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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Derogatory, Racist, And Discriminatory Speech (Drds) In Video Gaming, Sean Woodford Aug 2024

Derogatory, Racist, And Discriminatory Speech (Drds) In Video Gaming, Sean Woodford

Dissertations

Video games have been examined for their effects on cognition, learning, health, and physiological arousal, yet research on social dynamics within video gaming is limited. Studies have documented the presence of derogation, racism, and discrimination in this anonymous medium. However, gamers‟ firsthand experiences are typically examined qualitatively. Thus, this study aimed to establish a quantitative baseline for the frequency of derogatory, racist, and discriminatory speech (DRDS) in gaming. DRDS frequency, sexual harassment, and hate speech measures were administered to 150 individuals from online forums and social media groups. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to gauge which factors affected DRDS …


Emailed Prompt Package To Increase Alternative School Educators’ Use Of Behavior Specific Praise, Chelsea Johnson Jul 2024

Emailed Prompt Package To Increase Alternative School Educators’ Use Of Behavior Specific Praise, Chelsea Johnson

Dissertations

Alternative school educators are often placed in alternative education settings with minimal training or support to manage disruptive behaviors in the classroom. To combat this, school-based consultation may be provided to assist alternative school educators with classroom management strategies. However, face-to-face consultation may be limited due to the numerous responsibilities placed on school-based consultants. Behavior specific praise (BSP) is a strategy that is recommended, but often provided at low rates. To address these barriers, previous literature has examined the use of emailed prompts to increase treatment integrity, feasibility, and acceptability of a variety of evidence-based interventions. A concurrent multiple baseline …


Drug Use And Harm Reduction: Community Readiness As Pathway To Well-Being And Reintegration, Lauretta Ekanem Omale Jun 2024

Drug Use And Harm Reduction: Community Readiness As Pathway To Well-Being And Reintegration, Lauretta Ekanem Omale

Dissertations

Drug abuse negatively impacts the life and well-being of those who use drugs; this harm often extends to their loved ones, communities, and society. One presumptive set of psychological explanations for drug abuse is an addictive personality, a psychological susceptibility resulting from challenging family relationships, inadequate reinforcement, the absence of healthy role models, conflicting parental expectations, and a lack of love and respect. Harm reduction is a public health approach that focuses on minimizing the harmful effects of drugs and reducing judgment. It aims to meet people where they are in life and provide judgment-free, empathetic, supportive, and needed medical …


Connections Through Stories In A Small Town In Rural Virginia, Andrea Plamondon Jun 2024

Connections Through Stories In A Small Town In Rural Virginia, Andrea Plamondon

Dissertations

Stories are powerful tools used for centuries to entertain, teach, empower, and build community. Neuroscience research shows that stories impact the brain in ways that allow us to increase empathy and connect with people (What Happens in the Brain When We Hear Stories?, n.d.; Yang, 2014; Zak, 2015). Community Psychologists have used stories to collect qualitative data and life experiences to create or change a community narrative and address community trauma (Hyman, 2002; Rappaport, 2000). While existing research describes the power of stories and provides storytelling techniques, this research study identified a new method – The Community Story …


Building Partnerships With Indigenous Communities, Andrea Plamondon Jun 2024

Building Partnerships With Indigenous Communities, Andrea Plamondon

Dissertations

Non-indigenous researchers embark on research with indigenous communities with good intentions but can unintentionally continue to oppress. While existing research shows building partnerships with indigenous communities, requires researchers to work “with” not “for” communities and walk side-by-side, and to do so with reciprocity, respect, relevance, responsibility and reverence, this research study identified an iterative model to learn, follow, and emerge research relationships through ongoing connections and outlined the mindsets to consider and assess often. Ten non-indigenous researchers from the US and Canada shared their stories about building relationships with indigenous communities. Through their stories of successes and challenges, strengths and …


Movin’ On Up: The Lived Experience Of Women Of Color In Leadership And The Supports That Helped Them Make It To The Top, Rozina Kapadia May 2024

Movin’ On Up: The Lived Experience Of Women Of Color In Leadership And The Supports That Helped Them Make It To The Top, Rozina Kapadia

Dissertations

Purpose: The number of women of color in leadership continues to be significantly lower than the number of men. The lack of opportunity combined with the lack of support results in less women of color in leadership. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of women of color in their roles as leaders in corporate environments with respect to the support (personal supports, organizational supports, cultural supports, and stereotypical supports) received. Specifically, the research examined the stories of female leaders of color to understand how their experiences have supported or hindered their growth in leadership. …


Experiential-Based Research Depicting Humanistic Survival After Violent Victimization & Traumatization Exploring Human Resilience, Spirituality, Meditation & Expressive Writing, Sabrina Harris Apr 2024

Experiential-Based Research Depicting Humanistic Survival After Violent Victimization & Traumatization Exploring Human Resilience, Spirituality, Meditation & Expressive Writing, Sabrina Harris

Dissertations

Unattended trauma-induced stressors resulting from incidents of violent victimization can escalate into mental health challenges, including trauma-related and substance-abuse disorders, which most often co-occur in a debilitating manner. Therefore, it is essential to conduct ongoing exploratory research on cognitive-based approaches (e.g., spirituality), psychological adaptations (e.g., human resilience), and trauma-informed approaches (e.g., meditation, expressive writing), which serve to reduce or offset the adverse impact of trauma.

Twelve women who experienced victimization and traumatization but did not seek professional mental-health intervention were interviewed; six had been abused as children and eight as adults. Some did not contact or follow through with reports …


Shepherds Leading The Flocks: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study Of Church Leaders Managing Church Membership During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Rbetrice Phillips Feb 2024

Shepherds Leading The Flocks: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study Of Church Leaders Managing Church Membership During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Rbetrice Phillips

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify and describe experiences of church leaders adapting the Scarneo (2019) intrapersonal and interpersonal socioecological influences while managing membership during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Methodology: This study used a qualitative phenomenological approach with a socioecological justification with open-ended interview questions investigating the lived experiences of the participants. This study aimed to gather data from sample size 10 church leaders in Los Angeles County, California plus a snowball sampling of referred church leaders who managed during COVID-19. In this study, the collection of narratives through semi-structured interviews provided the data which was analyzed …


Examining Systemic And Dispositional Factors Impacting Historically Disenfranchised Schools Across North Carolina, Raketa Ouedraogo-Thomas Jan 2024

Examining Systemic And Dispositional Factors Impacting Historically Disenfranchised Schools Across North Carolina, Raketa Ouedraogo-Thomas

Dissertations

This mixed method sequential explanatory study provided analysis of North Carolina (NC) school leaders’ dispositions in eliminating opportunity gaps, outlined in NC’s strategic plan. The study’s quantitative phase used descriptive and correlation analysis of eight Likert subscales around four tenets of transformative leadership (Shields, 2011) and aspects of critical race theory (Bell, 1992; Ladson-Billings, 1998; Ladson-Billings & Tate, 2006) to understand systemic inequities and leadership attitudes.

The qualitative phase comprised three analyses of education leadership dispositions and systemic factors in NC schools. The first analysis of State Board of Education meeting minutes from 2018–2023 quantified and analyzed utterances of racism …


“A Real Man . . .”: Deconstructing Machismo Heteronormative Standards With K–12 Latino Male Educators Through Dialogic Spaces, Mario Echeverria Jan 2024

“A Real Man . . .”: Deconstructing Machismo Heteronormative Standards With K–12 Latino Male Educators Through Dialogic Spaces, Mario Echeverria

Dissertations

In a K–12 educational landscape where 75% of educators are white women, recruitment of Latino male educators is crucial for diversification, yet these educators represent just 2% of the teaching workforce in the United States (NCES, 2020). These educators grapple with a layered sense of identity as they navigate expectations of hegemonic masculinity and machismo norms that dictate their roles as disciplinarians and saviors, especially for young boys of color (Brockenbrough, 2018; Lara & Fránquiz, 2015; Martino & Kehler, 2006; Mills et al., 2004; Singh, 2021). Unfortunately, Latino male educators leave the profession at twice the rate of their Latina …


The Lived Experiences Of School Counselors And Ell Teachers Who Support Ell Students Who Exhibit A Symptom Of Mental Illness, Trenise Duckens Jan 2024

The Lived Experiences Of School Counselors And Ell Teachers Who Support Ell Students Who Exhibit A Symptom Of Mental Illness, Trenise Duckens

Dissertations

The current literature regarding the lived experiences of ELL teachers and school counselors who support ELL students who may exhibit a symptom of mental illness in high school is very limited. Research is available discussing school counselors and their role when supporting students who may exhibit a symptom of mental illness or may have mental health concerns. This study sought to add to the literature by exploring the lived experiences of ELL teachers and school counselors who support ELL students who may exhibit a symptom of mental illness. By adding to the literature, the researcher hopes to provide a better …


Homeless Barriers: A Phenomenological Study Of Service Providers In Thurston County, Washington State, Michael Meredith Dec 2023

Homeless Barriers: A Phenomenological Study Of Service Providers In Thurston County, Washington State, Michael Meredith

Dissertations

Purpose: This qualitative phenomenological study aims to describe the perceptions of homeless service providers in Thurston County, Washington State, and describe barriers to the homeless seeking assistance. This study interviewed ten Thurston County service providers about their perception of the barriers preventing the unsheltered homeless from using available services. Identifying barriers and developing strategies to reduce or remove them is expected to reduce or eliminate homelessness.

Methodology: This qualitative phenomenological study describes the homeless service providers' perceptions of the homeless and the barriers to the homeless seeking assistance. The researcher conducted interviews with a sample of ten service providers to …


An Analysis Of The Factors That Affect Self-Employment, Stefani Broome Dec 2023

An Analysis Of The Factors That Affect Self-Employment, Stefani Broome

Dissertations

This dissertation research identifies the factors that affect self-employment in a three-essay format. Essay one builds a foundation on analyzing the determinants that affect self-employment in the United States through a country-level time-series analysis. Essay two includes a time-series panel analysis and comparative analysis between the United States and United Kingdom by expanding on Meager’s (1992) study of the relationship between unemployment and self-employment. This analysis focuses on the United Kingdom, an outlier in Meager’s (1992) study, which included a structural change to the motivation to enter self-employment after an economic shock in the late 1970s. Essay three utilizes a …


Power-Up With Emotional Intelligence: Exploring Flight Attendant Leadership And Crew Resource Management In A Dynamic Post-Pandemic Travel Environment, Carlin Laviolet Clarke Dec 2023

Power-Up With Emotional Intelligence: Exploring Flight Attendant Leadership And Crew Resource Management In A Dynamic Post-Pandemic Travel Environment, Carlin Laviolet Clarke

Dissertations

In the post-pandemic travel environment, disruptive passengers fail to accept flight attendants’ leadership and cause unruly incidents that compromise flight safety, damage airlines, and present behavioral challenges that can lead to physical harm (Al-Arshani, 2021; Albert, 2016; Araiza, 2022; Albert, 2016; FAA, 2021; Inspire Academy, n.d.-a.; International Air Transport Association [IATA], n.d.-b; James, 2022; Pederson et al., 2021; Ramona & Anbro, 2017; Timmis et al., 2018; TSA, 2021; Wong & Neustaedter, 2017). Flight attendants rely on Crew Resource Management (CRM) skills to manage inflight incidents; however, CRM promotes team effectiveness and flight attendants are often dispersed throughout the cabin and …


Coworkers And Leaders: The Relationship Between Trustworthiness, Trust, And Employee Engagement, Lianne Young Dec 2023

Coworkers And Leaders: The Relationship Between Trustworthiness, Trust, And Employee Engagement, Lianne Young

Dissertations

A highly engaged workforce provides numerous organizational and individual benefits (Shuck et al., 2016), the culmination of which leads to a competitive advantage difficult to emulate (Burke et al., 2013). It remains challenging to understand how engagement develops, with little research available explaining the process (Shuck, 2020). High employee engagement levels provide a competitive advantage, but stagnant engagement levels remain a significant obstacle (Shuck, 2020).

Shuck (2020) recommends further research focusing on methods to increase engagement. Trustworthiness and trust are antecedents and drivers of engagement (Chughtai & Buckley, 2008; Federman, 2010; SHRM, 2017). A lack of trust has negative impacts …


Exploring Local Elected Officials' Capacity To Govern Effectively, Mario King Dec 2023

Exploring Local Elected Officials' Capacity To Govern Effectively, Mario King

Dissertations

A successful local government exemplifies inclusivity, innovation, and deliberate decision-making, all advancing responsible management of taxpayers' resources. In this qualitative investigation, a phenomenological approach is employed to delve into the lived experiences of local elected officials. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the capacity of these local elected officials for success in governance. Subsequently, the insights from these local elected officials' experiences are harnessed to evaluate their influence and impact on municipal performance.

The management of municipal performance encompasses the provision of social services, the maintenance of fiscal operations, and adherence to statutory obligations (Avellaneda, 2008). …


Measuring Multicultural Competence In Counseling, Martha Mae Golubski Dec 2023

Measuring Multicultural Competence In Counseling, Martha Mae Golubski

Dissertations

Pedersen (1999) described multicultural counseling as the “fourth force” in psychology. The description is used to imply that multiculturalism is the next theory to understand human behavior, complementary to the other three forces: psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic explanations. Despite the attention being given to multiculturalism, professional organizations, training institutions, and service providers are still trying to understand what it means to have competency in multicultural counseling. Researchers have made decades of efforts to define and measure multicultural counseling competence; yet, there is still limited data about how multicultural training efforts influence these competencies and how counselor multicultural competency affects clients’ …


Making Data Meaningful: Stakeholder Perceptions On Data Visualization And Data Management Practices Within A Multi-Tiered System Of Supports (Mtss), Domenick Saia Dec 2023

Making Data Meaningful: Stakeholder Perceptions On Data Visualization And Data Management Practices Within A Multi-Tiered System Of Supports (Mtss), Domenick Saia

Dissertations

Data-driven decision-making and collaboration are core pillars of a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS); however, timely and accessible data use, as well as data literacy and visualization literacy skills, are challenges school leaders and educators face related to implementing such frameworks. I hypothesized efficient data management systems and data visualization tools enable school teams to predict student learning outcomes, readily communicate, and better understand student data. The purpose of this study design was to highlight a need for more efficient data structures that allow school stakeholders to balance their roles within an MTSS framework more effectively. The context of this …


Bisexuality, Biphobia, And Its Effects On Sexual Identity, Religious Identity And Mental Health: Examining Clinical Implications, Diana Ramirez Dec 2023

Bisexuality, Biphobia, And Its Effects On Sexual Identity, Religious Identity And Mental Health: Examining Clinical Implications, Diana Ramirez

Dissertations

Bisexuality is a sexual orientation, sometimes known as “bi,” that includes sexuality in which certain people are attracted to more than one sex and gender. Bisexuality differs from other sexual- and gender-nonconforming experiences (McInnis et al., 2022). According to Ross et al. (2018), bisexuality is frequently described as an invisible sexual orientation, and only in the last 20 years has research on biphobia and bisexuality increased (McInnis et al., 2022). Experiences unique to bisexuality include bisexual invisibility from a societal level (Dyar et al., 2015), bisexuals are more prone to experience sexual orientation instability (Bostwick et al., 2014), and bisexual …


A Phenomenological Investigation Of The Meaning Making Experiences Of Christian Women Who Had An Abortion, Anne E. Stocker Dec 2023

A Phenomenological Investigation Of The Meaning Making Experiences Of Christian Women Who Had An Abortion, Anne E. Stocker

Dissertations

Whether or not a woman should have an abortion is a hotly debated topic, and little information is known about how women make sense of their abortion experiences. Even less is known about how women make sense of abortion experiences in the context of their religious or spiritual belief system. This qualitative study explores the phenomenon of how women who have had an abortion make meaning of their abortion experience in the context of their Christian identity. This phenomenon was explored via research questions related to a woman’s experience of having both an abortion history and a Christian identity, how …


Analysis Of Trauma Screening As A Potential Predictor Of Congregate Care Placement As A Key Factor In Caseworker Decision Making, Amy Louise Perricone Dec 2023

Analysis Of Trauma Screening As A Potential Predictor Of Congregate Care Placement As A Key Factor In Caseworker Decision Making, Amy Louise Perricone

Dissertations

The placement of foster care children into congregate care (CC) facilities has been debated regarding whether CC can provide safety and healing, or if it is harmful and retraumatizing to children. In recent years CC has come under scrutiny due to high per diem costs and increasing reports of abuse and even death of children. In response, the federal Families First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA) was enacted in 2018 with a goal of reducing the number of children in CC. Since then, efforts have been implemented nationwide to achieve this goal. This study explored the value of statewide trauma screening …


An Analogue Study Of Expected Working Alliance And Hope With Victims Of Military Sexual Trauma Among Civilian And Military-Oriented Therapists, Alishia D. Salyer Dec 2023

An Analogue Study Of Expected Working Alliance And Hope With Victims Of Military Sexual Trauma Among Civilian And Military-Oriented Therapists, Alishia D. Salyer

Dissertations

Victims of military sexual trauma (MST) face unique challenges as they pursue mental health treatment and supportive care. Understanding what factors impact potential treatment outcomes is critical in aiding in their recovery (Castro et al., 2015; Kroviak, 2020). Although a substantial amount of research has been conducted to evaluate prevalence and client factors associated with treating victims of MST (Teit et al., 2015; Turchik & Wilson, 2010), little is known about therapists’ factors including therapists’ expectations working with such clients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between therapist type (military-affiliated versus civilian), therapist gender, client gender, …


The Effects Of Adolescent Trauma, Mental Health Treatment, And Demographic Variables On Educational Outcome, Christopher Postema Dec 2023

The Effects Of Adolescent Trauma, Mental Health Treatment, And Demographic Variables On Educational Outcome, Christopher Postema

Dissertations

Poor educational performance in adolescence can occur due to trauma, substance use, or other stressors. This study used conflict theory as a foundation, suggesting differences in educational outcomes can be attributed to systems perpetuating the current power structures that cause inequality in academic opportunities and performance. Trauma in adolescence can have adverse effects on educational outcomes and emotional stability. Research suggests that mental health therapy as well as a reduction in trauma symptoms can improve educational outcomes. Race, gender, substance use, socioeconomic status, and employment are important variables that could influence educational outcomes. Interaction terms were found in the literature …


Influence Of A Multicultural Counseling And Psychology Course On Counseling Psychology And Counselor Education Master’S Students Color-Blind Ideologies And Ethnic Identity, Rebecca Tuinstra Dec 2023

Influence Of A Multicultural Counseling And Psychology Course On Counseling Psychology And Counselor Education Master’S Students Color-Blind Ideologies And Ethnic Identity, Rebecca Tuinstra

Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether ethnic identity awareness mediates the relationship between completion of a Multicultural Counseling and Psychology Course and color-blind ideology endorsement. The participants included 93 master’s level counseling psychology and counselor education trainees attending a predominantly White university in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used a quantitative, pre- and post-test descriptive research design. Using mediation analysis, this study estimated the influence of completing a Multicultural Counseling and Psychology Course on awareness of ethnic identity and use of color-blind ideology while controlling for social desirability among master’s level counseling …


Examining The Interrelations Between Rational Choice Inputs: Implications For Criminological Theory And Research, Benjamin Hamilton Nov 2023

Examining The Interrelations Between Rational Choice Inputs: Implications For Criminological Theory And Research, Benjamin Hamilton

Dissertations

An essential component of any rational choice theory of criminal behavior is the notion that crime decisions are driven by an individual’s expected gains and losses to illicit activities. More specifically, offenders are typically presumed to balance the pleasures of the various benefits to crime against the pains associated with crime’s risks and costs, the presumption being that the offender will pursue criminal acts in the event he or she believes the expected utility to crime exceeds that which can be achieved through strictly legal means. Although criminologists have managed to test some of the more basic implications of this …


The Permanence Of Racism In Tennessee Public Schools, Jarral Yokley Nov 2023

The Permanence Of Racism In Tennessee Public Schools, Jarral Yokley

Dissertations

The qualitative case study exposed the permanence of racism beginning in the antebellum public schools of Nashville and continued in the current actions in the Tennessee legislature with the expulsion of two Black male legislators. Critical race theory is used as the main descriptor for the actions of White politicians and legislators in Tennessee who continue the oppressive treatment of Black people in the state of Tennessee.

White members of the Tennessee legislature have attempted to strategically continue white supremacy in their decision to display a depiction of one of the most deplorable, racists in the history of the state …


U.S. Military Veterans Transition To Two Midwest Universities: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Moral Injury, And Academic Outcomes, Malychanh T. Bartlett Nov 2023

U.S. Military Veterans Transition To Two Midwest Universities: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Moral Injury, And Academic Outcomes, Malychanh T. Bartlett

Dissertations

Abstract

Objective: To examine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and moral injury (MI) and the extrinsic factors of the degree of negative patterns of healthy behaviors and negative experiences in an academic setting, the moderating effects of social support on PTSD and MI symptomatology, and the perception of academic success and positive perception of academic experience. Additionally, to examine the mediating effect of intrinsic factors (perceived academic experience) on academic outcomes objectively and subjectively.

Background: Student veterans as non-traditional students face challenges transitioning to the academic environment. Some have underlying mental and psychological complications of PTSD and MI, …


The Public Muse In Congress: The Punctuation Of American Federal Arts Policy, Elizabeth Deichmann Nov 2023

The Public Muse In Congress: The Punctuation Of American Federal Arts Policy, Elizabeth Deichmann

Dissertations

In 1989, American federal arts policy changed suddenly and drastically when the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) gained unprecedented attention in Congress for controversial grant awards that supported two visual artists. Prior to this, federal arts policy was an insulated subsystem run by experts applying high art aesthetic standards to grantmaking. Informed by punctuated-equilibrium theory (PET), this investigation of congressional rhetoric shows that Republican policy entrepreneurs during this time effectively set a new, more negative tone about federal arts policy by harnessing conservative culture wars messages. The change in tone preceded federal arts policy’s arrival on the broader congressional …


Restricted Powers, Special-Purpose Districts, And Path Dependence: Economic Graveyards In Downstate Illinois, Bethany Behrhorst Oct 2023

Restricted Powers, Special-Purpose Districts, And Path Dependence: Economic Graveyards In Downstate Illinois, Bethany Behrhorst

Dissertations

Property taxation in the United States is a critical issue warranting examination because it involves the directed distribution of government costs and benefits for citizens. The central question exists: Why are Illinois’ property taxes so high? Path dependence was explored as a theory to explain Illinois’ property tax reliance issues, asserting that as local governmental units in the State face budget limitations, they find alternative revenue streams. For example, restricted powers could lead to the development of quasi-governments, which are known as special-purpose districts. In such cases, once general-purpose municipalities charter a course by creating special-purpose districts, it is difficult …


Disaster Movies And The Perception Of Human Behavior Myths In Disasters, John Carr Oct 2023

Disaster Movies And The Perception Of Human Behavior Myths In Disasters, John Carr

Dissertations

This study explored if disaster movies change the perceptions viewers hold regarding human behavior in disasters, and if so, whether these effects are observable six weeks after watching the disaster movie. The study documented the anticipation of disaster myths in human behavior for 121 respondents, providing data that can better inform the discussion of disaster myths and realities. The study found changes to anticipation of disaster myths in human behavior and realities across multiple categories, with statistically significant results related to the factor of Looting Myth. Limitations for this study include a small sample size, and the external influence of …