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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Exploring New Literacies: A Case Study On Technology And Teacher Development In Cuban Primary Schools, Kate Maloney Williams Jul 2021

Exploring New Literacies: A Case Study On Technology And Teacher Development In Cuban Primary Schools, Kate Maloney Williams

Journal of Media Literacy Education Pre-Prints

Cuba has successfully eradicated traditional illiteracy -- boasting rates upwards of 99% of its population. However, as other societies have digitized and moved towards a globalized marketplace, U.S. sanctions have severely limited the import of new technologies into the country and classroom. In response, this case study sought to investigate the learning environments of Cuban primary schools to determine the breadth of a divide and the suitability for applying recommended frameworks to teaching. Observations of primary school classrooms and facilities provided insight, bolstered by semi-structured group interviews and surveys with teachers, teaching students, and education professors. Findings revealed a high-level ...


The Potential Of Ecofeminism To Develop ‘Deep’ Sustainability Competencies For Education For Sustainable Development, Susan V. Iverson Jul 2021

The Potential Of Ecofeminism To Develop ‘Deep’ Sustainability Competencies For Education For Sustainable Development, Susan V. Iverson

The Seneca Falls Dialogues Journal

Education for sustainable development (ESD) has gained much currency in the literature; yet, less attention has been given to understanding or defining learning outcomes, or rather, what competencies for sustainability should students develop and be able to demonstrate. In this position paper, I ask (and answer) the question, “What might be gained by bringing a feminist lens, and specifically an ecofeminist perspective, to ESD?” I argue that infusing ecofeminism into ESD can develop students’ sustainability competence beyond individual level change to thinking and acting systemically; it can develop the critical consciousness, activist skills, and deeper sustainability knowledge needed to foster ...


School Counselors Involvement And Opportunities To Advocate Against Racialized Punitive Practices, Edwin Hernandez, Enrique Espinoza, Jewel Patterson Jul 2021

School Counselors Involvement And Opportunities To Advocate Against Racialized Punitive Practices, Edwin Hernandez, Enrique Espinoza, Jewel Patterson

Teaching and Supervision in Counseling

Given the increase of violence against Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC), there is no doubt a need to tackle racialized violence in schools. This phenomenological study draws on semi-structured interviews with school counselors to explore their experiences and practices to disrupt the racialized disciplinary practices that disproportionally target Black, Indigenous, and Students of Color. We draw on theories of racialized organizations and organizational routines to better understand how school counselors make sense of their practices in racialized disciplinary practices that dehumanize and criminalized youth of color. Findings from this study revealed two themes: 1) school counselors’ perceived neutrality towards ...


Equipping School Counselors For Antiracist Healing Centered Groups: A Critical Examination Of Preparation, Connected Curricula, Professional Practice And Oversight, Kara P. Ieva, Jordon Beasley, Sam Steen Jul 2021

Equipping School Counselors For Antiracist Healing Centered Groups: A Critical Examination Of Preparation, Connected Curricula, Professional Practice And Oversight, Kara P. Ieva, Jordon Beasley, Sam Steen

Teaching and Supervision in Counseling

This paper highlights the potential for school counselors to promote antiracist practices and racial healing engagement utilizing small group counseling to ultimately eliminate inequities in schools. However, counselor educator programs, founded on middle to upper class white ideals, worldviews, and narrowly focused theoretical frameworks, currently function in ways that fail to equip future school counselors with the group facilitation knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary for equitable practice in schools across the nation using case illustrations and a broad current literature review, the authors conceptualize the rationale for more competencies beyond group course assignment, clinical requirements (e.g., CACREP standards, 2016 ...


Antiracist School Counselor Preparation: Expanding On The Five Tenets Of The Transforming School Counseling Initiative, Erin Mason, Adrianne Robertson, Jan Gay, Nkenji Clarke, Cheryl Holcomb-Mccoy Jul 2021

Antiracist School Counselor Preparation: Expanding On The Five Tenets Of The Transforming School Counseling Initiative, Erin Mason, Adrianne Robertson, Jan Gay, Nkenji Clarke, Cheryl Holcomb-Mccoy

Teaching and Supervision in Counseling

As a profession, school counseling must serve as an active force against systemic racism, and school counselor preparation must equip future professionals as antiracist agents of change. This article expands the original Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI) tenets that sought to re-envision school counselor preparation in the late 1990s with language that explicitly supports antiracism. The authors offer a definition of antiracist school counseling and sample assignments and experiences that align with the revised tenets.


“The Lunchroom Is Dirty And The Food Is Nasty”: Ethical Dilemmas In Conducting Qualitative Food Studies Research In Detroit And New York City Public Schools, Sophia Rodriguez, John Lupinacci, Kristen Goessling Jul 2021

“The Lunchroom Is Dirty And The Food Is Nasty”: Ethical Dilemmas In Conducting Qualitative Food Studies Research In Detroit And New York City Public Schools, Sophia Rodriguez, John Lupinacci, Kristen Goessling

The Qualitative Report

In this article, reflecting critically on past school food studies and considering the landscape of qualitative methods, notably youth participatory action research methodologies, the authors share methodological suggestions for centering social justice and sustainability with the lived experience of youth by drawing on their critical qualitative research in Detroit and New York City public schools. We advance an analytic framework that aims to center youth voices and solutions to social problems such as food justice and equity. To this end we call for attention to human rights, youth participatory research, and relational ethics as part of our intention to center ...


A Geospatial And Statistical Analysis Of Dropout In Louisiana Public High Schools, Michael D. Stein Jul 2021

A Geospatial And Statistical Analysis Of Dropout In Louisiana Public High Schools, Michael D. Stein

LSU Master's Theses

Students dropping out of high school is a nationwide problem, plaguing communities and often greatly reducing the prospects of a quality life for those students who do not complete their high school educations. Louisiana consistently has among the highest public high school dropout rates in the United States, and often the highest. This geospatial and statistical study aims to identify the factors that correlate with high school dropout in Louisiana public high schools, specifically, and to produce detailed maps of the dropout rates across the state to identify the schools most afflicted.

Extensive school-level data from five academic years (2014-15 ...


Preparing Students For Civic Engagement In The Era Of `Fake News’, Nathan J. Combes Jul 2021

Preparing Students For Civic Engagement In The Era Of `Fake News’, Nathan J. Combes

Perspectives In Learning

I recommend that instructors allow students to determine the content for Introduction to American Government. I also recommend that instructors assign students to conduct independent research on each unit of American Government rather than assigning a textbook. There are numerous benefits to implementing these practices. Students take ownership of their education and feel empowered to fill gaps in knowledge. Students are more prepared for class. It allows course content to match current events in real time. Students learn how to analyze the credibility of various sources. Class conversations are more dynamic. Students develop a better understanding of opinions that differ ...


Quantitative Literacy And Guns, William Briggs Jul 2021

Quantitative Literacy And Guns, William Briggs

Numeracy

Briggs, William. 2017. How America Got Its Guns: A History of the Gun Violence Crisis; (Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press). 352 pp. Paperback: ISBN 978-0-8263-5813-4. E-book ISBN 978-0-8263-5814-1.

Quantitative literacy and statistics are just two of many disciplines required to understand the problem of gun violence in America. However, it’s also useful to appreciate their limitations in an issue that is so complex.


Be Careful! That Is Probably Bullshit! Review Of Calling Bullshit: The Art Of Skepticism In A Data-Driven World By Carl T. Bergstrom And Jevin D. West, James B. Schreiber Jul 2021

Be Careful! That Is Probably Bullshit! Review Of Calling Bullshit: The Art Of Skepticism In A Data-Driven World By Carl T. Bergstrom And Jevin D. West, James B. Schreiber

Numeracy

Bergstrom, C. T., & West, J. D. 2021. Calling Bullshit: The Art of Skepticism in a Data-Driven World. NY: Random House. 336 pp. ISBN 978-0525509189

The authors provide a journey through the numerical bullshit that surrounds our daily lives. Each chapter has multiple examples of specific types of bullshit that each of us experience on any given day. Most importantly, information on how to identify bullshit and refute it are provided so that reader finishes the book with a set of skills to be a more engaged and critical interpreter of information. The writing has a quick and lively pace that ...


Lessons From The Pandemic, Nathan D. Grawe Jul 2021

Lessons From The Pandemic, Nathan D. Grawe

Numeracy

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of quantitative literacy--for policy makers and the public at large. While all aspects of numeracy have been shown relevant to the past year, our need for broader statistical literacy appear particularly pressing. Pandemic experiences may motivate greater interest in developing numeracy skills.


Optimistic Leadership For The 21st Century And Beyond, Vincent P. Techo Jul 2021

Optimistic Leadership For The 21st Century And Beyond, Vincent P. Techo

The Journal of Values-Based Leadership

This paper proposes a future-driven leadership theory—the optimistic leadership theory—suitable for leading global organizations in the 21st century and beyond. The author argues that a new leadership approach is needed for these organizations due to the complexities that come with globalization, including the high need for knowledge and experience, distance decay, and cultural amalgamation. Five leadership approaches (Visionary Leadership, Differentiated Leadership, Servant Leadership, Flexible Leadership, and Reflective Leadership) are identified as the components of optimistic leadership. Following a review of the rare literature on these five leadership approaches, they are found to constitute the best determinants of ...


Improving K-12 Education For Hispanic Students In Las Vegas And Beyond, Richard Reeves, Ember Smith Jul 2021

Improving K-12 Education For Hispanic Students In Las Vegas And Beyond, Richard Reeves, Ember Smith

Policy Briefs and Reports

Public K-12 education serves as a launching pad for economic mobility and opportunity, preparing students for college or a good-paying job. Despite K-12 education’s influence on later-in-life outcomes, schools often underserve students of color. Hispanic students in particular constitute a significant and growing portion of the U.S. student population yet are often overlooked in education literature because they are not the lowest performing demographic. In this brief, we examine how well public K-12 education serves Hispanic students in Clark County, where nearly half of students are Hispanic. We then consider factors that may influence student performance, including both ...


Stand And Deliver: An Epistemologically-Driven Perspective Of College Lecture, Bonnie Bost Laster, Matthew Davis Jul 2021

Stand And Deliver: An Epistemologically-Driven Perspective Of College Lecture, Bonnie Bost Laster, Matthew Davis

Perspectives In Learning

Current pedagogical trends reveal lecture is steadily losing favor as contemporary techniques (e.g., constructivist, experiential, and flipped) gain popularity in higher education. While these techniques have merit and evidence for their use is compelling, we contend that lecture need not be abandoned entirely. With support from personal epistemological theories, as well as research on student preference, we purport that there is still a place for lecture in the modern academy. We consider students’ personal epistemological maturation during the college years; namely, the ways in which students view and construct their knowledge and beliefs. We posit that active lecture may ...


Analogy Co-Construction As A Learning Strategy In Life-Span Development Classes, Joseph A. Mayo Jul 2021

Analogy Co-Construction As A Learning Strategy In Life-Span Development Classes, Joseph A. Mayo

Perspectives In Learning

Analogies are commonplace heuristic tools in classrooms across all educational levels and content areas. In the present investigation, analogy-enhanced learning was examined in relation to conceptual applications of major developmental theories in undergraduate life-span development classes. To this end, systematic comparisons were undertaken between a learning condition in which individual students created their own analogies and a learning condition involving analogy co-construction as generated by small groups of students working cooperatively. On all quantitative and qualitative measures, results favored group co-construction of analogies over self-generated analogy creation. Findings are discussed in terms of social-constructivist and transformative-learning principles.


How Elementary Principals Use The Six Sources Of Influence To Achieve Extraordinary Results, Monette Perez Jul 2021

How Elementary Principals Use The Six Sources Of Influence To Achieve Extraordinary Results, Monette Perez

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify and explore how elementary principals of organizations who have achieved extraordinary results influence employees through personal motivation, personal ability, social motivation, social ability, structural motivation, and structural ability.

Methodology: This phenomenological study identified and explored 12 Southern California public elementary school principals and how they used the 6 sources of influence with their stakeholders to achieve extraordinary results. An interview protocol aligned with the study’s theoretical framework was developed with a thematic team. The respondents were purposefully chosen from principals who have led their schools to attain National Blue ...


The Comparison Of Scimago Institutions Rankings (Sir), Scopus, And Sinta Profile: A Case Of The Top Indonesian Institutions, Nadi Suprapto, Nining Widyah Kusnanik, Sri Setyo Iriani, Setya Chendra Wibawa, Sujarwanto Sujarwanto, Bambang Yulianto, Suprapto Suprapto, Agus Hariyanto, Nurhasan Nurhasan Jul 2021

The Comparison Of Scimago Institutions Rankings (Sir), Scopus, And Sinta Profile: A Case Of The Top Indonesian Institutions, Nadi Suprapto, Nining Widyah Kusnanik, Sri Setyo Iriani, Setya Chendra Wibawa, Sujarwanto Sujarwanto, Bambang Yulianto, Suprapto Suprapto, Agus Hariyanto, Nurhasan Nurhasan

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This research aimed to explore the profile of the top Indonesian institutions based on the Scimago Institutions Rankings (SIR) 2021 and to clarify whether there was any consistency among the SIR, the Scopus, and the SINTA profile of the top Indonesian institutions. The authors considered a desk study through a bibliometric analysis. All data were extracted from Scimago, Scopus, and SINTA database. The top 25 institutions (including 29 universities with a double in some rank positions) from Indonesia in the SIR 2021 were analyzed their profile at the end of April 2021. Universitas Indonesia (UI) is the best in SIR ...


Jordan’S Response In Mitigating The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Impact Of Public Policy In Addressing A Pandemic, Tamador Alzghol Jul 2021

Jordan’S Response In Mitigating The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Impact Of Public Policy In Addressing A Pandemic, Tamador Alzghol

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The world is currently facing one of the most rapidly spreading pandemics of our time, swift actions by governments in controlling the spread of the virus in their countries is determined by the number of cases recorded. This Global pandemic has moved governments in an uncertain space due to the rapid and almost uncontrollable spread of the virus once it hits a community. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is commended for the quick action taken to control and overcome the spread of the COVID-19 virus within its lands. This article discusses the approach Jordan uses to control the spread of ...


Happiness Level Among Secondary School Students In Holey Makkah In Light Of Some Variables, Dr.Ahmad Abdul Majid Smadi, عبد الرحمن الزهراني Jul 2021

Happiness Level Among Secondary School Students In Holey Makkah In Light Of Some Variables, Dr.Ahmad Abdul Majid Smadi, عبد الرحمن الزهراني

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The study proposed to determine level of happiness among secondary school students in the Holey Makkah, and to examine if there were significant differences in happiness in light of variables as: specialization, achievement level, family monthly income, and family type. A random cluster sample of 600 students answered a life happiness scale after the psychometric of the scale were ensured. A statistical analyses of the data revealed a moderate level (2.17) of happiness among secondary school students in Holey Makkah, There were no statistical significant differences in the level of happiness due to the student specialization, school level, family ...


The Attitudes Of The Educational Qualification Diploma Students Towards Competencies The Qualification Program Develops From The Students' Viewpoint, رندة العالم Jul 2021

The Attitudes Of The Educational Qualification Diploma Students Towards Competencies The Qualification Program Develops From The Students' Viewpoint, رندة العالم

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

This study aimed at identifying the attitudes that the educational qualification diploma students have towards the competencies developed by the educational qualification program. The study sample comprised of all (108) enrolled and graduating students at the Palestine Technical University - Kadoorie, of whom (15) are enrolled in the program and (93) are graduates. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher prepared a questionnaire that consisted in its final form of (22) items distributed into three areas: knowledge and understanding, skills, and educational values. The results of the study showed the following:

  1. The attitudes of the students of the educational ...


Récits Coraniques Sur Les Animaux En Version Enfantine: La Huppe De Salomon, Najwa Al-Junaid, Areej Najem Jul 2021

Récits Coraniques Sur Les Animaux En Version Enfantine: La Huppe De Salomon, Najwa Al-Junaid, Areej Najem

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

Cette recherche présente une étude théorique appliquée à des contes pour enfants à fin de faciliter la compréhension des textes coraniques par des enfants francophones, âgés de 6 à 12 ans.

L’histoire de la Huppe de Salomon a été choisie comme un modèle qui démontre les techniques utilisées et le défi de maintenir l'essence de l'histoire adaptée.

Cette étude a été divisée en quatre parties. La première présente l'importance de la littérature pour enfants, la seconde introduit l'adaptation des textes littéraires des adultes à la littérature enfantine, puis l’adaptation du conte choisi, sans compromettre ...


The Role Of Kindergarten In Teaching And Learning Pre-School Child, نافز أيوب Jul 2021

The Role Of Kindergarten In Teaching And Learning Pre-School Child, نافز أيوب

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The study aimed to identify the role of kindergarten in the education and learning of pre-school child in Palestine from the point of view of kindergarten principals and teachers. The field descriptive approach was adopted. The survey sample was composed of all the principals and teachers of kindergartens in the governorate of Salfit. The number of them was (131) principals and teachers, and the questionnaire was adopted as a tool for study. The Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to process data statistically. The results of the study showed that the degree of the effect of the kindergarten ...


Evaluation Of The Educational Qualification Diploma Program In The Light Of National Academic Standards At Palestine Technical University, رندة العالم Jul 2021

Evaluation Of The Educational Qualification Diploma Program In The Light Of National Academic Standards At Palestine Technical University, رندة العالم

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

This study aimed to evaluate the educational qualification diploma program in the light of the national academic standards at Palestine Technical University from the students' point of view. The study sample consists of all students enrolled and graduated from the program, who numbered (108), of whom (15) were enrolled in the program and (93) graduated from the program. The researcher followed the survey and descriptive approach. To achieve the goals of the study, the researcher prepared a questionnaire that consisted of 24 paragraphs. In light of the results of the study, the researcher recommends the following:

1. Urging the Ministry ...


Attitudes Of Principals And Teachers Of Preschool Towards Of Educational Media And It’S The Role In Developing Moral Behavior Among Children By Some Variables In The State Of Kuwait, عيسى البلهان, أفراح الشمري Jul 2021

Attitudes Of Principals And Teachers Of Preschool Towards Of Educational Media And It’S The Role In Developing Moral Behavior Among Children By Some Variables In The State Of Kuwait, عيسى البلهان, أفراح الشمري

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The main aim of present study explores attitudes of principals and teachers of Preschool towards the role of educational media and its obstacles in developing moral behavior among children and its relation to some variables in the State of Kuwait. The final sample is formed of (122) principals and teachers of Preschool from Kuwait, their ages between (22 - 43yrs) with (M = 36.7yrs, SD = 4.8 yrs). This study includes the following tool: scale of Attitudes of principals and teachers of Preschool towards the role of educational media and its obstacles in developing moral behavior among children. The consistency and ...


Degree Of Implementing Jordanian Universities To The Concept Of Entrepreneurial University According To The Seven Solidifications By (Ec- Oecd) European Commission- Organaization For Economic Co-Operation And Development, إخليف الطراونة, غدير اللهالي Jul 2021

Degree Of Implementing Jordanian Universities To The Concept Of Entrepreneurial University According To The Seven Solidifications By (Ec- Oecd) European Commission- Organaization For Economic Co-Operation And Development, إخليف الطراونة, غدير اللهالي

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The study aimed at identifying the degree of Implementing Jordanian Universities to the Concept of Entrepreneurial University According to the Seven Solidifications by (EC- OECD).The study used the descriptive survey approach. The study population consisted of all Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities (1323). The sample was a stratified random sample that consisted of (312) academic leadership. A 28-item with 3 dimensions questionnaire was developed to collect data for this study. The findings of the study revealed that the degree of implementing Jordanian Universities to the Concept of Entrepreneurial University according to the seven solidifications by (EC- OECD) was moderate ...


Psycholinguistics, Ibrahim Al-Rababah, حسين عدوان, عبدالله إبراهيم Jul 2021

Psycholinguistics, Ibrahim Al-Rababah, حسين عدوان, عبدالله إبراهيم

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

This study deals with the subject of "psycholinguistics"; it discusses a variety of concepts and issues related to it. It begins with defining this termand identifying its development and uses, and then it tries to trace back the innovation of this concept and term in the Arab heritage, and it also explores the extent of its presence in ancient critique studies, before tackling the development stages of psycholinguistics and its application fields. This processdepends on the description of its different historical stages starting from its early stage until reaching the middle of the twentieth century. Based on the analytical descriptive ...


The Reality Of The Application Of Knowledge Management And Its Impact On The Excellence Of Institutional Performance In Saudi Universities: A Case Study At Najran University*, هشام كمال الدين, محمد أبو زيد Jul 2021

The Reality Of The Application Of Knowledge Management And Its Impact On The Excellence Of Institutional Performance In Saudi Universities: A Case Study At Najran University*, هشام كمال الدين, محمد أبو زيد

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

The present study aimed to identify the reality of the application of knowledge management and its impact on the excellence of institutional performance in Saudi universities: A case study at Najran University in Saudi Arabia. The study utilized the descriptive analytical approach through designing questionnaire used to measure the reality of applying knowledge management in Najran University. Data collected from a sample consisted of (168) faculty members. The study showed that the reality of applying knowledge management in Najran University from faculty perspective was medium, and there is a strong correlation between the requirements of knowledge management and its processes ...


Structure And Distribution Of Training Facilities In The Micro And Pre-Competition Mesocycle Of Young Gymnasts - «Artists», Jamila Adizovna Akhmedova Jul 2021

Structure And Distribution Of Training Facilities In The Micro And Pre-Competition Mesocycle Of Young Gymnasts - «Artists», Jamila Adizovna Akhmedova

Eurasian Journal of Sport Science

Purpose: The goal was to determine the structure and distribution of training resources in the micro and pre-competition mesocycle of young gymnasts engaged in rhythmic gymnastics .

Methods: The study uses methods analysis and synthesis of special scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observations of the training process of young gymnasts, pedagogical experiment, mathematical and statistical research methods.

Results: The results of the study showed that the pre-competition mesocycle was a natural continuation of the special preparatory stage and was used for direct preparation for the main competition. Its features were determined by the fact that it is necessary to simulate the ...


Efficiency Of The Use Of Multimedia Tools In The Learning Process For The Physical Education Of Students By Using Means Of Handball, Ирина Разуваева Jul 2021

Efficiency Of The Use Of Multimedia Tools In The Learning Process For The Physical Education Of Students By Using Means Of Handball, Ирина Разуваева

Eurasian Journal of Sport Science

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to improve the effectiveness of the educational process in physical education based on the use of handball with a multimedia program.

Methods: To obtain the results, the methods of analyzing scientific and methodological literature, the method of pedagogical experiment and demonstration were used.

Results: It is important to note an increase in the effectiveness of students’ technical and tactical actions (TTA) fulfillment in the process of playing activity as a result of the use of computer technologies: the number of ball passes increased (10.6%), the effectiveness of ball passes increased (10.2 ...


The Failure Of Europe’S Social Contract And Its Impact On The Rise Of The Right Wing: Germany And Uk Case Study, Wisam Hazimeh, Wendy Prius, Mohammed Al-Khraisha Jul 2021

The Failure Of Europe’S Social Contract And Its Impact On The Rise Of The Right Wing: Germany And Uk Case Study, Wisam Hazimeh, Wendy Prius, Mohammed Al-Khraisha

Jerash for Research and Studies Journal مجلة جرش للبحوث والدراسات

Homegrown terrorism, or domestic terrorism, has been on the rise in correlation with the number of refugee and migrant populations within Europe. Not only has radical Islamist terrorism become prevalent, but alongside this trend, Europeans find that far-right extremism is a mirrored manifestation of extremist Islamist ideology. While Europe fails to properly address the root causes of this crisis, European states propel further into individual identity crises that fester into extremism. Prejudice, divisive policies, and sectarianism leave societies to find legitimacy elsewhere as the harmonic order and social contract within society fails, and people revert to smaller factions as they ...