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Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin

UMSL Datasets

These data are from observations on antemortem tooth loss and the presence of carious lesions from the site of Deir el-Medina, Egypt. The data were collected by Anne Austin and Mélie Louys as part of the mission of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale at the site during the 2012-14 and 2019-20 field seasons. These data were derived from human remains found in Theban Tombs 6, 217, 290, and 298. They are estimated to date from 1550-945 BCE. These data include macroscopic observations from 32 mandibles and 44 maxillae consisting of 485 observable teeth and 1,052 observable tooth sockets ...


Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The impact of deforestation on the genetic structure of mouse lemurs is poorly understood. In this project, I assess deforestation of Madagascar’s terrestrial protected regions, quantify genomic wide genetic variation in two sympatric mouse lemurs, and evaluate the role of landscape structure in genetic relatedness patterns within two sympatric mouse lemur species. Overall deforestation rates across the 98 terrestrial protected areas in Madagascar are increasing, resulting in an average annual deforestation rate of 0.68% per year, with approximately 10,600 km2 lost between 2000 and 2019. In a comparison of relatedness patterns between the sympatric gray mouse ...


Dental Health In The Aqllakuna From Farfán (Peru): A New Perspective On An Inca Female Institution (Ca. 1470-1532 A.D.) Using Micro-Ct And Histological Analysis, Émy Roberge 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Dental Health In The Aqllakuna From Farfán (Peru): A New Perspective On An Inca Female Institution (Ca. 1470-1532 A.D.) Using Micro-Ct And Histological Analysis, Émy Roberge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research aims to explore the lifeways of an underrepresented subgroup of females while reducing the use of destructive methods in bioarchaeology. The excavation of Farfán on the North Coast of Peru revealed a rare aqlla cemetery from the Late Horizon (1470-1532 A.D.). The aqlla was an Inca religious institution where young females were sequestered to brew chicha and weave in their aqllawasi. According to ethnohistorical sources, these “Chosen Women” were expected to represent a homogenous and advantaged subset of the population. This hypothesis is assessed by comparing their dental lesions to the general population using macroscopy, micro-CT, and ...


Stature Estimates Of The Classic Period Maya From Chac Balam And San Juan, Ambergris Caye, Belize, Natalie Clark 2022 University of Mississippi

Stature Estimates Of The Classic Period Maya From Chac Balam And San Juan, Ambergris Caye, Belize, Natalie Clark

Honors Theses

This thesis presents updated sex and stature estimates for ancient Maya females and males who lived in San Juan and Chac Balam in northern Ambergris Caye from approximately AD 700-900.

The regression formulae used in this study reflect a closer population affinity to the Maya compared to the equations used in the original analysis by Glassman (1995). Del Angel and Cisneros’ (2004) formulae were used when estimating stature based on a complete long bone. In Steele and Bramblett (1988), Steele and McKern (1969) and Steele (1970) regression formulae were used when estimating stature based on an incomplete humerus, femur, or ...


Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar 2022 University of Mississippi

Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar

Honors Theses

The world’s aging population and the Covid-19 pandemic have revealed the high level of ageism against older adults around the globe, which has resulted in an overall decreased quality of life for elders. Societies are now faced with the challenge of creating a suitable and equitable model of care to support their aging population. Despite the recent publication of the World Health Organization's Global Report on Ageism, there is still a large gap in the literature regarding ageism. This paper addresses the issues of institutional ageism in the eldercare and healthcare sector. I argue that Costa Rica serves ...


The Abuse Of Darwinism (And Social Darwinism) For The Purposes Of Discrimination, Jessica N. Kantrowitz 2022 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

The Abuse Of Darwinism (And Social Darwinism) For The Purposes Of Discrimination, Jessica N. Kantrowitz

Honors Student Research

Throughout most of history, people have tried to justify their discrimination against other groups of people in any way they can, especially using biology and evolutionary theories as reason. When Charles Darwin published his book “On the Origin of Species”, introducing his theory of evolution and the work and experiments he did to prove this theory, it caused many to question their previous bigoted beliefs. For some, however, Darwin’s theory of evolution, which would come to be referred to simply as Darwinism, only further proved their biases, or they could, at least, make it sound like they did. Later ...


Quantification Of Dental Fissures Through Occlusal Topography Analysis, Duru Erkan 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Quantification Of Dental Fissures Through Occlusal Topography Analysis, Duru Erkan

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Narrow, deep, and elaborate dental fissures are widely believed to increase the predisposition of enamel to develop carious lesions as these surfaces are thought to be ideal for cariogenic bacteria to adhere to. Therefore, dentists prescribe sealants as a preventative measure for patients with such fissures to avoid tooth decay. Yet to date, there is no objective data supporting the notion that fissure morphology actually affects caries susceptibility, nor is there a quantifiable, clinically practical method to characterize fissure patterns expected to increase risk of caries disease.

In this study, three new methods to quantitatively characterize fissure pattern in mandibular ...


Moral Distress, Burnout, And Moral Injury In Healthcare Professionals, Sophia Gibson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Moral Distress, Burnout, And Moral Injury In Healthcare Professionals, Sophia Gibson

Anthropology Undergraduate Honors Theses

For doctors and other health care professionals, experiences of care too often involve burnout and moral distress. Making both visible to begin addressing them takes up the main concern of my thesis. Burnout and moral distress swallow a life. Suddenly you aren’t going on that shopping trip with friends, you can forget about going to that movie or play. You are too tired to drag yourself out of bed, instead getting caught in a cycle of sleep and work with no time for a break or even to process what happened last shift. Who’s going to have a ...


Teaching Old Calipers New Tricks: Using Craniometrics For Ancestry Admixture Estimation Via Fuzzy Math, Kristi Carnahan 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Teaching Old Calipers New Tricks: Using Craniometrics For Ancestry Admixture Estimation Via Fuzzy Math, Kristi Carnahan

Master's Theses

Cranial measurements have been a cornerstone of physical anthropology since its formation as a discipline in the early 1900s. However, most other ancestry determination methods come with a significant epistemological issue: they differentiate individuals into discrete categories without accounting for the issue of admixture. Advances in data mining and analysis techniques can now be used to help resolve this issue through soft computing, also known as “fuzzy math”. This type of advanced computational math requires specialized knowledge in computer programming, statistics, and data analysis techniques unless one is using computer programs specially designed to run these analyses.

This project compiled ...


Musculoskeletal Markers: A Comparison Of The Influence Of Three Biological Factors On Robusticity, Megan Greene 2022 Louisiana State University

Musculoskeletal Markers: A Comparison Of The Influence Of Three Biological Factors On Robusticity, Megan Greene

LSU Master's Theses

Research suggests that musculoskeletal markers (MSMs) can provide information about the lives of deceased individuals. The majority of studies focus on single factors that influence the morphology of MSMs in pre-modern societies (i.e., medieval, hunter-gatherers, preindustrial, etc.). This study analyzes MSMs of modern skeletons of 72 females and 83 males from the United States whose ages at death range from 30 to 89 to understand the relationship between various biological factors and MSM morphology. Eight MSMs (attachments of pectoralis major, deltoid, brachialis, supinator, iliopsoas, gluteus maximus, quadriceps, and soleus) were analyzed and categorized as phases zero, one, two, or ...


A Validation Study Of Transferrin And I-Fabp As Dried Blood Spot-Based Biomarkers Of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, Selinda Qiu 2022 University of Pennsylvania

A Validation Study Of Transferrin And I-Fabp As Dried Blood Spot-Based Biomarkers Of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, Selinda Qiu

Anthropology Senior Theses

Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition characterized by increased intestinal permeability and impaired nutrient absorption, but current methods for assessing EED are invasive and resource intensive. Dried blood spot (DBS) biomarker sampling offers a minimally invasive method of detecting EED. We present a validation study of two DBS protocols for the measurement of transferrin, a biomarker of iron status, and I-FABP, a biomarker of intestinal permeability. Matched DBS from a fingerstick and venous whole blood samples from n=74 individuals were collected over a 3-week period. Whole blood was used to create additional DBS samples and then spun ...


Analysis Of Vertebrae Pathologies Of Grave A650 Chryssi Island, Crete, Greece, Abbey E. Bartmess, Susan Kirkpatrick Smith 2022 Kennesaw State University

Analysis Of Vertebrae Pathologies Of Grave A650 Chryssi Island, Crete, Greece, Abbey E. Bartmess, Susan Kirkpatrick Smith

Symposium of Student Scholars

This study of multiple, co-mingled adult individuals located in grave A650 on Chryssi Island, Crete, Greece, examines the prevalence of several pathologies of the vertebrae. This grave was built into a collapsed Late Minoan period house (1400-1100 B.C.E.). Grave A650, which likely dates to the 5th – 7th century C.E., shows evidence of being used over a long period of time and may have served as an ossuary. The pathologies of approximately 30 recovered vertebrae, both complete and incomplete, show signs of degenerative joint disease, spondylolisthesis, and body expansion. Researching this data aims to accomplish a comprehensive understanding ...


Dating The Seals Of Harappa: A Radiocarbon Approach, Grace Abernathy 2022 Kennesaw State University

Dating The Seals Of Harappa: A Radiocarbon Approach, Grace Abernathy

Symposium of Student Scholars

For many years, Indus seals have puzzled archaeologists with their detailed motifs and undeciphered script. There is no pattern to the relationship between motifs and inscriptions, as each motif has been found scattered across the greater Indus region. In looking at the context of the seals and radiocarbon dating of charcoal, bone, and shell in a singular site, there may be a definitive pattern between certain motifs and the time periods they were used. This study uses contextual analysis to identify chronological patterns of seals discovered at the site of Harappa. Should any patterns arise, this research study could be ...


Dismantling Binary Assumptions In Sex Estimation: Uplifting Trans And Gender Diverse Identities In Forensic Anthropology, Audrey Holbeck 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dismantling Binary Assumptions In Sex Estimation: Uplifting Trans And Gender Diverse Identities In Forensic Anthropology, Audrey Holbeck

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Forensic anthropology is a study within the field of physical anthropology that seeks to apply osteological expertise to legal and criminal situations. One of a forensic anthropologists’ most important jobs is to build a biological profile, consisting of age, biological sex, stature, and ancestry, in correspondence to an unidentified decedent. As we enter the third decade of the 21st century, instances of violence against trans and gender non-conforming individuals are unfortunately prominent, however, there has also been more awareness shed on trans activism. Trans individuals are at a higher risk of being victims of violent crime, and thus, forensic anthropologists ...


Prevalence Of Dementia And Mild Cognitive Impairment In Indigenous Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists, Margaret Gatz, Wendy J. Mack, Helena C. Chui, E. Meng Law, Giuseppe Barisano, M. Linda Sutherland, James D. Sutherland, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Raul Quispe Gutierrez, Juan Copajira Adrian, Jesus Bani Cuata, Amy R. Borenstein, Ellen E. Waters, Andrei Irimia, Christopher J. Rowan, L. Samuel Wann, Adel H. Allam, Randall C. Thompson, Michael I. Miyamoto, David E. Michalik, Daniel K. Cummings, Edmond Seabright, Angela R. Garcia, Paul L. Hooper, Thomas S. Kraft, Caleb E. Finch, Gregory S. Thomas, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael D. Gurven, Hillard Kaplan 2022 University of Southern California

Prevalence Of Dementia And Mild Cognitive Impairment In Indigenous Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists, Margaret Gatz, Wendy J. Mack, Helena C. Chui, E. Meng Law, Giuseppe Barisano, M. Linda Sutherland, James D. Sutherland, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Raul Quispe Gutierrez, Juan Copajira Adrian, Jesus Bani Cuata, Amy R. Borenstein, Ellen E. Waters, Andrei Irimia, Christopher J. Rowan, L. Samuel Wann, Adel H. Allam, Randall C. Thompson, Michael I. Miyamoto, David E. Michalik, Daniel K. Cummings, Edmond Seabright, Angela R. Garcia, Paul L. Hooper, Thomas S. Kraft, Caleb E. Finch, Gregory S. Thomas, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael D. Gurven, Hillard Kaplan

ESI Publications

Introduction

We evaluated the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in indigenous Tsimane and Moseten, who lead a subsistence lifestyle.

Methods

Participants from population-based samples ≥ 60 years of age (n = 623) were assessed using adapted versions of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, informant interview, longitudinal cognitive testing and brain computed tomography (CT) scans.

Results

Tsimane exhibited five cases of dementia (among n = 435; crude prevalence = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4, 2.7); Moseten exhibited one case (among n = 169; crude prevalence = 0.6%, 95% CI: 0.0, 3.2), all age ≥ 80 years. Age-standardized MCI ...


The Impact Of Energetic Trade-Offs On The Developmental Trajectory And Life History Strategy Of Homo Sapiens: The Modern Human Female Phenotype, Laura Ann Hope Atkinson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Energetic Trade-Offs On The Developmental Trajectory And Life History Strategy Of Homo Sapiens: The Modern Human Female Phenotype, Laura Ann Hope Atkinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study interrogates the relationship between early life environmental variability (measured through birth weight and age at menarche), and adult phenotypic outcomes in female athletes and non-athletes from the United Kingdom. Using anthropometric, and 3D body surface scan analysis, patterns of phenotypic variation were interpreted in a life history context. Significant correlations between birth weight, stature, and bi-iliac breadth were observed. Age at menarche had significant correlations with linear growth and body composition measures in both Pearson and Canonical Correlation analyses. Crural index was found to be negatively correlated with limb segment SA:Vol in opposition to the expectations of ...


"Bonobo" Rights For All: Using A Primatological Approach To Secure Gender Equity, Francesca V.E. Kaser 2022 Regis University

"Bonobo" Rights For All: Using A Primatological Approach To Secure Gender Equity, Francesca V.E. Kaser

Regis University Student Publications

Western patriarchy sustains male-dominance and perpetuates gender inequity. While there have been great achievements toward gender equity, women are burdened to navigate a society that upholds male success. Equality offers individuals the same opportunities, but often falls short in delivering equal outcomes because of historic and systemic male privileges conserved by patriarchy. Equity, on the other hand, ensures that fair opportunities effect equal outcomes to rectify systemic injustices. To reconstruct women’s role in society, our closest living relatives, patriarchal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and matriarchal bonobos (Pan paniscus), allow humans to compare the role of females in diverse primate social ...


Remote Analysis Capabilities Of Digitally Rendered Models Of Human Remains: Obtaining Osteometric Data & Assessing Pathology And Taphonomic Alteration - Using Non-Human Animal Remains As An Analogue, M. Elizabeth Dyess 2022 Eastern Washington University

Remote Analysis Capabilities Of Digitally Rendered Models Of Human Remains: Obtaining Osteometric Data & Assessing Pathology And Taphonomic Alteration - Using Non-Human Animal Remains As An Analogue, M. Elizabeth Dyess

2022 Symposium

Computed tomography (CT), photogrammetry, and laser surface scanning technologies have enabled remote, noninvasive, and non-destructive analysis of skeletal human remains in various contexts. Such technologies have found applications in the disciplines of osteoarchaeology, forensic anthropology, the medical sciences, and other related fields of inquiry. This presentation will discuss the accuracy and reliability of osteometric data obtained from digitally rendered models, as well as the clarity and level of detail attained. Such qualifying standards are essential if practitioners are to reliably assess pathology and taphonomic alteration to the specimens from which the scans are modeled. The suitability of each of the ...


We Can Still Feed Ourselves: Food Sovereignty, Aid, Sickness, And Health In Eastern Kentucky, Annie Koempel 2022 University of Kentucky

We Can Still Feed Ourselves: Food Sovereignty, Aid, Sickness, And Health In Eastern Kentucky, Annie Koempel

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Over forty percent of eastern Kentucky residents are classified as obese. From a biomedical perspective, obesity is linked to a range of chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure and is caused by particular lifestyle behaviors that lead to an increase in calorie consumption and decrease in calorie expenditure. However, these links – individual behavior leads to obesity which leads to chronic disease - do not take into account a wide range of personal, social, environmental, political, and economic conditions. In addition to the assumptions of what it means to become and be obese, Kentucky is regularly ranked among ...


Assessing Stress Biomarkers As Embodied Identity In Kentucky’S Green River Archaic, Anna-Marie Casserly 2022 University of Kentucky

Assessing Stress Biomarkers As Embodied Identity In Kentucky’S Green River Archaic, Anna-Marie Casserly

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

The primary goal of this bioarchaeology dissertation research is to investigate the relationship between evidence of social identity and indicators of biological stress in the Green River region of Kentucky during the Late Archaic period (5,000-3,000 BP). Utilizing a biocultural perspective, I examine the ways that aspects of identity and social organization are embodied through the experience of biological stress. This research explores how social differences influence the patterning of osteological stress markers in an Archaic population while problematizing categories of difference that are often naturalized in bioarchaeology, such as gender or age cohorts. In so doing, it ...


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