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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina Jun 2022

Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina

Dissertations and Theses

Episode Based Payment Models and the Hospital Safety-net: An Evaluation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program

By John Anthony Gravina

Advisor: Alexis Pozen, Ph.D.

Introduction: Payments for Healthcare services are increasingly being tied to clinical quality, patient experience, health outcomes, and efficiency through value-based payment arrangements (VBP). VBP presents a potential opportunity to reduce healthcare expenditures by requiring providers to take on financial risk associated with the cost and quality of care, therefore aligning payment incentives with the goals of providing higher quality and efficient care. As of 2020, 80 percent ...


Coming To Know The Local Environment: Children's Experiences In Rautamai Gaunpalika, Nepal, Elsie Nicole Love Mar 2022

Coming To Know The Local Environment: Children's Experiences In Rautamai Gaunpalika, Nepal, Elsie Nicole Love

Dissertations and Theses

This qualitative research, conducted over three months from late monsoon season into early fall of 2018 with twenty-six children and thirteen adults, explores how children in the hills of Rautamai Gaunpalika, Province 1, Nepal come to know their local environment. Semi-structured interviews with children, their family members, and teachers, and participant observation with children as they worked and played in forests, fields, and streams, suggest that outside of school, children come to know their local environment in the following ways: through participation in and application of knowledge to subsistence practices; through collaborative learning and teaching in mixed-age groups; through relationships ...


Examining The Role Of Social Support And Neighborhood Deprivation In The Relationship Between Multiple Aces And Health Risk Behaviors, Marin L. Henderson-Posther Mar 2022

Examining The Role Of Social Support And Neighborhood Deprivation In The Relationship Between Multiple Aces And Health Risk Behaviors, Marin L. Henderson-Posther

Dissertations and Theses

The accumulation of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with the disproportionate development of health risk behaviors (HRBs), such as smoking, substance use, physical inactivity, and risky HIV behaviors. The impact of neighborhood social inequities on the association between multiple ACEs and HRBs is not well known. This study aims to examine the impact of stressors associated with neighborhood deprivation on ACE-related HRBs, the potential protective factor of perceived social support (PSS), as well as better understand disproportionality experienced by racial/ethnic minorities. Through merging data from the 2010 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (n = 5 ...


Immigration Federalism In The United States: Constructing A Contemporary Institutional Framework Centered On Local Communities Through A Case Study Approach, Sara Kuehlhorn Friedman Feb 2022

Immigration Federalism In The United States: Constructing A Contemporary Institutional Framework Centered On Local Communities Through A Case Study Approach, Sara Kuehlhorn Friedman

Dissertations and Theses

This research study presents a new model of immigration federalism which integrates existing theories into a framework that emphasizes agency at the local level. Unlike dominant models of federalism that observe the cascading effect of higher-level policy on lower levels of government, this research focuses on empirical evidence at the local level to understand its relation to policy at higher levels. Immigration federalism is receiving substantial interest in scholarly work and in practice, but it lacks a cohesive and comprehensive theory explaining variation at the community level. There is little reason to expect sweeping changes in immigration policy at the ...


Intersections Of Masculinity, Culturally Relevant Factors, And Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Asian American Men, Jason Zengo Kyler-Yano Feb 2022

Intersections Of Masculinity, Culturally Relevant Factors, And Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Asian American Men, Jason Zengo Kyler-Yano

Dissertations and Theses

Intimate partner violence (IPV) by men against women is a devastating social problem that is experienced by over a quarter of women in their lifetimes (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). IPV in Asian American communities is a prevalent problem that is likely influenced by both patriarchal gender role norms as well as culturally salience factors that are distinct to Asian Americans. Given the influence of norms and values on gendered power dynamics and racial power dynamics in the U.S., it is important to understand the intersections of gender and culture in Asian American men's masculine role norms and IPV perpetration ...


The Impact Of New Light Rail Service On Employment Growth In Portland, Oregon, Lahar Santra Jan 2022

The Impact Of New Light Rail Service On Employment Growth In Portland, Oregon, Lahar Santra

Dissertations and Theses

This study quantitatively examines the impact of the new Light Rail Transit (LRT) service on employment growth in retail, knowledge, and service sectors before and after opening the LRT. At the corridor level, this study conducts a case study of Greenline in Southeast Portland, Oregon. The results of the corridor level study suggest that the new LRT service increased employment along the Greenline corridor among all the three sectors of interest- retail, knowledge, service in the long-term (ten years) while having slightly different results for the short-term (five years), likely due to the slow growth of LRT benefits. This study ...


More Than Words: Articulating The Multisensory Experiences Of Protected Area Visitors In Southern Nevada, Sara Nicole Temme Jan 2022

More Than Words: Articulating The Multisensory Experiences Of Protected Area Visitors In Southern Nevada, Sara Nicole Temme

Dissertations and Theses

The complex sensory experiences of visitors to U.S. protected areas are not well understood. Previous research investigates visitor activities, motivations, and the ways place attachment cultivates support for conservation activities and other pro-environmental behavior. However, it is unclear how protected area visitor sensory experiences contribute to these behaviors. This study aims to articulate the multisensory experiences of visitors to the Desert National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area in southern Nevada, U.S.A. Specifically, it demonstrates the complexity of these experiences as present, intertwined, and embodied in all visit phases: before, during, and after ...


Heat, Wildfire And Energy Demand: An Examination Of Residential Buildings And Community Equity, Chrissi Argyro Antonopoulos Jan 2022

Heat, Wildfire And Energy Demand: An Examination Of Residential Buildings And Community Equity, Chrissi Argyro Antonopoulos

Dissertations and Theses

Extreme heat and wildfire events are becoming more prolific and exacerbated by climate change, carrying significant implications for environmental and social systems. Residential buildings play a central role in protecting people from heat and pollutant exposure during extreme weather events, but the level of protection varies dramatically depending on building energy efficiency and technology availability. Low-income and communities of color have higher energy burdens compared to affluent populations, and underserved communities often do not have financial resources for, or access to, advanced building technologies. This dissertation explores the impacts of extreme heat and wildfire on residential buildings, focused specifically on ...


Geographies Of Urban Unsafety: Homeless Women, Mental Maps, And Isolation, Jan Radle Roberson Jan 2022

Geographies Of Urban Unsafety: Homeless Women, Mental Maps, And Isolation, Jan Radle Roberson

Dissertations and Theses

This study explores the intersection of urban unsafety and the marginalized population of homeless women. Specifically, it investigates how homeless women identify/perceive and navigate unsafe urban space. Specific research questions include:

1. What does housing insecurity look like for an unhoused woman?

2. In what ways is mental mapping a robust tool for gathering the stories (data) of vulnerable populations such as unhoused women?

3. What does the spatialization of unsafe locations look like and are demographic groupings dissimilarly affected?

4. What are the critical reasons for unsafety identified by participants?

5. How do homeless women respond to urban ...


Measuring Morality In The 2020 Us Presidential Election, Scott Edward Atkins Jan 2022

Measuring Morality In The 2020 Us Presidential Election, Scott Edward Atkins

Dissertations and Theses

This study explores the moral content evident in speeches by 2020 US Presidential Candidates Joe Biden and Donald Trump. Drawing on Moral Foundations Theory (Haidt, 2013), I test the hypotheses that each candidate's moral content, as measured by the use of certain morally salient keywords, will fall along patterns based on their political affiliation. In testing these hypotheses, I also present a comparison of keyword analysis methods. The first uses a simple word count procedure alongside the Moral Foundations Dictionary 2.0, developed by Frimer et al. (2017), which scores a document based on the presence of words from ...


Linking Conservation And Environmental Justice: Exploring Relationship-Building Between A Land Trust And Four Pacific Northwest Tribes, C. Noel Plemmons Jan 2022

Linking Conservation And Environmental Justice: Exploring Relationship-Building Between A Land Trust And Four Pacific Northwest Tribes, C. Noel Plemmons

Dissertations and Theses

Conservation organizations around the world are addressing exclusionary policies and implicit biases that have alienated segments of society from both the conservation movement and natural places. Native American tribes make up one segment of society with a particular interest in and deep ties to land and resources. Vancouver, Washington-based Columbia Land Trust recognizes tribes' special relationships with their ancestral lands and resources thereon, but has struggled to develop policies that involve tribes in conserved areas and conservation plans. The conception among mainstream scientists that western conservation science is better equipped than Indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK) to determine best practices is ...


The Perception Of Partner’S Pornography Use As A Betrayal: The Role Of Trust, Investment, Commitment, And Forgiveness, Vi Nguyen Jan 2022

The Perception Of Partner’S Pornography Use As A Betrayal: The Role Of Trust, Investment, Commitment, And Forgiveness, Vi Nguyen

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of relationship factors (e.g., trust, investment, and commitment) and forgiveness in the perception of partner pornography use as a betrayal. It was hypothesized that relationship factors and forgiveness would be significantly related to pornography distress, betrayal intensity, and depression. Participants were recruited from three sources: students from an urban university in the Northeast through an online platform called SONA (N = 13), social media sites (i.e., Facebook and Reddit, N = 1105), and through the snowballing technique (N = 49). The final sample size after the data cleaning procedure was N ...


Challenges To Career As A Source Of Meaning And Satisfaction Among Certified Athletic Trainers In The United States Of America, Nicole Marie Glasgow Jan 2022

Challenges To Career As A Source Of Meaning And Satisfaction Among Certified Athletic Trainers In The United States Of America, Nicole Marie Glasgow

Dissertations and Theses

There is a high prevalence of burnout in the athletic training profession. Similar to what has been found in other healthcare professions, burnout is correlated with lack of job satisfaction, high turnover, and decreased productivity. In phase one of this study, the purpose was to investigate whether there was a relationship between perceived career meaning and burnout among certified athletic trainers. In phase two, the purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences of meaningfulness and purposefulness by certified athletic trainers. The overall objective of the research was to generate an understanding of factors associated with burnout in ...


Anhedonia And Impulsivity In College Alcohol Use: A Path Analysis, Sydney N. Stamatovich Jan 2022

Anhedonia And Impulsivity In College Alcohol Use: A Path Analysis, Sydney N. Stamatovich

Dissertations and Theses

This study tested a path model to explore whether different types of anhedonia are associated with alcohol use and problems via different types of impulsivity in 640 college students (ages 18-25). This study parsed anhedonia into four specific facets: consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia, and “recreational” and social anhedonia. Consummatory anhedonia (i.e., the “liking” of a reward) was hypothesized to be associated with alcohol use and problems via sensation seeking, a component of impulsivity where individuals tend to seek out rewarding, yet sometimes risky stimuli. Further, anticipatory anhedonia (i.e., the process of “looking forward to” or “wanting” a reward ...


Assessment Of Vertical Accuracy From Uav-Lidar And Structure From Motion Point Clouds In Floodplain Terrain Mapping, Andrew Muller Dec 2021

Assessment Of Vertical Accuracy From Uav-Lidar And Structure From Motion Point Clouds In Floodplain Terrain Mapping, Andrew Muller

Dissertations and Theses

Remote sensing technologies are being applied to a variety of uses because of the increase in access to various products (digital sensors, UAVs, software) and its ability to model relatively large areas in a short amount of time. While these new technologies are beginning to be adopted, validation of their merit in floodplain terrain mapping is lacking. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the vertical accuracy of digital elevation models (DEMs) generated with UAV-based LiDAR and Structure from Motion (SfM), also known as photographic LiDAR or PhoDAR. Airborne (manned aircraft) LiDAR has been applied to river research ...


Antipsychotic Medication Administration In Oregon Assisted Living/Residential Care Settings: Analyzing An Action Situation, Sarah Dys Dec 2021

Antipsychotic Medication Administration In Oregon Assisted Living/Residential Care Settings: Analyzing An Action Situation, Sarah Dys

Dissertations and Theses

Antipsychotic medication use (APU) in assisted living and residential care (AL/RC) settings is an under-studied and controversial health policy issue. APU in older adults with dementia is associated with an increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. I operationalize the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework using a situational analysis approach, an extension of grounded theory methods, to explore the APU in Oregon AL/RC settings. Regulatory deficiency citations, Oregon AL/RC population data, and semi-structured interviews suggest that staff role clarity, organizational characteristics, and perceived agency influence decision-making around APU. AL/RC providers and caregivers are forced to ...


Parenting And Children's Academic Coping As A Dynamic System: Feedforward, Feedback, And Mediators Of Changes Across The School Year, Kristen Elizabeth Raine Dec 2021

Parenting And Children's Academic Coping As A Dynamic System: Feedforward, Feedback, And Mediators Of Changes Across The School Year, Kristen Elizabeth Raine

Dissertations and Theses

Using a motivational framework based in self-determination theory, the present study investigated the dynamic system between parenting and children's coping, defined as the ways they handle the everyday difficulties they encounter in school, using a sample of 1,020 students in grades three through six drawn from a larger cohort-sequential study. Three overarching research questions were examined using multiple regression that concerned 1) feedforward effects from parents' initial provision of motivational support (i.e., involvement, structure, and autonomy support) to changes in children's academic coping across the school year, 2) feedback effects from children's initial coping to ...


Sustaining Boys' Motivation Over The Transition To Middle School: Can Interpersonal Resources Protect Boys From Engagement Declines Across Sixth Grade?, Brandy Anne Brennan Dec 2021

Sustaining Boys' Motivation Over The Transition To Middle School: Can Interpersonal Resources Protect Boys From Engagement Declines Across Sixth Grade?, Brandy Anne Brennan

Dissertations and Theses

Recent research has highlighted the challenges boys face in school. Boys are overrepresented on indicators of negative academic outcomes, such as detention, suspension, and dropout, as well as underperformance on state and national tests. Moreover, these effects may be long lasting: Compared to females, male students are less likely to graduate high school, enroll in college, and complete a college degree, and they may be particularly vulnerable in middle school. As students enter middle school, their motivation and engagement normatively decline, and these losses may be especially problematic for boys. Nevertheless, research documents the importance of close relationships with parents ...


The Role Of Emotional Attention Regulation In High Psychopathy Incarcerated Males, Michael K. Webb Dec 2021

The Role Of Emotional Attention Regulation In High Psychopathy Incarcerated Males, Michael K. Webb

Dissertations and Theses

This study examined the role of emotional attention regulation in men (N = 60) currently incarcerated in a Midwestern prison. Modern conceptualizations define psychopathy as a multifaceted and dimensional construct that includes atypical experience of affect, interpersonal problems, and remarkable social deviance. Attentional differences and deficient emotional experience have been shown to predict psychopathy and other outcomes related to the construct. However, attentional and emotional functioning in individuals high in psychopathy is complex and results have been shown to vary across discrete emotion states and experimental paradigms. The negative preception hypothesis (Kosson et al. 2018) suggests that these differences may be ...


Relation Of Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Self-Compassion, And Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Emily Anne Kalantar Dec 2021

Relation Of Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Self-Compassion, And Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Emily Anne Kalantar

Dissertations and Theses

Exposure to potentially traumatic events is associated with high emotion regulation difficulties, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and elevated healthcare expenditures. Emotion regulation difficulties are related to worse clinical and sub-clinical posttraumatic stress symptomology relative to use of effective emotion regulation strategies. Yet, significant variance in posttraumatic stress symptom severity remains unexplained after accounting for emotion regulation difficulties, suggesting identification of additional explanatory variables is warranted. Considerable research suggests high (vs. low) self-compassion, which entails extending kindness to oneself, is related to more effective emotion regulation and low posttraumatic stress symptom severity. As such, self-compassion may be one variable that ...


Reducing Transphobic Attitudes: A Cross-National Investigation Of College Students In Japan And The United States, Kazusa Seko Dec 2021

Reducing Transphobic Attitudes: A Cross-National Investigation Of College Students In Japan And The United States, Kazusa Seko

Dissertations and Theses

Transgender people routinely experience discrimination and mistreatment. Although transphobic attitudes vary from country to country, a more in-depth understanding of these attitudes is needed. Using a semi-structured online survey, this study investigates college students' attitudes toward transgender people in Japan and the United States, a cross-national comparison that aims to deepen our understanding of how transphobic attitudes are shaped and what opportunities exist to reduce transphobia amongst college students. Results show that Japanese students express more transphobic attitudes than U.S. students do; and that U.S. students had more experience with gender-based educational content and were more likely to ...


Is More Always Better? A Look At Visitation And Recidivism, Teriin Lee Dec 2021

Is More Always Better? A Look At Visitation And Recidivism, Teriin Lee

Dissertations and Theses

The body of literature on prison visitation provides empirical support that visitation may influence the likelihood of recidivism. However, the literature is limited in both size and geographic representation, as more than half of studies originate from samples in Florida or Minnesota. Moreover, inconsistency in the use of measures further complicates generalizability of the findings. The following study utilizes data collected from the Oregon Criminal Justice Commission to examine the relationship between visitation and recidivism in Oregon. Using a sample of 29,312 adults in custody (AICs) who were released between 2011 and 2017, we test the associations of seven ...


Mothers' Drinking Motives, Sheila Kathleen Umemoto Nov 2021

Mothers' Drinking Motives, Sheila Kathleen Umemoto

Dissertations and Theses

Increases in women's excessive alcohol use are leading to concerns about a developing public health problem since, for women, it takes fewer years and lower doses to develop a range of alcohol-induced health problems. Maternal status is generally considered protective against alcohol use; however, this effect is weakened by multiple social role strain, leading to higher stress and negative affect, and subsequent coping-related alcohol use. Given that the majority of mothers with young children are working or looking for work (72.3%; BLS, 2021), it is likely that the combination of competing demands and expectations associated with multiple roles ...


Modeling Environmental Factors Related To Drought-Induced Tree Mortality Based On Lidar And Hyperspectral Imagery, Lauren Nicole Sharwood Nov 2021

Modeling Environmental Factors Related To Drought-Induced Tree Mortality Based On Lidar And Hyperspectral Imagery, Lauren Nicole Sharwood

Dissertations and Theses

Climate change is projected to bring more frequent and prolonged droughts, causing widespread forest die-off. Identifying tree mortality over large spatial extents in response to the most recent California drought will help forest managers and conservationists understand where there may be a greater likelihood of future die-offs. In order to find more at-risk areas, this study evaluated how interacting site-specific topographic, climate, substrate, and stand characteristics mediated tree mortality in the Central Sierra Nevada during the 2012-2016 drought. The author used lidar and hyperspectral imagery provided by the National Ecological Observatory Network to identify individual dead trees using the Random ...


Investigating Values In Discourse: Ideals And Social Plans, Luke Edward Hanst Nov 2021

Investigating Values In Discourse: Ideals And Social Plans, Luke Edward Hanst

Dissertations and Theses

Social scientists argue that values enable group coordination. I explore two theories of values before turning to evidence provided by Amanda Gorman's inaugural poem, "The Hill We Climb." First, the paradigm of Shalom Schwartz describes values as transsituational goals which enable groups to coordinate action and evaluate the world. I argue the Schwartz paradigm zooms out from values into categories while I need a means to zoom in to understand values in discourse. I turn to the Pragmatic Prospection paradigm to elaborate the cognitive ontology of goals and to understand the function of language. I argue that values are ...


Japanese-English Code-Switching By Postwar Speakers In Contemporary America, Andre John Shepherd Oct 2021

Japanese-English Code-Switching By Postwar Speakers In Contemporary America, Andre John Shepherd

Dissertations and Theses

In her examination of Japanese-English bilingualism in Toronto, Nishimura (1995b) demonstrated that second-generation Japanese-Canadians varied their speech dependent on the audience they were addressing. According to her, the Japanese-Canadians spoke primarily in English to fellow second-generation speakers, while maintaining conversations in Japanese with those who had spent their formative years in Japan. However, when addressing audiences composed of both groups, they switched back and forth evenly between the two languages.

Following research done by Woolard (1989) on the effects of societal influences on language, the state of the Japanese-Canadians can be related to the breakup of the ethnic enclaves in ...


The Longitudinal Effects Of A Family And Sleep Supportive Intervention On Service Member Anger And Resilience, Shalene Joyce Allen Oct 2021

The Longitudinal Effects Of A Family And Sleep Supportive Intervention On Service Member Anger And Resilience, Shalene Joyce Allen

Dissertations and Theses

The vast majority of workplace intervention research on employee anger and resilience primarily focuses on individual-level strategies for mitigating employee anger and resilience outcomes in the workplace, with no studies having examined these outcomes with tangible occupational health interventions utilizing organizational-level techniques. Thus, the current study extends the literature on how to provide improvements in employee anger and resilience using higher system and organizational change mechanisms by providing evidence-based support for the effectiveness of a Total Worker Health® intervention, referred to as the Family and Sleep Supportive Intervention Training (FaSST). This approach employs both health protection and health promotion strategies ...


The Discourse/Pragmatic Functions Of Japanese Okkē, Peter Janos Fodor Oct 2021

The Discourse/Pragmatic Functions Of Japanese Okkē, Peter Janos Fodor

Dissertations and Theses

Okay is one of the most commonly used words in the English language. It is also one of the most commonly borrowed English-origin loanwords across all of the world's languages. Although there is a wealth of research on the communicative functions of English okay, there is comparatively little research on the many borrowings of the word in various other languages. In order to address this gap in the literature, this study explores the differences in discourse/pragmatic function between the English word okay, and the Japanese borrowing of the word, okkē.

Extensive research in discourse analysis, pragmatics, and conversation ...


What Does It Mean To Be Deaf? Changing Meanings Of Deafness, Communication Technology, And Beliefs About Normality In The Us, Kathryn Elizabeth Burrows Oct 2021

What Does It Mean To Be Deaf? Changing Meanings Of Deafness, Communication Technology, And Beliefs About Normality In The Us, Kathryn Elizabeth Burrows

Dissertations and Theses

How deafness is perceived as a problem by society dictates what types of technologies are leveraged to address the problem, and, conversely, available technologies shape how deafness is perceived. In this dissertation, I draw on multiple methods to explore the meanings of deafness in the US since the early 18th century to the present, examine how the meanings of deafness in those eras shaped deaf technology, and assess how available technologies shaped how deafness was understood. Using primary and secondary historical sources, I identify that every era identifies a different "problem of being deaf" and it is that problem ...


The Worth Of Risk: Political Participation And Risk Perceptions, Siri Grubb Sep 2021

The Worth Of Risk: Political Participation And Risk Perceptions, Siri Grubb

Dissertations and Theses

This study draws on concepts from political and risk communication to inform our understanding of what motivates people to be politically active. Inspired by concerns that traditional models of participation do not perform as well among younger and more diverse populations (e.g. Bennett, 2008), alternate variables are considered including risk perceptions surrounding policy issues and political parties. Results show that established political variables such as political interest and civic duty remain strongly associated with participation, while offering support for several new variables of interest from the risk communication literature. In the present study, threat and efficacy perceptions explained additional ...