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Master's Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Does Trust Influence Being Generous? An Empirical Study Across Five Countries, Andrew Hall May 2024

Does Trust Influence Being Generous? An Empirical Study Across Five Countries, Andrew Hall

Master's Theses

This study examines whether social trust, a key aspect of social capital, influences individual generosity behaviors. Previous research has explored the relationship between social capital and philanthropic actions, but comprehensive analyses remain sparse. To address this gap, we employed a dictator game together with trust-related survey questions, collecting data from participants across five countries globally. We categorized trust into four distinct areas: social trust, ingroup trust, outgroup trust, and general trust. Similarly, we divided our dependent variable, generosity, into two types: costly generous and costless generous behaviors. Our findings were mixed and varied by location. Overall, general trust positively influenced …


Financial Literacy And Aspirations: Experimental Evidence From Eastern Uganda, Ester Agasha May 2024

Financial Literacy And Aspirations: Experimental Evidence From Eastern Uganda, Ester Agasha

Master's Theses

Financial literacy and the cultivation of aspirations are pivotal in empowering individuals and fostering economic growth, particularly within disadvantaged com munities. Although prior research has extensively analyzed the individual effects of financial education and motivational interventions on economic behaviors, there is less clarity on how the synergy between them can collectively impact the socioe conomic status of individuals in developing economies, especially women. Through randomized control experiment(RCT), this study explored the effectiveness of two interventions; 1) a financial literacy digital gaming application and, 2) an aspirations intervention (a short video documentary and a follow-up curriculum) in not only enhancing financial …


What The Stork Brought: Endogenous Fertility Preferences, Lucas Fortier Borden May 2024

What The Stork Brought: Endogenous Fertility Preferences, Lucas Fortier Borden

Master's Theses

Where most existing literature on fertility preferences has described how fertility preferences shape outcomes, this paper provides insight into how the sex of a recent birth affects a mother’s fertility preferences. Utilizing data from the Demographic Health Survey from 1985-2020 in 81 countries containing 309,238 mothers who gave birth in the past 12 months and who have equal to or fewer than three children, I employ OLS with two-way fixed effects as my primary specification, examining the effects of the plausibly exogenous sex of a recent birth on sibship sex composition preferences. Results show that a recent daughter birth increases …


Can Aspiration And Financial Literacy Interventions Relieve Internal Constraints? Evidence From Uganda And India, Veronika Divis May 2024

Can Aspiration And Financial Literacy Interventions Relieve Internal Constraints? Evidence From Uganda And India, Veronika Divis

Master's Theses

Can aspiration and financial literacy interventions relieve internal constraints? We address this question through a novel experiment in Uganda and India, using 617 participants in 89 already existing borrowing groups of microfinance institutions. We carry out aspiration and financial literacy treatments as well as a combined treatment group which received both treatments to measure effects on aspirations, hope, agency, and pathway indices. Results show that receiving the aspirations treatment led to 0.34, 0.42, 0.18, and 0.40 standard deviation increases in aspirations, agency, pathways, and aspirational hope, respectively. The game and combined treatment groups also showed positive effects but lacked statistical …


“Bad Hombres”: Trump Era Politics And Media In Shaping The Perceptions Of The Mexican Diaspora In The United States, Angelica Soria May 2024

“Bad Hombres”: Trump Era Politics And Media In Shaping The Perceptions Of The Mexican Diaspora In The United States, Angelica Soria

Master's Theses

My research delves into the anti-Mexican immigrant rhetoric spread throughout the United States under Donald Trump’s presidency by himself, mainstream media news outlet Fox News, and the U.S. government. Furthermore, examining the social identity of ethnic Mexicans in the United States in response to and as a consequence of the negative rhetoric. This thesis analyzes discourse including the harmful rhetoric and its impact on policy formulation, public perception, and the lived experiences of Mexican immigrants and ethnic Mexican communities. By looking at existing discourse, this research provides a critical discourse analysis of political speeches, media coverage, and ethnic Mexican testimonios. …


Does Appearance Matter? The Relationship Of Perceived Body Size And Physical Appearance On Students' Attraction To Physical Activity At Recess, Danielle Belcher May 2024

Does Appearance Matter? The Relationship Of Perceived Body Size And Physical Appearance On Students' Attraction To Physical Activity At Recess, Danielle Belcher

Master's Theses

Drastic declines in recess physical activity (PA) have been observed within recent years (Center for Disease Control (CDC), 2017). Due to recess’ discretionary nature, psychosocial variables associated with PA are predictors of students’ PA levels. Recess is also a time of heightened bullying occurrences (Vaillancourt et al., 2010). Appearance-based bullying is the most common type of victimization that occurs in schools, transpiring more often in children with larger body max indexes (BMI), and possibly altering students’ physical self-perceptions. Physical self-perceptions have been shown to impact PA motivation, however, it is still unknown the extent to which appearance-based bullying, body size, …


Athletic Identity Association And Prospective Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Predict Attitudes Of Collegiate Athletes Toward Seeking Help From The Athletic Department, Allie Zerr May 2024

Athletic Identity Association And Prospective Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Predict Attitudes Of Collegiate Athletes Toward Seeking Help From The Athletic Department, Allie Zerr

Master's Theses

There is an epidemic of mental health issues that has begun to be more openly talked about in college athletics. In 2022, the National Collegiate Athletic Association has found that college student-athletes are now 1.5-2 times more likely to report struggling with mental health than ever before. Previous research has shown a significant association with basic psychological needs satisfaction and overall psychological well-being. Furthermore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible ways that reported of autonomy, competence, and relatedness need satisfaction predicted whether athletes would seek mental health services and identify how athletic identity plays into this …


A Geospatial Analysis Of Patterns In Neighborhood Characteristics And United States Professional Sports Stadium Relocations From 1922-2022, Kara Logan May 2024

A Geospatial Analysis Of Patterns In Neighborhood Characteristics And United States Professional Sports Stadium Relocations From 1922-2022, Kara Logan

Master's Theses

In the United States of America, 135 stadiums for new or relocating teams have been constructed between 1970 and 2020 (Bradbury et al., 2022, p. 3). Within those years, researchers, journalists, and community members have examined the impact of those new stadiums on local communities, including economic, environmental, and residential impacts. However, the current scope of literature consists of a considerable number of case studies that examine a single stadium or mega-event, such as the Olympics.

This study will determine what patterns, if any, exist between the demographic and housing characteristics between the stadiums that major league United States professional …


The Effects Of Student Choice On Motivation And Writing Skills, Laura Annunziata May 2024

The Effects Of Student Choice On Motivation And Writing Skills, Laura Annunziata

Master's Theses

This mixed methods action research study investigates the potential effects of student choice on motivation and academic performance in writing-based assignments in a fourth-grade classroom. Baseline data was collected prior to implementation of student choice writing activities and then used to compare writing samples collected post intervention. The baseline data suggests that students’ attitudes towards autonomy are positive. Having choices was important to them and helped them learn better. However, data also indicates that while students were motivated to write using choice, many of the reading and writing competency scores dropped during journal entry writing samples. Data shows that while …


The Effects Of Implementing Movement Breaks In Elementary Classrooms, Laura Ford May 2024

The Effects Of Implementing Movement Breaks In Elementary Classrooms, Laura Ford

Master's Theses

This action research project investigated the implementation of movement breaks in a third-grade classroom to enhance academic performance and behavior. The short study aimed to assess whether integrating regular movement breaks into the classroom routine would lead to significant improvements in academic outcomes and behavior, particularly those students diagnosed with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Over a designated period, movement breaks were introduced at a specific interval during the school day. Data was collected through observations, surveys, and behavior tracking. Surprisingly, the findings revealed that despite the incorporation of movement breaks, there was no significant difference observed in overall academics or behavior …


Implementing Music To Increase Elementary Student Focus, Kathryn Garceau May 2024

Implementing Music To Increase Elementary Student Focus, Kathryn Garceau

Master's Theses

This action research project used a mixed methods design to address the effect of different types of music on student focus while performing an independent task. Despite its success with memorization, does music work equally as well on student focus? Data was collected over a period of three weeks for 30 minutes each morning for 5 days each week. The music played while students completed the task changed each week. This included lyrical songs during week one, classical music during week two, and instrumental versions of songs students knew the lyrics to during week three. Four behavior markers were observed …


Sustainable Development: What’S The Problem Here? A Post-Structural Discourse Analysis Of The Global Reporting Initiative, Jenniffer Barnett May 2024

Sustainable Development: What’S The Problem Here? A Post-Structural Discourse Analysis Of The Global Reporting Initiative, Jenniffer Barnett

Master's Theses

The purpose of the study was to critically analyze how the problem of sustainable development is constructed in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and identify what underlying assumptions and historical events produced the problematization as the GRI aims to guide global behavior. The study explored how governing took place by identifying what was silenced in the problem representation and the discursive effects and subject positions it produced. Carol Bacchi's (2009) "What’s the problem represented to be?" (WPR) facilitated this Foucault-influenced poststructural discourse analysis. The interrogation revealed that (a) sustainable development is characterized as a problem of corporate transparency, and (b) …


Gestalt Language Processing In Accredited Communication Sciences And Disorders Programs, William Harris May 2024

Gestalt Language Processing In Accredited Communication Sciences And Disorders Programs, William Harris

Master's Theses

The language development and usage of autistic individuals has become a controversial topic in many of the disciplines and professions providing support to these individuals. As a result, two theories of language processing have been proposed. Analytical language processing suggests that children process and develop language from its most simple form, a phoneme, to its most complex form, a word or phrase. However, the theory of gestalt language processing proposes that some children may instead extract larger, more complex language such as whole words and phrases first and break it down to the simpler language. Gestalt language processing is often …


The Emerging Impacts Of Tourism On The Economy Of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Study Of Oil And Tourism, Dania Abu Jabal May 2024

The Emerging Impacts Of Tourism On The Economy Of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Study Of Oil And Tourism, Dania Abu Jabal

Master's Theses

Saudi Arabia was heavily dependent on oil, which caused an economic crisis due to the collapse of global oil prices. In 2016, the Saudi government launched Vision 2030 to diversify the Saudi economy and avoid dependence on oil revenues. One aim of Vision 2030 is to initiate numerous tourism initiatives to boost the tourism industry's economic impact, elevating its contribution from 3% of GDP to 10% by 2030.

This paper provides the necessary assessment to understand tourism's role and contribution to the Saudi economy and to determine whether the industry's growth is on the right track. Also, this paper also …


The Relationship Between Social Cognition And Team Cohesion In Collegiate Athletes, Jessica Pegg May 2024

The Relationship Between Social Cognition And Team Cohesion In Collegiate Athletes, Jessica Pegg

Master's Theses

Thesis Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social cognition and team cohesion in Division III collegiate athletes. Methods: A total of 103 athletes from SUNY Cortland participated. Two questionnaires were used: social cognition was assessed via the Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS), and team cohesion was assessed via the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). The two questionnaires, along with demographics, were completed online. Analysis: Pearson’s bivariate correlations were analyzed to assess the relationships among TSIS total score, GEQ total score, and GEQ social cohesion for the total sample and separately by sports season and sports type. Linear …


Gender Stereotypes In The Elementary Classroom, Mckenna Gill May 2024

Gender Stereotypes In The Elementary Classroom, Mckenna Gill

Master's Theses

This study explores ways to reduce gender stereotypes in the elementary classroom. Specifically, it was designed to collect data on male and female behaviors related to gender stereotypes toward different school subjects, volunteering, peer relationships, and student redirections during lessons. A literature review was conducted to investigate existing research on this topic. A mixed-methods design was used in this study. Data was collected in a fifth-grade classroom, by keeping a tally of each of the subject areas Math, Reading, Science, and Writing, and the students who volunteered. Included in the investigation was a teacher interview regarding her thoughts on gender …


Evaluating A Common Book Program's Effect On Gains In Knowledge And Position Toward Sustainability In The Nutrition Professions, Hallie Lanice Shupe Mar 2024

Evaluating A Common Book Program's Effect On Gains In Knowledge And Position Toward Sustainability In The Nutrition Professions, Hallie Lanice Shupe

Master's Theses

A Common Reader Program, also called a common book, summer reading, or a one-book program, has been reported to enhance the college educational experience yet appears to have been underutilized by colleges and universities. In the case of health sciences, there can be great benefits in having students learn from the literature not typically found in textbooks used in the curricula. Common reader programs allow for different teaching methods to be implemented and using multiple teaching methods in a single program can be beneficial. In nutrition and dietetics (ND) programs there is a need for additional education regarding sustainability in …


The Effects Of Affiliation, Proximity To Suicide, And Religiosity On Suicide Acceptance, Lindsey Gack Jan 2024

The Effects Of Affiliation, Proximity To Suicide, And Religiosity On Suicide Acceptance, Lindsey Gack

Master's Theses

As suicide becomes increasingly more prominent in the lives of people, research is being conducted to investigate causes, prevention, and even opinions on the topic. The impact of religious affiliation and religiosity on people’s acceptance of suicide was investigated in the current study. This was examined by using The Religious Commitment Inventory-10 (RCI-10; Worthington et al., 2003), the Semantic Differential Scale Attitudes Towards Suicidal Behavior (SEDAS; Jenner & Niesing, 2000), and the Proximity to Suicide Scale (PSS; self-constructed). Results indicated that a higher religiosity score was correlated with a more understanding viewpoint of an attempted/committed suicide. Results also showed that …


The Importance Of Self-Regulation And Motivation In Online Learning Environments, Sydney A. Hicks Jan 2024

The Importance Of Self-Regulation And Motivation In Online Learning Environments, Sydney A. Hicks

Master's Theses

Student learning satisfaction is important in the education world. Since the Covid-19 pandemic, learning environments have changed drastically from in-person learning to online learning. With this, more studies are needed to better understand learning satisfaction in online learning. The current study aims to use Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) as a framework to explain potential factors involved in learning satisfaction in both in-person and online courses. SCT reasons that interactions between environment, personal factors (motivation and self-regulation), impact different behavioral outcomes (learning satisfaction) (Mantooth et al., 2020). With this framework, the current study investigated how intrinsic motivation and self- regulation …


Life Satisfaction In Motherhood: The Influence Of Mindfulness On Life Stressors, Shyann Schumacher, Shyann M. Schumacher Jan 2024

Life Satisfaction In Motherhood: The Influence Of Mindfulness On Life Stressors, Shyann Schumacher, Shyann M. Schumacher

Master's Theses

Motherhood can be a stressful and highly demanding role. With the challenges a mother faces, many factors can influence satisfaction a mother experiences in their life. Within the many roles mothers play throughout their lives, mindfulness is found to benefit both women and their children and positively influence mothers’ relationships with their children or partner. This study investigated the role of mindfulness within life satisfaction among mothers’ experiences by examining levels of social support, mother’s age, work-life balance, and socioeconomic status as predictors of life satisfaction when moderated by mindfulness. Participants were sampled through social media including Facebook and Instagram. …


Examining Self-Esteem As A Moderator Of Attachment And Multiple Sexual Partners, Dezerae Kinderknecht Jan 2024

Examining Self-Esteem As A Moderator Of Attachment And Multiple Sexual Partners, Dezerae Kinderknecht

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine self-esteem as a moderator of attachment styles (i.e., avoidant, anxious, or secure) and its associated impact on the number of sexual partners an individual has had in their lifetime. Previous literature has found that an individual’s level of self-esteem affects a person’s number of sexual partners. Studies have also been conducted examining the correlation between attachment styles and number of sexual partners, finding that those with an insecure attachment style, namely anxious or avoidant attachment, tend to have more sexual partners. While previous literature has examined these factors separately, this study aimed …


Exploring Psychological Factors Behind Consideration Of Cosmetic Surgery Through The Lens Of Social Comparison Theory, Noriene Verma Jan 2024

Exploring Psychological Factors Behind Consideration Of Cosmetic Surgery Through The Lens Of Social Comparison Theory, Noriene Verma

Master's Theses

Cosmetic surgery refers to an extreme form of appearance modification whose sole purpose is to improve the appearance of the chosen area. Despite psychological concerns associated with repeated perform of cosmetic surgery, rates of cosmetic procedures are likely to increase in the coming years (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2020) and it warrants the need to study the potential motivators that encourage someone to opt for such procedures. Motivators of cosmetic surgery explored in this study are social media usage and self-esteem through the lens of Social Comparison Theory. Social comparison theory can explain the mechanisms behind one’s desire to …


Cognitive Fusion, Self And Other-Blame, And College Adjustment Outcomes, Olivia B. Tipton Jan 2024

Cognitive Fusion, Self And Other-Blame, And College Adjustment Outcomes, Olivia B. Tipton

Master's Theses

College students from socioeconomically challenging backgrounds are more likely to drop out of college before being awarded a bachelor’s degree. A challenging background predicts difficulties in emotion regulation, which may affect adjustment to college and, subsequently, persistence in college until a bachelor’s degree is awarded. Previous research has identified cognitive fusion, a state in which one unquestioningly believes the literal content of their thoughts, and inflexible usage of self and other-blame as predictors of negative social, psychological, and academic outcomes. The present study used self-report data collected from emerging adult college students at a small midwestern university to assess whether …


The Effects Of Physical And Emotional Child Abuse On Social Functioning, And Help Seeking Behaviors In Adulthood, Beatrice Chambers Jan 2024

The Effects Of Physical And Emotional Child Abuse On Social Functioning, And Help Seeking Behaviors In Adulthood, Beatrice Chambers

Master's Theses

Child abuse is very common in today’s society, and of great social concern. Reports indicate at least one in seven children have experienced child abuse or neglect in the past year in the United States. Further, in 2020, 1,750 children died of abuse and neglect in the United States alone. The number may be even higher since not every victim who died from abuse would have that indicated as the cause of death (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022a). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of physical and emotional child abuse on social functioning …


Using Behavior Bingo To Increase Academically Engaged Behavior In A General Education Elementary School Population, Faith Elizabeth Hamilton Dec 2023

Using Behavior Bingo To Increase Academically Engaged Behavior In A General Education Elementary School Population, Faith Elizabeth Hamilton

Master's Theses

Spending instructional and work time addressing disruptive behaviors in the classroom is a common complaint of many teachers. The literature suggests that group contingencies are beneficial for improving behavior on a classwide and individual level. The current study investigated Behavior BINGO, a group contingency intervention whose research is in its infancy, and its effectiveness on increasing academically engaged behaviors and decreasing disruptive behaviors on a classwide basis. This study utilized a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design in three 2nd grade, general education classrooms in a public school.


Heat & Social Cooperation: The Effects Of Thermal Stress On Altruism, Alexander J. Courtman Dec 2023

Heat & Social Cooperation: The Effects Of Thermal Stress On Altruism, Alexander J. Courtman

Master's Theses

Recent literature has highlighted the effects of temperature on economic outcomes and violence in humans, on both the interpersonal and intergroup levels: as temperatures rise, humans are more likely to exhibit increased aggression and agitation. However, little research has been done on how pro-social behaviors like cooperation and altruism among humans might respond to increased temperatures. As extreme heat events increase in frequency, will humans and communities work together in the face of adverse shocks and crises? Leveraging experimental data collected randomized controlled trails held in 4 locations across the world, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between thermal …


From Margins To Museums: Tracing The Evolution Of Representation For Contemporary African Artists In The United States, Victoria Mouraux Durand-Ruel Dec 2023

From Margins To Museums: Tracing The Evolution Of Representation For Contemporary African Artists In The United States, Victoria Mouraux Durand-Ruel

Master's Theses

This thesis examines the impact of the Black Lives Matter movement on the art community in the United States and the evolution of representation for Contemporary African artists. By analyzing the careers and artistic contributions of Omar Ba, Toyin Ojih Odutola, and Njideka Akunyili Crosby, the study explores the concept of artistic agency according to which African artists have more control over the production and distribution of their works.

The research begins with a comprehensive literature review, investigating the historical contexts that have shaped the art landscape, including the impact of colonization, decolonization, and globalization. The study reveals how these …


Whose Woods These Are: Human-Environment Relationships Among Stakeholders Of South Mississippi's Longleaf Pine Ecosystem, Helen Greene Dec 2023

Whose Woods These Are: Human-Environment Relationships Among Stakeholders Of South Mississippi's Longleaf Pine Ecosystem, Helen Greene

Master's Theses

Between 1870 and 1920, the longleaf pine belt of the southeastern United States experienced an extensive and unsustainable period of logging. In the years after the logging boom the landscape of the Southeast was reforested, but fire suppression and a preference among landowners for loblolly pine resulted in a dense and less resilient forest with reduced biodiversity. This research looks at the human geography of remnants of the longleaf pine ecosystem in South Mississippi and the nature of contemporary relationships between South Mississippi residents and this ecosystem.

In an effort to make sense of the complex relationships between people and …


The Classroom Password Group Contingency With Randomized Reinforcers, Emily Maxime Dec 2023

The Classroom Password Group Contingency With Randomized Reinforcers, Emily Maxime

Master's Theses

From the principles of reinforcement and punishment established by operant conditioning, there have been a variety of different behavior modification methods explored. Group contingencies are one of these behavior modification procedures that can be applied at a class-wide level by teachers who are seeking to improve student behavior as a group or individually. The three types of group contingencies are independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingency. Additional components, such as randomization within a group contingency, have been seen to further the effectiveness of behavioral strategies. A novel independent group contingency that has recently been investigated and demonstrated some promise as …


The Examination Of A Teacher Mentorship Intervention On Junior Teachers' Stress And Self-Efficacy, Cagla Cobek Dec 2023

The Examination Of A Teacher Mentorship Intervention On Junior Teachers' Stress And Self-Efficacy, Cagla Cobek

Master's Theses

This study examined a daily Check-In/Check-Out mentorship intervention for junior teachers. Changes in junior teachers’ stress level and their sense of self-efficacy were measured. Researchers collected data from three junior teachers and mentor dyads in a Southeastern school district. A Multiple Baseline Design across three teachers was used in this study to examine the impact of the daily mentorship intervention. The results suggested that daily Check-Ins and Check-Outs with mentor teachers decreased all three junior teachers’ daily stress. The intervention did not impact significantly on junior teachers’ perceived stress and their sense of self-efficacy. Overall, this study supports a promising …