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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe May 2023

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Within the last ten years research on art therapy and its positive impact on oncology patients’ stress and anxiety during treatment has been minimal. Oncology patients whether they are children or adults when diagnosed experience similar reactions due to their diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases end of life care. The current question is whether or not art therapy does have a positive impact on decreasing the stress and anxiety with oncology patients while undergoing treatment. Deane, Fitch & Carmen (2000), discussed art therapy as a healing art that is “intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ...


Development Of A New Measure To Assess For Poverty-Based Stress: The Poverty-Based Stressor Scale (Pbss), Brianna N. Allen Jan 2022

Development Of A New Measure To Assess For Poverty-Based Stress: The Poverty-Based Stressor Scale (Pbss), Brianna N. Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Poverty, typically measured by economic well-being or depravation, is the result of systemic flaws built into the structure of society that adversely impact multiple dimensions of health and well-being. The specific stressors that disproportionately impact low-income individuals are called poverty-based stressors, and they encompass multiple categories of risk including physical, psychosocial, and financial risks. Currently, there is not an adequate measure of poverty-based stressors for low-income adults in the United States (U.S.), which restricts our ability to accurately determine the effects of poverty on important health-related outcomes. The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a psychometrically sound measure ...


Does Decentering Mediate The Relationship Between Mindfulness And Stress And Anxiety?, Hana Hannah Lee Sep 2021

Does Decentering Mediate The Relationship Between Mindfulness And Stress And Anxiety?, Hana Hannah Lee

Theses and Dissertations

College students are stressed and unsuccessful efforts to cope can increase risk for poor mental health, including anxiety (American College Health, 2019). Research suggests mindfulness (Bamber & Schneider, 2016) and adaptive emotion regulation (Desrosiers et al. 2013b) can buffer against the deleterious effects of distress. Decentering, a mindful emotion regulation strategy (Chambers et al., 2009), is postulated to be a mechanism by which mindfulness can lead to better mental health (Shapiro et al. 2006). Specific facets of trait mindfulness, namely Nonjudging (NJ) and Nonreactivity (NR) (Mizera et al. 2016), are directly involved in regulating one's emotions, which can help reduce ...


The Multicultural Distress, Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Levels Of Black Undergraduate Students As Compared To Asian, Latinx, And White Undergraduate Students, Franklin Dickerson Turner Sep 2021

The Multicultural Distress, Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Levels Of Black Undergraduate Students As Compared To Asian, Latinx, And White Undergraduate Students, Franklin Dickerson Turner

Journal of Research Initiatives

College students who experienced poor academic performance, depression, and anxiety reported having higher levels of stress than those students who were more successful academically (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Bennett, 2003). It is also known that marginalized students have a higher tendency to experience stress. This study took a systematic look at levels of Multicultural distress, stress, depression, and anxiety as reported by Asian, Black, Latin, and White students at a major urban university. The findings indicated no significant differences in the general stress, depression, and anxiety levels based on a students’ race. However, Asian, Black, and Latin students had a significantly higher level ...


The Bidirectional Effects Of Serious Conduct Problems, Anxiety, And Trauma Exposure: Implications For Our Understanding Of The Development Of Callous-Unemotional Traits, Emily Lynne Robertson Aug 2021

The Bidirectional Effects Of Serious Conduct Problems, Anxiety, And Trauma Exposure: Implications For Our Understanding Of The Development Of Callous-Unemotional Traits, Emily Lynne Robertson

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The association of anxiety and trauma with childhood conduct problems has long been the focus of research, and more recently this area of research has become critical to understanding the development of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Research in samples of children and adolescents has indicated that those elevated on both CU traits and anxiety seem to show more severe externalizing behaviors and are more likely to show histories of trauma. These findings have typically been interpreted as being indicative of a unique casual pathway to CU traits in those high on anxiety. However, an alternative explanation is that the higher rates ...


Rejection Sensitivity, Relationship Quality, And Adjustment In Late-Adolescent Romantic Relationships And Friendships, Laura A. Foster Aug 2021

Rejection Sensitivity, Relationship Quality, And Adjustment In Late-Adolescent Romantic Relationships And Friendships, Laura A. Foster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rejection sensitive (RS) individuals are at greater risk for emotional maladjustment across the lifespan, with consistent links identified with depression and social anxiety. Yet little is known about interpersonal factors that may affect this association for late adolescents, especially with their romantic partners and close friends. The present study examined relationship qualities of support and negative interactions with romantic partners and friends as moderators of the link between RS and internalizing symptoms. Given the differences between male and female social relationships and experiences, these associations were expected to be further moderated by gender, with RS females in poorer quality relationships ...


Exploring The Experience Of Anxiety Among Final Year Students At University: A Thematic Analysis, Catriona Keane, Daniel Waldeck, Andrew Holliman, Simon Goodman, Kubra Choudhry Aug 2021

Exploring The Experience Of Anxiety Among Final Year Students At University: A Thematic Analysis, Catriona Keane, Daniel Waldeck, Andrew Holliman, Simon Goodman, Kubra Choudhry

The Qualitative Report

The transition from undergraduate study to a postgraduate career can be an anxiety provoking experience for many students. In this study, we explore the shared experience of five “anxious” undergraduate students as they transition from higher education towards their postgraduate careers. Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five female undergraduate students from different courses at a UK university. A thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes: perceived pressure without sufficient support, and concerns about next steps. The findings suggested the final year is emotionally demanding, and students felt as though there was a lack of provision to manage ...


Stigma And Social-Emotional Health In Youth With Learning Differences, Kelsey Maki Aug 2021

Stigma And Social-Emotional Health In Youth With Learning Differences, Kelsey Maki

Doctoral Dissertations

Youth diagnosed with specific learning disorder (SLD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), defined collectively for the purposes of this study as youth with learning differences, experience poorer social-emotional health outcomes in comparison to their typically developing peers. These youth additionally experience stigma from their peers, teachers, and broader community, which may impact social-emotional health. As a secondary data analysis of a larger study, the present study investigated the role of stigma consciousness alongside demographic variables, self-esteem, and peer relationships in social-emotional health outcomes. Due to the possible differences between youth diagnosed with SLD, ADHD, and comorbid SLD/ADHD ...


The Relationship Between Self-Reported Measures Of Anxiety And Sensory Processing, Elizabeth R. Troutwine Aug 2021

The Relationship Between Self-Reported Measures Of Anxiety And Sensory Processing, Elizabeth R. Troutwine

MSU Graduate Theses

Auditory sensory gating, a type of sensory processing, is a physiological mechanism that allows the brain to filter out and respond less to redundant sensory information. Poor sensory gating has been found in clinical groups such as Alzheimer’s dementia (Jessen et al., 2001), bipolar I disorder (Lijffijt et al., 2009), schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2008), and other anxiety-related psychopathologies such as panic disorder (Ghisolfi et al., 2006), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Orr et al., 2002), and obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD) (Hashimoto, 2007). Research is limited regarding effects of chronic worry and anxiety on sensory gating ability. This study will explore the ...


Neural Substrates Of Fear Generalization And Its Associations With Anxiety And Intolerance Of Uncertainty, Ashley Ann Huggins Aug 2021

Neural Substrates Of Fear Generalization And Its Associations With Anxiety And Intolerance Of Uncertainty, Ashley Ann Huggins

Theses and Dissertations

Fear generalization - the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening due to perceptual similarity to a learned threat – is an adaptive process. Overgeneralization, however, is maladaptive and has been implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Neuroimaging research has indicated several regions sensitive to effects of generalization, including regions involved in fear excitation (e.g., amygdala, insula) and inhibition (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex). Research has suggested several other small brain regions may play an important role in this process (e.g., hippocampal subfields, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [BNST], habenula), but, to date, these regions have not been ...


School-Based Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Adolescents With Anxiety, Julie M. Petersen Aug 2021

School-Based Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Adolescents With Anxiety, Julie M. Petersen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mental health problems, particularly anxiety, are a growing problem in adolescents. Some treatments (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy) have been shown effective for youth anxiety, but do not help all adolescents. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a treatment supported for anxiety in adults, has yet to be fully researched in adolescents. ACT is a flexible therapy that is understood to be appropriate, if not ideal, for younger populations and schools. The present study compares a school-based, group ACT for adolescents with anxiety to a waitlist.

Adolescents (N = 26) with anxiety were randomized to a 12 week waitlist or to participate ...


The Underview Effect: Awe Under The Sea, Diving For Well-Being, Cheryl L. Eisen Aug 2021

The Underview Effect: Awe Under The Sea, Diving For Well-Being, Cheryl L. Eisen

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

This capstone seeks to explore the complex emotion of awe and the effects of flow and anxiety on the experience of awe in scuba diving. Scuba diving is a strong elicitor of awe and is a challenging, high risk activity requiring both technical skill and a calm mind. In this mixed methods study, awe elicited by scuba diving was studied immediately following a scuba dive (Study 1) and via the internet through recollection tasks (Study 2). Results of Study 1 indicate that in the context of scuba diving, flow is correlated with the connectedness component of awe. Results of Study ...


Parent Anxiety, Parental Psychological Control, And Adolescent Anxiety: Mediation And Bidirectional Relationships, Iesha R. Gibbons Jul 2021

Parent Anxiety, Parental Psychological Control, And Adolescent Anxiety: Mediation And Bidirectional Relationships, Iesha R. Gibbons

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety is the most common mental health diagnosis for adolescents. Among important etiological factors are parent anxiety and parenting behavior, which can increase anxiety in adolescents. Adolescent anxiety can also act as a source of stress for parents that then increases parent anxiety and negative parenting behaviors. Using the Family Stress Model, this study aims to examine the longitudinal and bidirectional relationship between parent and adolescent anxiety with parental psychological control acting as a mediator. Structural equation modeling was used to examine these relationships across five waves of data for 457 families. Adolescents (51.86% female, mean age 13.34 ...


Effects Of Parenting By Lying In Childhood On Adult Lying, Internalizing Behaviors, And Relationship Quality, Bailey Dodd, Esther K. Malm Jul 2021

Effects Of Parenting By Lying In Childhood On Adult Lying, Internalizing Behaviors, And Relationship Quality, Bailey Dodd, Esther K. Malm

Faculty & Staff Research and Creative Activity

Parenting by lying is a phenomenon in which parents lie to their children, usually for a positive goal, and has been the subject of new parenting research. This study tested the associations between parenting by lying in childhood, lying to parents in young adulthood, and parent–child relationship quality. Secondly, we examined the mechanisms through which these constructs were all related to internalizing behaviors in young adulthood, specifically—stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Young adult participants between the ages of 18 and 24 (N = 206) responded to questions about parenting strategies experienced in childhood, their current adult functioning, lying to ...


Cerebellum-Seeded Functional Connectivity Changes In Trait-Anxious Individuals Undergoing Attention Bias Modification Training, Katherine Elwell Jul 2021

Cerebellum-Seeded Functional Connectivity Changes In Trait-Anxious Individuals Undergoing Attention Bias Modification Training, Katherine Elwell

All NMU Master's Theses

Anxiety and anxiety related disorders are increasing at a drastic rate in the past decade, with the NIMH reporting that 31.1% of U.S. adults will experience an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives. Anxiety is commonly characterized by increased attention bias to threat. Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is a new treatment used to reduce individual’s attention bias towards threat. The extent to which ABM leads to underlying neural changes is still unknown. The cerebellum is a neglected brain structure, with new research provides evidence that cerebellum’s functional connectivity and shared networks with threat processing ...


Five Facets Of Mindfulness In Pregnancy And Postpartum Periods, Brianna J. Mcneley Jun 2021

Five Facets Of Mindfulness In Pregnancy And Postpartum Periods, Brianna J. Mcneley

Global Honors Theses

Pregnancy, particularly the postpartum period is high risk for women with preexisting mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety. This research investigates if self-reported use of overall mindfulness and individual facets of mindfulness (observe, describe, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreacting), reduce common symptoms associated with these disorders. Pregnant or postpartum participants recruited from social media groups (18+) were asked to self-report symptoms of mania, depression, anxiety, and five facets of mindfulness. Overall mindfulness was significantly negatively correlated with mania, depression, and anxiety, and in particular with nonjudging and acting with awareness. But symptoms were positively correlated with ...


The Power Of Video Games: How Celeste And Hellblade Address Mental Health, Victor M. Ortiz Jun 2021

The Power Of Video Games: How Celeste And Hellblade Address Mental Health, Victor M. Ortiz

Communication Studies

The media has the power to educate audiences on topics through effective storytelling. This paper shows how video games as a medium possess unique potential to affect players through interactive experiences. Two video games titled Celeste and Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice serve as examples of social cognitive learning through media exposure. This paper conducts a content analysis on the two titles. From the analysis, we learn the stories in Celeste and Hellblade aim to help those who play them learn how to cope with mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. The literature review section discusses past research done ...


Mental Health Outcomes Of Various Types Of Fear Among University Students Who Have An Undocumented Legal Status During The Donald Trump Presidency, Liliana Campos Jun 2021

Mental Health Outcomes Of Various Types Of Fear Among University Students Who Have An Undocumented Legal Status During The Donald Trump Presidency, Liliana Campos

Doctoral Dissertations

Having an undocumented legal status is a risk factor for mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety among university students. Much of the literature on the experiences of university students who hold an undocumented legal status has primarily focused on better understanding the educational, social, financial, and legal challenges among undergraduate students. The literature has addressed how some of these difficulties impact components of their social and mental health wellness. Yet, there is still a dearth of research focused on further understanding the experiences of students who hold an undocumented legal status from a psychological perspective, and specifically, with ...


Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho Jun 2021

Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health diagnoses, affecting about a third of the population in their lifetime. However, approximately a third of individuals with anxiety do not respond to current treatment approaches, highlighting the need to identify additional potential therapeutic mechanisms. Safety learning is one such mechanism, but methodological challenges and a dearth of research have prevented the field from advancing the understanding of the role of safety learning in the etiology and remediation of anxiety disorders. Animal research, using single-cued safety learning paradigms, has yielded promising early findings, demonstrating that safety learning directly reduces anxiety-related behaviors ...


Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen May 2021

Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The recent outbreaks of novel coronavirus disease have unprecedent impact on mental health of patients, front-line healthcare workers and local population. However, the impact is not fully documented. This review explores stress-driven factors, stress-vulnerable groups and stress management interventions. Repetitive exposure to mass media and inappropriate health protective measures has heightened stress responses. Fear of not getting recovered from COVID-19 and disaffection has profound impact of infected individuals and their families. They may experience fear, anxiety, anger, sleep deprives and anorexia which may weakens their immune system thus making them vulnerable to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored potential gaps ...


Put The Score On The Back Burner: Coach–Athlete Relationships And Anxiety, Tiffany Peterson May 2021

Put The Score On The Back Burner: Coach–Athlete Relationships And Anxiety, Tiffany Peterson

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Anxiety is a very prevalent mental disorder among adolescents and can be unfavorable to their developing mental, cognitive, and social health. Although it comes in many forms, social anxiety disorder, which can affect peer relations, academic success, and sport performance, can be especially difficult during teenage years. More specifically, high school sports provide many situations and stressors that can trigger social anxiety. Some major aspects of high school sports that can trigger social anxiety are working with teammates and learning from coaches. This review seeks to provide a better understanding of the effect that the coach–athlete relationship has on ...


Understanding Service Gaps And Support Opportunities In The Treatment Of Childhood Anxiety, Chelsey R. Masson May 2021

Understanding Service Gaps And Support Opportunities In The Treatment Of Childhood Anxiety, Chelsey R. Masson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Globally, anxiety disorders represent the most prevalent mental health disorders in children and youth (Polanczyk et al., 2015), with an increasing number of individuals perceiving the need for professional help (Georgiades et al., 2019). It is unclear, however, where families are seeking help from, what barriers families are facing, and what services are being provided for effective management of symptoms. Two methods were used to investigate possible treatment support models; a questionnaire identified patterns in parental help-seeking behaviours and outlined perceived barriers to professional help, while a scoping review examined key components of parent/caregiver treatment models. Findings showed that ...


Attitude, Anxiety, And Technostress As A Correlate Of The Use Of Mobile Phones By Undergraduate Students In A Delta State University (Delsu), Abraka, Marcus L. Isebe May 2021

Attitude, Anxiety, And Technostress As A Correlate Of The Use Of Mobile Phones By Undergraduate Students In A Delta State University (Delsu), Abraka, Marcus L. Isebe

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study assessed attitude, anxiety, and technostress as a correlate of the use of mobile phones by undergraduate students in Delta State University (DELSU), Abraka. The total population for this study was 6,675 undergraduate students registered with the library of Delta State University in the 2019/2020 academic session. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire which was designed in print formats. A total number of 1001 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents with the aid of 5 research assistant and a total of 797 questionnaires was duly completed and found usable for ...


The Disproportionate Impact Of Covid-19 On Women, Ava Stallone May 2021

The Disproportionate Impact Of Covid-19 On Women, Ava Stallone

Honors Scholar Theses

The impact of COVID-19 is placing a large strain on women. This can be seen through reports of mental health and financial concerns. Women are more vulnerable to COVID-19 related economic effects due to existing gender inequalities, which in turn may also have a negative effect on mental health. Through this study gender disproportion is looked at between mental health and COVID-19 financial concerns among women and men. The aim is to asses how COVID-19 financial concerns may be contributing to stress, anxiety, and depression. It is hypothesized that; women will report worse mental health and greater economic concerns than ...


Treatment Anxiety Education For Pediatric Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Patients, An Evidence Based Project, Mary Nagel May 2021

Treatment Anxiety Education For Pediatric Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Patients, An Evidence Based Project, Mary Nagel

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Background

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect and affects almost 1% of all live births. Treatment anxiety is common among children with CHD who undergo multiple procedures early in their lifetime. Dramatically increased life spans for this cardiac population has led to a shift from focusing on survival to their long-term health outcomes.

Methods:

Administration of the Peds QL Cardiac Module 3.0 assesses health related quality of life (HRQOL) during annual visits to a Cardiac Neurodevelopmental (ND) Clinic by evaluating the level of Treatment Anxiety a patient experiences during healthcare appointments. The questionnaire scores ...


Developing A Movement-Based Group For High Schoolers With Anxiety During Covid-19, Samantha Harding May 2021

Developing A Movement-Based Group For High Schoolers With Anxiety During Covid-19, Samantha Harding

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with negative mental health outcomes, including increased rates of anxiety among adolescents. Adolescents with social-emotional disabilities experience additional challenges adapting to disruptions in routine and coping with feelings of anxiety caused by the pandemic. While effective treatments for reducing symptoms of anxiety exist, a large proportion of adolescents with clinical or sub-clinical levels of anxiety lack access to such treatment or do not seek out treatment on their own. Schools are seen as an ideal setting to implement programs that teach adolescents effective coping skills, however, the pandemic has drastically altered school settings and ...


The Benefits Of Clay For Adolescents In The Inpatient Setting: Development Of A Method, Lauren Sideravage May 2021

The Benefits Of Clay For Adolescents In The Inpatient Setting: Development Of A Method, Lauren Sideravage

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Adolescence is a period of time where there is continuous change in one’s social, emotional, and physical development. In severe situations, these changes could contribute to two of the most common mental disorders in teens, one being mood disorders and the other being anxiety disorders. Arts based interventions were administered to measure and test if using clay through touch and movement could reduce anxiety and stress for adolescents in a psychiatric inpatient setting, leading to greater mental well-being and increased stabilization. Patients participated in a three-part group that focused on different clay techniques, including rolling, flattening, and free choice ...


Exploring The Usefulness Of Mindfulness Practices Through Zoom Meetings In Reducing Anxiety And/Or Stress Of Adults With Learning And Developmental Disabilities During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thatiane Abra May 2021

Exploring The Usefulness Of Mindfulness Practices Through Zoom Meetings In Reducing Anxiety And/Or Stress Of Adults With Learning And Developmental Disabilities During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thatiane Abra

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis explored which mindfulness meditations or mindfulness practices could be beneficial in the online sessions, the extent to which adults with learning and developmental disabilities could learn the practices remotely, and how stress and anxiety disorders could be reduced through online mindfulness interventions. Furthermore, it was also necessary to address the online sessions as the only mental health treatment possibility during the Coronavirus pandemic for the clients observed and the benefits and limitations of these interventions. Additionally, the importance of structure and routine for this population, the multi-modal structure of the interventions, and how attunement plays an important role ...


Mindfulness-Based Interventions For Prenatal Stress, Anxiety, And Depression, Fiona Kate Rice May 2021

Mindfulness-Based Interventions For Prenatal Stress, Anxiety, And Depression, Fiona Kate Rice

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Pregnant people in the United States (US) face myriad barriers to resource accessibility when seeking support, including financial gatekeeping, discrimination, and cis-gendering of the process. Commodification of prenatal support is exhaustive and contributes to a growing exclusivity of traditionally accessible interventions designed to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, and to promote positive fetal outcomes and parent-child bond. Mindfulness-based interventions are particularly appropriate for reducing stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnancy. Mindfulness-based interventions are intersectional, accessible means of pregnancy and childbirth support with evidence-based outcomes of positive birth experiences and results. Mindfulness is defined as nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment ...


Neuro-Informed Music Therapy For The Treatment Of Anxiety And Depression: A Literature Review, Sarah E. Sullivan May 2021

Neuro-Informed Music Therapy For The Treatment Of Anxiety And Depression: A Literature Review, Sarah E. Sullivan

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This capstone thesis project is a literature review of research specifically regarding the neuroscience and neurochemistry of music and how it can inform music therapy treatment of mental health. Mental health is a large, overarching term that includes many disorders that refer to one’s psychological and/or emotional condition(s), which further includes an individual’s social well-being. This can include, but is not limited to, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This paper will focus in on a research-based, neuro-informed music therapy treatment of anxiety and depression. The goal of this paper was to provide research toward ...