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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe May 2023

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Within the last ten years research on art therapy and its positive impact on oncology patients’ stress and anxiety during treatment has been minimal. Oncology patients whether they are children or adults when diagnosed experience similar reactions due to their diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases end of life care. The current question is whether or not art therapy does have a positive impact on decreasing the stress and anxiety with oncology patients while undergoing treatment. Deane, Fitch & Carmen (2000), discussed art therapy as a healing art that is “intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating …


The Effects Of Social Media On Internalizing Disorders In Adolescents, Deziree Wiegmann Dec 2022

The Effects Of Social Media On Internalizing Disorders In Adolescents, Deziree Wiegmann

Counselor Education Capstones

This platforms capstone project paper is about the effects that social media or advanced technology platforms has on young individuals. Many articles were reviewed, which included research studies on the prevalence of social media usage by adolescents, along with its negative and positive effects on their development. This topic is important for counselors to review in order to treat young clients that struggle with depression, anxiety, self-esteem issues, etc. For counselors and other professionals who work with adolescents, it would be important to look at the data, which has helped derive what treatment approaches may be the most effective and …


Sky High Anxiolytics For Rocket City Women: A Holistic Health Approach Offered, Sandra L. Bruno Aug 2022

Sky High Anxiolytics For Rocket City Women: A Holistic Health Approach Offered, Sandra L. Bruno

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The action research project aimed to implement a counseling model to equip clients experiencing anxiety with a holistic health approach. Anxiety is often treated by prescribed anxiolytics, although many women seeking counseling at Madison Counseling have not been formally diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The study's goal was to provide participants with physical, mental/emotional, spiritual, and relational tools that can aid the participants in the reduction or alleviation of anxiety. The proposed model incorporated empirically proven techniques that balance the women's self to reduce symptomology by providing a healthy alternative to dealing with daily anxiety and stressors, thus reducing the …


Evaluating The Use Of Poetry To Reduce The Signs Of Depression, Anxiety, And Stress In Veterans, Misty Pearl Ely Aug 2022

Evaluating The Use Of Poetry To Reduce The Signs Of Depression, Anxiety, And Stress In Veterans, Misty Pearl Ely

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

A veteran is anyone who has served on active duty in one of the five branches of the military, regardless of peacetime or combat exposure. Currently, veterans make up 2.2 million of our nation’s population and the rates of mental health concerns are continually on the rise due to the prolonged nature of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. With the drawdown of forces, the military is smaller than usual and yet must maintain the safety and security of the world at the same standard. Therefore, these service members are recycled over and over to deployments abroad and …


Anxiety Of Struggling Readers And Excelling Readers During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Chelsey Taylor Lemmon Jun 2022

Anxiety Of Struggling Readers And Excelling Readers During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Chelsey Taylor Lemmon

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety is the most reported negative emotion in the academic setting. One of the specific forms of anxiety that children can experience is reading anxiety (RA). Children who experience RA are often at risk for reading failure; likewise, children who experience reading failure are likely to experience RA. Children who excel at reading can also experience anxiety, often in the form of harm avoidance. Bibliotherapy has been shown to help to mitigate the effects of specific types of anxiety in children. The purpose of this study was to understand the anxiety of children who excel at reading and children at …


Addressing Supervisee Anxiety During Covid-19: Applying Models Of Supervision, Deedre N. C. Mitchell, Denise B. Ebersole, Laura E. Martin Jun 2022

Addressing Supervisee Anxiety During Covid-19: Applying Models Of Supervision, Deedre N. C. Mitchell, Denise B. Ebersole, Laura E. Martin

Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision

Graduate counseling supervisees are experiencing unprecedented obstacles, compounding stressors, and heightened anxiety amidst the global COVID-19 pandemic. If not addressed, excessive anxiety can impede professional growth and limit the competence of future counselors. While theoretical-based models of supervision exist, the application of such models has not been fully explored in relation to addressing supervisee anxiety. Prompt and pointed action is needed from counseling supervisors, who are professionally and ethically responsible for training future counselors and the gatekeeping process. Three supervision models, including the Integrative Developmental Model, Solution-Focused Supervision, and Cognitive-Behavioral Supervision, are utilized to address heightened anxiety among counseling supervisees. …


The Effects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Anxiety, Stress, And Resilience In Economically Challenged Single Mothers, Gloria Jean Hill-Murray May 2022

The Effects Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Anxiety, Stress, And Resilience In Economically Challenged Single Mothers, Gloria Jean Hill-Murray

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of economically challenged single mothers during Covid 19. Mitigating the severe anxiety and stress risks linked with COVID-19 has been a goal of public health incentives. Less effort has been spent on studying the psychological issues connected to the worldwide epidemic, particularly among economically challenged communities. The aims of the study were to explore the impact of anxiety and stress of the COVID 19 pandemic on economically challenged single mothers, to determine the needs of this group, and to identify prevention and interventions that might support them in …


A Mediation Analysis: Adult Children Of Alcoholics, Resilience, Depression, Anxiety, And Attachment Disruption With The Role Of Self-Compassion: A Moderation Analysis, Jessica Ellen Kuehne May 2022

A Mediation Analysis: Adult Children Of Alcoholics, Resilience, Depression, Anxiety, And Attachment Disruption With The Role Of Self-Compassion: A Moderation Analysis, Jessica Ellen Kuehne

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study intends to address the gap in the literature on treatment options for adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs). The theoretical and conceptual framework for this study was centered on three main ideas: attachment styles, resilience, and self-compassion. Studies have indicated that exposure to parental alcoholism increases the risk of depression, anxiety, and insecure attachment, and ACOAs tend to have higher resilience than non-ACOAs. Researchers have examined different treatment approaches and clinical outcomes for ACOAs. Some holistic treatment choices, specifically self-compassion, have grown ubiquitous for a broad spectrum of individuals with trauma. The purpose of this study is to assess …


Covid-19 And Anxiety And Depression Prevalence In College Counseling Centers, Elizabeth Densen Apr 2022

Covid-19 And Anxiety And Depression Prevalence In College Counseling Centers, Elizabeth Densen

Senior Theses and Projects

Today more than ever, college students in the United States feel increased stress, leaving them more vulnerable to mental illnesses like depression and anxiety. With the Coronavirus-19 pandemic running rampant throughout the world, mental health concerns have been at the forefront of our issues, especially in the already vulnerable college population. While counseling centers have been present in colleges since the 1900s, their roles have significantly changed especially in the context of COVID-19. Therefore, due to the novelty of the virus, there is little research on the effects of COVID-19 on college students’ mental health and what that means for …


Sabbath-Keeping And Mental Health: The Influence Of Weekly Sabbath-Keeping On Stress, Anxiety And Well-Being, Kathryn Mcnichol Apr 2022

Sabbath-Keeping And Mental Health: The Influence Of Weekly Sabbath-Keeping On Stress, Anxiety And Well-Being, Kathryn Mcnichol

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of the current study is to explore the effectiveness of a psychoeducational Sabbath intervention. Using a multiple baseline design, subsets of participants were assigned the psychoeducational intervention at varying times and completed a series of mental health questionnaires before, during, and after the intervention to assess its benefits. After receiving the psychoeducational intervention, participants began a weekly Sabbath-keeping practice. This study added to the limited existing literature on Sabbath-keeping and health, specifically mental health, by assessing the impact on anxiety, stress, and well-being. Results of this study indicated a potential connection between the practice of Sabbath-keeping and positive …


The Impact Of Mindfulness Practices In Teachers, Shawn M. Martin Hettinga Mar 2022

The Impact Of Mindfulness Practices In Teachers, Shawn M. Martin Hettinga

ATU Theses and Dissertations

Mindfulness training has been identified as a promising means for cultivating social and emotional competencies and reducing stress. The purpose of the quantitative pre-post study using convenience sampling of educators in a rural K-12 in the Arkansas River Valley was to examine whether teachers’ participation in mindfulness activities were associated with changes in levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction. The study used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and measured the responses from novice (0-3 years) and experienced (4+ years) teachers. The findings revealed that there was no difference between the …


Analysis Of Zero Balancing Case Studies Through An Occupational Therapy Lens, Deanna Waggy Otr, Msa, Czb, Csla Jan 2022

Analysis Of Zero Balancing Case Studies Through An Occupational Therapy Lens, Deanna Waggy Otr, Msa, Czb, Csla

Journal of Transformative Touch

Does Zero Balancing positively impact occupational performance? This is a question many Occupational Therapists (OTs) ask when discerning if Zero Balancing (ZB) is an evidence-based treatment modality. Case studies from the book Experiencing the Power of Zero Balancing: Case Studies of Journeys to Health and Wholeness (Quarry & King, 2016) were reviewed and compared to the Occupational Therapy domain of practice to show clear evidence that each case study had a positive impact on occupational performance. A comparison chart shows a direct link between the occupational categories and documented evidence of improved occupational performance through practitioner observation and client feedback …


How Utilizing An Online Holistic Social Media Group Impacts Symptoms And Quality Of Life In Individuals With Anxiety, Sherri Ann Walker Jan 2022

How Utilizing An Online Holistic Social Media Group Impacts Symptoms And Quality Of Life In Individuals With Anxiety, Sherri Ann Walker

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The continuum between health and illness is a dynamic state influenced by stress. People are complex beings designed with interrelated parts composing a unique whole. Stress's disruption in the homeostatic balance can result in disease states in the body, mind, soul, and relationships. Panic disorder is one of these manifestations. This disorder causes physical and cognitive symptoms which impair quality of life. Although evidence-based treatments exist for panic disorder, barriers are evident for effective dissemination. This phenomenological study explored the experience of six individuals with anxiety disorder in a 30-day holistic, online social media group. Throughout the study, interviews and …


The Relationship Between The Practice Of Martial Arts, Anxiety, Wellness, And Self-Efficacy, William K. Knight Jr Dec 2021

The Relationship Between The Practice Of Martial Arts, Anxiety, Wellness, And Self-Efficacy, William K. Knight Jr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Although anxiety is a frequently researched topic, the growing numbers of diagnosed cases and the state of the present outcomes warrant the study of alternative approaches to address the causes and conditions of its prevalence, as well as possible adaptive strategies and tactics to improve outcomes for clients with anxiety. Counseling distinguishes itself in part due to its focus on well-being rather than mere alleviation of diagnosed symptoms. As such, it may be useful to measure the likelihood of some strategies and tactics associated with improved well-being in attempting to reduce symptoms of anxiety.

This study measured the practice of …


The Effectiveness Of Faith-Based Group Life Coaching On Stress And Anxiety Levels In Spouses Of Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Esperanza Pilar Guerra Lugo Dec 2021

The Effectiveness Of Faith-Based Group Life Coaching On Stress And Anxiety Levels In Spouses Of Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Esperanza Pilar Guerra Lugo

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Veterans who courageously served in the military are often diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and their spouses are at high risk of suffering in silence from stress and anxiety. Many spouses are also their Veteran’s caregiver which leaves little time for their own self-care needs. Being a Veteran’s 24-hour caregiver can lead to poor physical and mental health, aggravating spouses stress and anxiety levels which is often only treated with medication or goes untreated due to lack of mental health care access and the stigma that comes with it. The literature review explores the research gap of how online faith-based …


Mental Health Outcomes Of Various Types Of Fear Among University Students Who Have An Undocumented Legal Status During The Donald Trump Presidency, Liliana Campos Jun 2021

Mental Health Outcomes Of Various Types Of Fear Among University Students Who Have An Undocumented Legal Status During The Donald Trump Presidency, Liliana Campos

Doctoral Dissertations

Having an undocumented legal status is a risk factor for mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety among university students. Much of the literature on the experiences of university students who hold an undocumented legal status has primarily focused on better understanding the educational, social, financial, and legal challenges among undergraduate students. The literature has addressed how some of these difficulties impact components of their social and mental health wellness. Yet, there is still a dearth of research focused on further understanding the experiences of students who hold an undocumented legal status from a psychological perspective, and specifically, with …


Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen May 2021

Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The recent outbreaks of novel coronavirus disease have unprecedent impact on mental health of patients, front-line healthcare workers and local population. However, the impact is not fully documented. This review explores stress-driven factors, stress-vulnerable groups and stress management interventions. Repetitive exposure to mass media and inappropriate health protective measures has heightened stress responses. Fear of not getting recovered from COVID-19 and disaffection has profound impact of infected individuals and their families. They may experience fear, anxiety, anger, sleep deprives and anorexia which may weakens their immune system thus making them vulnerable to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored potential gaps …


Exploring The Usefulness Of Mindfulness Practices Through Zoom Meetings In Reducing Anxiety And/Or Stress Of Adults With Learning And Developmental Disabilities During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thatiane Abra May 2021

Exploring The Usefulness Of Mindfulness Practices Through Zoom Meetings In Reducing Anxiety And/Or Stress Of Adults With Learning And Developmental Disabilities During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thatiane Abra

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis explored which mindfulness meditations or mindfulness practices could be beneficial in the online sessions, the extent to which adults with learning and developmental disabilities could learn the practices remotely, and how stress and anxiety disorders could be reduced through online mindfulness interventions. Furthermore, it was also necessary to address the online sessions as the only mental health treatment possibility during the Coronavirus pandemic for the clients observed and the benefits and limitations of these interventions. Additionally, the importance of structure and routine for this population, the multi-modal structure of the interventions, and how attunement plays an important role …


An Analysis Of The Effects Of Covid-19 On Students At The University Of Mississippi: Family, Careers, Mental Health, Hannah Newbold May 2021

An Analysis Of The Effects Of Covid-19 On Students At The University Of Mississippi: Family, Careers, Mental Health, Hannah Newbold

Honors Theses

This study analyzes the effects of COVID-19 on students at the University of Mississippi. For students, COVID-19 changed the landscape of education, with classes and jobs going online. Students who graduated in May 2020 entered a poor job market and many ended up going to graduate school instead of finding a job. Access to medical and professional help was limited at the very beginning, with offices not taking patients or moving appointments to virtual only. This would require that each student needing help had to have access to quality internet service, which wasn’t always guaranteed, thus producing additional challenges.

These …


Exploring Online Mental Health Services: A Qualitative Study For First-Year College Students, Leandrian J. Wright May 2021

Exploring Online Mental Health Services: A Qualitative Study For First-Year College Students, Leandrian J. Wright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

American first-year college students are faced with mental health issues, such as anxiety and depression, which can have a negative impact on their academic performance. Research shows that students who suffer from mental illness, such as anxiety and depression, fear their condition will be perceived negatively by their peers and professors. The literature also suggests that U.S. colleges and universities can be more proactive in offering students resources for their mental health concerns to decrease anxiety and depression. It appears that absent or limited mental health resources have failed to address rising cases of student mental illness, and more specifically, …


The Effect Of Anxiety On Academic Performance Among English Language Learners College Students, Sergine Cadet May 2021

The Effect Of Anxiety On Academic Performance Among English Language Learners College Students, Sergine Cadet

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

English Language Learners (ELLs) who can write and read competently can fully participate in American schools, work environments and the society. However, ELLs face challenges while learning the English language. Anxiety is characterized as one of the issues impacting the learners’ accomplishment, which involves stages of communicative anxiety, fear of adverse assessment, test anxiety, and anxiety of English classroom. Moreover, anxiety is identified as being prevalent in the field of education and psychology as one factor that has negative influences in language acquisition (Hashemi, 2011). Studies have shown that there is a relationship between anxiety level and academic performance of …


The Association Between Witnessing Cyberbullying And Depressive Symptoms And Social Anxiety Among Elementary School Students, Diana M. Doumas, Aida Midgett Mar 2021

The Association Between Witnessing Cyberbullying And Depressive Symptoms And Social Anxiety Among Elementary School Students, Diana M. Doumas, Aida Midgett

Counselor Education Faculty Publications and Presentations

Cyberbullying is a significant problem among school-aged youth. Although a growing body of literature has documented the association between cyberbullying victimization and mental health risks, there is limited research examining the impact of witnessing cyberbullying, particularly among elementary school students. To address this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study with elementary school students (N = 122). Students completed questionnaires assessing witnessing cyberbullying, witnessing school bullying, bullying victimization, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing cyberbullying was positively associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.25, p < 0.04) and social anxiety (β = 0.30, p < 0.01), even after controlling for frequency of witnessing school bullying and bullying victimization. Further, the moderating effect of witnessing school bullying was significant for depressive symptoms (β = −0.44, p < 0.001) and social anxiety (β = …


It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham Dec 2020

It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham

Doctoral Dissertations

Postpartum depression presents a complication for mothers which can, in some cases, be severe and even life-threatening. Instruments commonly used to screen for this psychological condition have been challenged by an extensive body of literature, with many mothers being unidentified and even untreated for their symptoms. The presented research introduces a newly developed screening instrument for detecting probable postpartum depression using text-free scenario-based animations, based on the lived experience of the condition as qualified by empirical research and the existing body of literature. Developed items were controlled for quality via Think Aloud Protocol and alignment studies with subject matter experts …


The Impact Of A Christian Accommodated Mindfulness Protocol On Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Spiritual Well-Being, And Attachment To God, Tonya Thompson Gardner Dec 2020

The Impact Of A Christian Accommodated Mindfulness Protocol On Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Spiritual Well-Being, And Attachment To God, Tonya Thompson Gardner

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Best practices require those who work in the counseling field to ensure sensitivity to cultural norms and preferences among clients. While considering appropriate therapeutic interventions and treatment protocols, it is imperative that counselors remain aware of the personal beliefs of their clients. Thus, accommodating treatments to incorporate clients’ religious preferences seeks to enhance the effectiveness and provide the greatest benefit to each client as an individual. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a Christian accommodated mindfulness (CAM) protocol in a Christian sample and provide further evidence of the impact of Christian accommodated mindfulness protocol by …


Using Therapeutic Photography Techniques To Increase The Wellbeing Of College Students, Licia Tourigny, Ivelina Naydenova Jul 2020

Using Therapeutic Photography Techniques To Increase The Wellbeing Of College Students, Licia Tourigny, Ivelina Naydenova

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

In this study the benefits of therapeutic photography techniques were analyzed for people with varying degrees of depression and anxiety. In study 1, participants were placed in groups after taking the Beck’s Depression Inventory. After they were placed in groups, they also took Beck’s Anxiety Inventory and the Life Satisfaction Scale. For four weeks, participants were asked to take pictures of what makes them happy and share and discuss them with their groups. After four weeks, they took all three inventories a second time. We found significant results between the pretest and posttest scores of the depression and anxiety inventories; …


Abstract Art And Its Effects On Stress In High School Students: Development Of A Method, Shera Weintraub May 2020

Abstract Art And Its Effects On Stress In High School Students: Development Of A Method, Shera Weintraub

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Abstract

Stress in schools has become an increasing problem within the United States. Adolescents struggle with high rates and high levels of anxiety due to many pressures surrounding them, especially expectations from school. Due to their growing brains, stress and anxiety during this time can affect future functioning. It is crucial that teens learn ways to manage stress levels now, so they can develop healthy coping skills that can continue into adulthood. There has been plenty of research on art therapy and its benefits for mental health in this population. This study investigates the effects of abstract art on stress …


Quieting The Buzz: Drama Therapy And Mindfulness In The Classroom, An Intervention, Karole A. Rose May 2020

Quieting The Buzz: Drama Therapy And Mindfulness In The Classroom, An Intervention, Karole A. Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

From an incredibly young age, children in the United States of America are faced with significant stressors due to challenging life circumstances, parental pressures and ever increasing demands for success in all aspects of life including academics achievement, physical ability, and strong social skills (Allen & Klein, 1996; The Hawn Foundation, 2011). Yet, they often do not have the tools to manage the strong feelings and emotions that come along with these challenges and high expectations, leading to significant levels of stress and anxiety (Reilly, 2015). This thesis will explore the development of a drama therapy method in response to …


Triad Of Anxiety: A Qualitative Analysis For Anxiety In Nursing Student Collegiate-Athletes, Morgan Vanderschaaf, Sharon Webb, Abby Garlock May 2020

Triad Of Anxiety: A Qualitative Analysis For Anxiety In Nursing Student Collegiate-Athletes, Morgan Vanderschaaf, Sharon Webb, Abby Garlock

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

Anxiety and resulting implications are prevalent for collegiate athletes who are also in nursing studies. These authors conducted a qualitative research study to analyze perceptions of nursing student-athlete’s anxiety and feelings of perfectionism. Three main research questions were investigated: What impact does anxiety have on a nursing student-athletes? How does perfectionism affect a nursing-student athlete's anxiety? How can coaches and professors aid in the reduction of the nursing student-athlete's anxiety? Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded. Resulting phenomena led to the concept of the Triad of Anxiety. Results indicated that nursing student-athletes experienced perceived threats, negative internal experiences, and …


The Effectiveness Of Implementing A Collaborative Mental Health Approach On Quality Of Life For Individuals Of Low Socioeconomic Status, Tyler Z. Tooley May 2020

The Effectiveness Of Implementing A Collaborative Mental Health Approach On Quality Of Life For Individuals Of Low Socioeconomic Status, Tyler Z. Tooley

MSU Graduate Theses

The ultimate purpose of this study is to provide insight and education to mental health clinicians, politicians and the general public of the numerous effects poverty has on mental health, in addition to the most beneficial ways to combat those insidious effects. The specific barriers met by individuals of low socioeconomic status severely affect psychological and physical health, as well as social and environmental relationships, which therefore diminish overall quality of life. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of implementing a collaborative mental health approach for low income individuals on length of engagement in services and …


The Current Mental Health Status Of Professional Asl/English Interpreters In The United States As It Pertains To Disorders: Specifically Focusing On Anxiety, Depression, Stress-Related Disorders, Personalities, And Work-Related Influencers, Nicole Denu Thorn May 2020

The Current Mental Health Status Of Professional Asl/English Interpreters In The United States As It Pertains To Disorders: Specifically Focusing On Anxiety, Depression, Stress-Related Disorders, Personalities, And Work-Related Influencers, Nicole Denu Thorn

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this quantitative, variable-centered, correlational research design is to assess the mental health status of professional ASL/English interpreters currently working in the field. Specifically, this study looked at levels of anxiety, depression, and secondary stress within this population. It was postulated that many factors impact the mental health of professional interpreters; therefore, internal factors such as personality as well as external factors such as job demands were assessed. The findings of the research may prove helpful in developing future interpreter education as well as mental health care for current interpreters. A brief history of the profession is given …