some 131 individuals were evaluated using criteria developed by Steckel, Sciulli, and Rose (2002). The results were compared to Late Classic Copán (Storey ...


Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words? Communicative Frequencies And Multimodality In Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur Catta), Hilary Hager 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words? Communicative Frequencies And Multimodality In Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur Catta), Hilary Hager

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The study of multimodal communication in primatology has increased only recently. At present, there are no on-going investigations of multimodal communication in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), despite the body of research on this species. I investigated how different modes of L. catta inter-individual multimodal communication are socially coordinated and integrated by examining frequencies of occurrence within four potential biological and social factors: age, troop affiliation, sex, and dominance rank. Research was conducted over four months at the Duke Lemur Center, Durham, NC, on 14 individuals from three separate troops of captive, free-ranging L. catta. Results demonstrate communicative variation in unimodal ...


Archaeology Or Crime Scene? Teeth Micro And Macro Structure Analysis As Dating Variable, Jessica A. Vincenty 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Archaeology Or Crime Scene? Teeth Micro And Macro Structure Analysis As Dating Variable, Jessica A. Vincenty

Student Theses

Simple methods to aid in the determination of forensic or archaeologic relevancy of skeletonized remains have been researched since the 1950s. With advances in microscopic imaging techniques and machine learning computer data analysis methods the relevancy of decontextualized, comingled remains has room for improvement. This thesis is a study done to pioneer a new approach to analyzing dental skeletal remains to determine forensic relevancy.

Archaeological dental samples collected from the ancient city of Ur in modern day southern Iraq in addition to modern dental extractions were processed for scanning electron microscopy imaging. Archaeological and modern samples displayed different surface and ...


Relationship Of Posterior Intracranial Venous Structures In Homo Sapiens And Handedness, Brianne Finley 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Relationship Of Posterior Intracranial Venous Structures In Homo Sapiens And Handedness, Brianne Finley

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The transverse sinus spans the endocranial surface of the occipital bone and ultimately transmits deoxygenated blood to the sigmoid sinus and jugular vein en route to the heart. This paired sinus tends to be more defined on either the left or right side in human crania. Left and right dominance, or the use of one side of the body more than the other, leaves traces on the human skeleton. Methods to determine handedness upon examination of various elements of the human skeleton mostly focus on the use of the extremities, while little research exists examining the skull for evidence of ...


Market Integration And Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Among The Shuar Of Amazonian Ecuador, Theresa E. Gildner, Tara J. Cepon-Robins, Melissa A. Liebert, Samuel S. Urlacher, Joshua M. Schrock, Christopher J. Harrington, Felicia C. Madimenos, J. Josh Snodgrass, Lawrence S. Sugiyama 2020 Dartmouth College

Market Integration And Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Among The Shuar Of Amazonian Ecuador, Theresa E. Gildner, Tara J. Cepon-Robins, Melissa A. Liebert, Samuel S. Urlacher, Joshua M. Schrock, Christopher J. Harrington, Felicia C. Madimenos, J. Josh Snodgrass, Lawrence S. Sugiyama

Publications and Research

Background

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar.

Methods

Kato-Katz fecal smears were ...


Birth Control Behind Bars: An Anthropological Perspective On The Care Of Captive Bonobos, Tylyn A. Recore-Dagsaan 2020 University of North Florida

Birth Control Behind Bars: An Anthropological Perspective On The Care Of Captive Bonobos, Tylyn A. Recore-Dagsaan

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

Bonobos are one of our closest living primate relatives. They are primarily known for their unique social structure and sexual behavior. In their native setting, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, bonobos are often seen engaging in sexual behaviors not only for reproduction, but for social reasons too. Unfortunately, research in the wild is difficult because of political unrest and rapidly declining population numbers. Since bonobos are endangered, it is crucial that we maintain and properly care for a captive population to ensure the survival of the species. A captive setting provides a safe, controlled environment for researchers to observe ...


Human Touch: Storytelling Through Anatomy, Kendahl Servino, Ashley Hairston Doughty, Maria Jerinic, Michael Ian Borer 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Human Touch: Storytelling Through Anatomy, Kendahl Servino, Ashley Hairston Doughty, Maria Jerinic, Michael Ian Borer

The Macksey Journal

This study seeks to examine how the human body, particularly the hands, can be a focal point for sociologically understanding the way humans perceive themselves, each other, and the world around them. A series of conversational interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to describe their hands, what they use them for, and what associations they have with them. The aim was for the participants to share stories which would shape each unique and individual interview experience. However, in understanding more about human life and its experiences, technical analyses such as statistics and graphs are often inadequate approaches. Because ...


Epigenetics A Decolonizing Science, Wade Paul 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Epigenetics A Decolonizing Science, Wade Paul

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epigenetics is the study of gene expression that does not entail alterations to the actual DNA. Decolonization is a theoretical and political movement that seeks to deconstruct colonial institutions and ideologies and reconstruct new and balanced approaches that accept and respect Indigenous worldviews. This project studies the decolonizing potential of epigenetics. Using genealogy as the method, the study establishes a long history of reductionist and deterministic thought that shaped the study of genetic science. Particular instances like thrift gene theory are explored to highlight how genetic explanations have been detrimental to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous people and illustrate ...


Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox

LSU Master's Theses

The Obstetrical Dilemma (OD) theory has become canon in biological anthropology. The OD posits that i] dystocia results from bipedal mothers and encephalized infants, ii] contrasting selection for bipedality and obstetrics hinders locomotive efficiency, and iii] the contradicting requirement of the fetus being small enough to pass through the birth canal yet being cognitively advanced enough to cling to its mother after birth. Females, theoretically, exhibit deficient gait efficiency for the sake of successful childbirth. An obstetric advantage theory has been posited where taller individuals with a larger head size have larger pelves. If the distance between the acetabulae increases ...


Bones, Burials, And The Riddle Of Truth: Reconstructing The Past Through What Has Been Left Behind, Jelena M. Begonja 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Bones, Burials, And The Riddle Of Truth: Reconstructing The Past Through What Has Been Left Behind, Jelena M. Begonja

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mortuary archaeology is known to be the study of human remains and burials. The primary focus of this work has been to study all of the elements associated in burials to learn more about the burial practices and rituals in a group’s culture, however, there is much more potential in studying burial sites than just learning about a group’s burial rituals and practices. This thesis will demonstrate that it is indeed possible to make different inferences about the rest of people’s daily lives, and the truth, based from materials found in studying burials alone. For some groups ...


In Vitro Immune Activation By Treponema Pallidum And The Effect On Osteoclastogenesis: First Experimental Step Towards An Integration Between Osteoimmunology And Paleopathology., Emily Ann Rich 2020 University of Louisville

In Vitro Immune Activation By Treponema Pallidum And The Effect On Osteoclastogenesis: First Experimental Step Towards An Integration Between Osteoimmunology And Paleopathology., Emily Ann Rich

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The presence of pathogens in the human body influences the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated immune cells. These cytokines, and other factors, regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Through experimental osteoimmunology, interactions between the inflammatory response and bone cell physiology may provide insight into how immune processes can be translated into the lesions or abnormalities observed in the osteological record. In this research, our objective was to determine if the cytokines produced by activated immune cells increase osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used two main protocols, one for immune activation and one for osteoclastogenesis, that utilized ...


Plant Processing Experiments And Use-Wear Analysis Of Tabon Cave Artefacts Question The Intentional Character Of Denticulated Stone Tools In Prehistoric Southeast Asia, Alfred Pawlik, Hermine Xhauflaira, Sheldon Jago-on, Timothy Vitalese, John Rey Callado, Danilo Tandang, Trishia Palconit, Dante Manipon, Claire Gaillard, Angeliki Theodoropoulou, Nicole Revel, Hubert Forestier 2020 Ateneo de Manila University

Plant Processing Experiments And Use-Wear Analysis Of Tabon Cave Artefacts Question The Intentional Character Of Denticulated Stone Tools In Prehistoric Southeast Asia, Alfred Pawlik, Hermine Xhauflaira, Sheldon Jago-On, Timothy Vitalese, John Rey Callado, Danilo Tandang, Trishia Palconit, Dante Manipon, Claire Gaillard, Angeliki Theodoropoulou, Nicole Revel, Hubert Forestier

Sociology & Anthropology Department Faculty Publications

The presence of notches on European Palaeolithic flaked stone tools termed ‘denticulates’ has been variously ascribed to cultural, functional and taphonomic factors. In Southeast Asia prehistoric stone tool assemblages are dominated by unretouched flakes, so the rare retouched lithics, including denticulates, can be considered unique testimonies of the intention of the tool makers to control the shape and properties of tool edges. Here we report the results of plant processing experiments with modern unretouched flakes made of red jasper. Splitting plants with the help of a specific hand and arm movement (“twist-of-the-wrist”) resulted in a series of use-wear traces that ...


Learning From Those Who Served: Application Of Regression-Based Body Mass Estimation Methods To The Uss Oklahoma Population, Maxwell Rooney 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Learning From Those Who Served: Application Of Regression-Based Body Mass Estimation Methods To The Uss Oklahoma Population, Maxwell Rooney

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

Current methodologies in body mass estimation are lacking in accuracy when compared to the methods of sex, age, and ancestry estimation familiar to forensic anthropologists. For this reason, the practical application of body mass estimation remains underutilized, hindering the study of a potentially advantageous aspect of the biological profile.

This study highlights body mass estimation in a forensic context while taking the osteological paradox into account through the utilization of a unique population: the US military personnel killed on the USS Oklahoma during the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1942. Because these individuals were similar in age (adults, age ...


399— Rates Of Tuberculosis Mortality Rates In Urban And Rural Areas Of New York State Before The Age Of Antibiotics, Jillian DeMaria 2020 SUNY Geneseo

399— Rates Of Tuberculosis Mortality Rates In Urban And Rural Areas Of New York State Before The Age Of Antibiotics, Jillian Demaria

GREAT Day

From the late nineteenth and early twentieth century industrialization changed many aspects of American life. Mortality rates in the pre World War I era (1838 and 1930) changed due to many improvements of public health. The creation and emphasis over vaccinations, sewage systems, inspections of foods, and overall improvements in living and working conditions improved public health outcomes in all parts of America, in both rural and urban areas. As the changes occurred, tuberculosis mortality rates declined. This study explores death rates of tuberculosis in rural and urban areas, as well as the general population of Rochester, in the nineteenth ...


280— Exploring The Geographic Distribution Of Childbed Fever Deaths In Mid-19th Century Rochester, Ny, Meaghan Parks 2020 SUNY Geneseo

280— Exploring The Geographic Distribution Of Childbed Fever Deaths In Mid-19th Century Rochester, Ny, Meaghan Parks

GREAT Day

Childbed fever, formally called puerperal fever or puerperal septicemia, is an infection typically contracted by women after childbirth. Historically, childbed fever was a serious threat to maternal health. Childbed fever is caused by exposure of open wounds or abrasions, which are common after giving birth, to group A and B Streptococcal bacteria. Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that hand washing using a chlorinated solution reduced cases of childbed fever in 1847. This project reviews the instances of death from childbed fever in Rochester, New York from 1837-1860 and later from 1907-1919 and attempts to determine which areas of the city had the ...


137— Skulls Tell Tales: A Comparative Study Of Un-Provenienced Crania, Alice Lee 2020 SUNY Geneseo

137— Skulls Tell Tales: A Comparative Study Of Un-Provenienced Crania, Alice Lee

GREAT Day

In this study I have conducted a detailed analysis of several crania that have yet to be provenienced in the skeletal collection of the Physical Anthropology Lab. While some of these skulls have previously been matched to the correct post-cranial skeleton most of them have not and as such all were studied alone separate from any other skeletal material. The skulls were then compared analytically with a focus on any commonalities of sex, ethnicity, and age which may be present along with what determinations could actually be made with the parts of each skull that were available as some were ...


Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker 2020 Southern Methodist University

Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in biology, being honored with a Black Heritage postage stamp in 1996. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general evolutionary bioethics (distinct from special medical bioethics) by advancing a cell-biology-rooted theory of the origin and continuing evolution of ethical behavior influenced by the “law of environmental dependence.”

See especially “The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior (1941, unpublished book manuscript) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig Schnetzler Just, discovered in 2018 among the collected papers of E.E. Just at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University.

Accordingly ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Photogrammetry In Cranial Metric And Non-Metric Studies, Amy Hair 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

An Assessment Of The Use Of Photogrammetry In Cranial Metric And Non-Metric Studies, Amy Hair

Master's Theses

Methods in biological anthropology have made tremendous leaps in recent years and with the increasing rise in technology there is no reason to suspect that this trend will be decreasing. Particularly methods in 3D digitization have not only increased but have also become more accessible in bioarchaeology. One method, photogrammetry, offers bioarcheologists a unique opportunity to easily collect and process cranial metric and non-metric data that can be used to quantify biological relatedness. While these advances are expected to continue, it is ignorant to assume that they represent a fail proof solution. A critical examination is necessary to quantify the ...


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