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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ai And The Future Of Work: What We Know Today, Steven Mark Miller, Tom Davenport Dec 2021

Ai And The Future Of Work: What We Know Today, Steven Mark Miller, Tom Davenport

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

To contribute to a better understanding of the contemporary realities of AI workplace deployments, the authors recently completed 29 case studies of people doing their everyday work with AI-enabled smart machines. Twenty-three of these examples were from North America, mostly in the US. Six were from Southeast Asia, mostly in Singapore. In this essay, we compare our findings on job and workplace impacts to those reported in the MIT Task Force on the Work of the Future report, as we consider that to be the most comprehensive recent study on this topic.


Binational Reflections On Pathways To Groundwater Security In The Mexico–United States Borderlands, Rosario Sanchez, José Agustin Breña-Naranjo, Alfonso Rivera, Randall T. Hanson, Antonio Hernández-Espriú, Rick J. Hogeboom, Anita Milman, Jude A. Benavides, Adrian Pedrozo-Acuña, Julio Cesar Soriano-Monzalvo, Sharon B. Megdal, Gabriel Eckstein, Laura Rodriguez Nov 2021

Binational Reflections On Pathways To Groundwater Security In The Mexico–United States Borderlands, Rosario Sanchez, José Agustin Breña-Naranjo, Alfonso Rivera, Randall T. Hanson, Antonio Hernández-Espriú, Rick J. Hogeboom, Anita Milman, Jude A. Benavides, Adrian Pedrozo-Acuña, Julio Cesar Soriano-Monzalvo, Sharon B. Megdal, Gabriel Eckstein, Laura Rodriguez

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Shared groundwater resources between Mexico and the United States are facing unprecedented stressors. We reflect on how to improve water security for groundwater systems in the border region. Our reflection begins with the state of groundwater knowledge, and the challenges groundwater resources face from a physical, societal and institutional perspective. We conclude that the extent of ongoing cooperation frameworks, joint and remaining research efforts, from which alternative strategies can emerge, still need to be developed. The way forward offers a variety of cooperation models as the future offers rather complex, shared and multidisciplinary water challenges to the Mexico–US borderlands.


Action Plan For The International Year Of Rangelands And Pastoralists (Iyrp): The Case For The United States, Canada, And Mexico, Barry Irving, Larry Howery, Jürgen Hoth, Jess Peterson Oct 2021

Action Plan For The International Year Of Rangelands And Pastoralists (Iyrp): The Case For The United States, Canada, And Mexico, Barry Irving, Larry Howery, Jürgen Hoth, Jess Peterson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The GAP analysis (A Case of Benign Neglect: Knowledge gaps about sustainability in rangelands and pastoralism) points to several gaps that are relevant to the US, Canada and Mexico. North American rangelands span the ecological continuum of polar to hot deserts and arid to humid climates that exhibit highly variable ecological and forage production potential across time and space. Although there is a great deal of rangeland research, extension, and inventory capacity in all three countries, a weak link is the dissemination of information to North American pastoralists (conventionally referred to as ranchers or producers). Although the extension system in ...


Ovarian Cancer Epidemiology, Healthcare Access And Disparities (Orchid): Methodology For A Population-Based Study Of Black, Hispanic And White Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Tomi Akinyemiju, April Deveaux, Lauren Wilson, Anjali Gupta, Ashwini Joshi, Malcolm Bevel, Chioma Omeogu, Onyinye Ohamadike, Bin Huang, Maria Pisu, Margaret Liang, Molly Mcfatrich, Erin Daniell, Laura Jane Fish, Kevin Ward, Maria Schymura, Andrew Berchuck, Arnold L. Potosky Oct 2021

Ovarian Cancer Epidemiology, Healthcare Access And Disparities (Orchid): Methodology For A Population-Based Study Of Black, Hispanic And White Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Tomi Akinyemiju, April Deveaux, Lauren Wilson, Anjali Gupta, Ashwini Joshi, Malcolm Bevel, Chioma Omeogu, Onyinye Ohamadike, Bin Huang, Maria Pisu, Margaret Liang, Molly Mcfatrich, Erin Daniell, Laura Jane Fish, Kevin Ward, Maria Schymura, Andrew Berchuck, Arnold L. Potosky

Biostatistics Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Less than 40% of patients with ovarian cancer (OC) in the USA receive stage-appropriate guideline-adherent surgery and chemotherapy. Black patients with cancer report greater depression, pain and fatigue than white patients. Lack of access to healthcare likely contributes to low treatment rates and racial differences in outcomes. The Ovarian Cancer Epidemiology, Healthcare Access and Disparities study aims to characterise healthcare access (HCA) across five specific dimensions-Availability, Affordability, Accessibility, Accommodation and Acceptability-among black, Hispanic and white patients with OC, evaluate the impact of HCA on quality of treatment, supportive care and survival, and explore biological mechanisms that may contribute to ...


Organic Waste Bans: Beyond The Compost Heap, David Lee Sep 2021

Organic Waste Bans: Beyond The Compost Heap, David Lee

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Food waste and food insecurity are strange bedfellows, but in the United States they shamelessly walk hand-in-hand. The USDA’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (“SNAP”) and the Emergency Food Assistance Program (“TEFAP”) are two federal programs that provide for large numbers of people in the United States. Local food recovery and donation programs serve their communities as the “backbone of the America hunger response" efforts. While many American households continue to report their struggles with food insecurity, heaping piles of good food go to waste. The repercussions of wasted food are vast, taxing American wallets, wasting our resources with every ...


Compounding Hazards And Intersecting Vulnerabilities: Experiences And Responses To Extreme Heat During Covid-19, Olga V. Wilhelmi, Peter D. Howe, Mary H. Hayden, Cassandra R. O'Lenick Aug 2021

Compounding Hazards And Intersecting Vulnerabilities: Experiences And Responses To Extreme Heat During Covid-19, Olga V. Wilhelmi, Peter D. Howe, Mary H. Hayden, Cassandra R. O'Lenick

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

Extreme heat is a major threat to human health worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic, with its complexity and global reach, created unprecedented challenges for public health and highlighted societal vulnerability to hazardous hot weather. In this study, we used data from a three-wave nationally representative survey of 3036 American adults to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected extreme heat vulnerability during the summer of 2020. We used mixed effects models to examine the roles of socio-demographic characteristics and pandemic-related factors in the distribution of negative heat effects and experiences across the United States. The survey findings show that over a quarter ...


A Comparison Of Prospective Space-Time Scan Statistics And Spatiotemporal Event Sequence Based Clustering For Covid-19 Surveillance, Fuyu Xu, Kate Beard Jun 2021

A Comparison Of Prospective Space-Time Scan Statistics And Spatiotemporal Event Sequence Based Clustering For Covid-19 Surveillance, Fuyu Xu, Kate Beard

Teaching, Learning & Research Documents

The outbreak of the COVID-19 disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Cases in the United States began appearing in late January. On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic. By mid-March COVID-19 cases were spreading across the US with several hotspots appearing by April. Health officials point to the importance of surveillance of COVID-19 to better inform decision makers at various levels and efficiently manage distribution of human and technical resources to areas of need. The prospective space-time scan statistic has been used to help identify emerging COVID-19 disease clusters, but results from ...


Integrated Research To Reduce Poisoning From Oxytropis And Astragalus Spp In U.S.A., Michael H. Ralphs, B. L. Stegelmeier, K. E. Panter, Dale R. Gardner, J. A. Pfister, S. E. Lee, L. F. James, K. C. Mcdaniel, Rebecca Creamer, J. R. Valdez, D. R. Child Jun 2021

Integrated Research To Reduce Poisoning From Oxytropis And Astragalus Spp In U.S.A., Michael H. Ralphs, B. L. Stegelmeier, K. E. Panter, Dale R. Gardner, J. A. Pfister, S. E. Lee, L. F. James, K. C. Mcdaniel, Rebecca Creamer, J. R. Valdez, D. R. Child

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Artificial Intelligence In The Healthcare Industry, Erika Bonnist May 2021

The Future Of Artificial Intelligence In The Healthcare Industry, Erika Bonnist

Honors Theses

Technology has played an immense role in the evolution of healthcare delivery for the United States and on an international scale. Today, perhaps no innovation offers more potential than artificial intelligence. Utilizing machine intelligence as opposed to human intelligence for the purposes of planning, offering solutions, and providing insights, AI has the ability to alter traditional dynamics between doctors, patients, and administrators; this reality is now producing both elation at artificial intelligence's medical promise and uncertainty regarding its capacity in current systems. Nevertheless, current trends reveal that interest in AI among healthcare stakeholders is continuously increasing, and with the ...


Mental Health And Psychosocial Functioning In Recently Separated U.S. Women Veterans: Trajectories And Bi-Directional Relationships, Karen A. Lawrence, Dawne Vogt, Adam Dugan, Shawn R. Nigam, Emily Slade, Brian N. Smith Jan 2021

Mental Health And Psychosocial Functioning In Recently Separated U.S. Women Veterans: Trajectories And Bi-Directional Relationships, Karen A. Lawrence, Dawne Vogt, Adam Dugan, Shawn R. Nigam, Emily Slade, Brian N. Smith

Social Work Faculty Publications

Prior research on the relationship between veterans’ mental health and psychosocial functioning has primarily relied on male samples. Here, we investigated prospective longitudinal relationships between mental health and psychosocial functioning in 554 female Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who were surveyed three times between two- and seven-years following separation from service. Mixed effects modeling revealed that increasing depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity predicted declines in work functioning. Increasing PTSD severity predicted declining parental functioning and worsening depression predicted a decline in relationship functioning. In turn, decreased work and intimate relationship functioning predicted increased PTSD and depression symptom severity ...


Analysis Of The Commercial Real Estate Market In A Post Covid-19 World, Brandon Croom, Sean Kennedy, Sandesh Ojha, Justin Sparks Jan 2021

Analysis Of The Commercial Real Estate Market In A Post Covid-19 World, Brandon Croom, Sean Kennedy, Sandesh Ojha, Justin Sparks

SMU Data Science Review

The volatility in the commercial real estate market has been greatly influenced by the new societal practices brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has added additional factors to already complex modeling to value and predict commercial real estate prices. Although multiple methodologies have been applied to commercial real estate valuation, these methods have not yet taken the COVID-19 pandemic factor into account. The main contribution of this article lies in developing an application for commercial real estate valuation which includes the COVID-19 pandemic factor. Thought this article a Hedonic model was developed to compare the impacts of ...


Vintage 2020: Rogue Valley Reference Vineyard Report, Gregory V. Jones Jan 2021

Vintage 2020: Rogue Valley Reference Vineyard Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report describes the impacts of climate and phenology on vintage for the Rogue Valley in Oregon in 2020. A mild and dry winter in 2019-20 was followed by a dry growing season continuing the ongoing drought concerns for Oregon and the majority of the western US. The spring was relatively cool with mild frosts into early May, then followed by wide swings between early season heat then cool, wet conditions leading up to and during flowering. The result was widespread issues with fruit set leading to generally high amounts of shatter, smaller berries and clusters for many in the ...


Vintage Report 2020: North Willamette Valley, Gregory V. Jones Jan 2021

Vintage Report 2020: North Willamette Valley, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report describes the impacts of climate and phenology on vintage for the North Willamette Valley in Oregon in 2020. A mild and dry winter in 2019-20 was followed by a dry growing season continuing the ongoing drought concerns for Oregon and the majority of the western US. The spring was relatively cool with mild frosts in early April, then followed by wide swings between early season heat then cool, wet conditions leading up to and during flowering. The result was widespread issues with fruit set leading to generally high amounts of shatter, smaller berries and clusters for many in ...


Vintage 2020: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report, Gregory V. Jones Jan 2021

Vintage 2020: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report describes the impacts of climate and phenology on vintage for the Umpqua Valley in Oregon in 2020. A mild and dry winter in 2019-20 was followed by a dry growing season continuing the ongoing drought concerns for Oregon and the majority of the western US. The spring was relatively cool in the Umpqua Valley with mild frosts into mid-April, then followed by wide swings between early season heat then cool, wet conditions leading up to and during flowering. The result was widespread issues with fruit set leading to generally high amounts of shatter, smaller berries and clusters for ...


Riverine Carbon Cycling Over The Past Century In The Mid‐Atlantic Region Of The United States, Yuanzi Yao, Hanqin Tian, Shufen Pan, Raymond G. Najjar, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Zihao Bian, Hong-Yi Li, Eileen E. Hofmann Jan 2021

Riverine Carbon Cycling Over The Past Century In The Mid‐Atlantic Region Of The United States, Yuanzi Yao, Hanqin Tian, Shufen Pan, Raymond G. Najjar, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Zihao Bian, Hong-Yi Li, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

The lateral transport and degassing of carbon in riverine ecosystems is difficult to quantify on large spatial and long temporal scales due to the relatively poor representation of carbon processes in many models. Here, we coupled a scale‐adaptive hydrological model with the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model to simulate key riverine carbon processes across the Chesapeake and Delaware Bay Watersheds from 1900 to 2015. Our results suggest that throughout this time period riverine CO2 degassing and lateral dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes to the coastal ocean contribute nearly equally to the total riverine carbon outputs (mean ± standard deviation: 886 ± 177 ...


Snapshot Usa: The First Coordinated National Camera Trap Survey Of The United States, M. Cove, J. Benson Et Al. Jan 2021

Snapshot Usa: The First Coordinated National Camera Trap Survey Of The United States, M. Cove, J. Benson Et Al.

Papers in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


A Review And Comparison Of U.S. State Wildlife Action Plans For Stonefly (Insecta, Plecoptera) Species Of Greatest Conservation Need, Kathryn Greene Jan 2021

A Review And Comparison Of U.S. State Wildlife Action Plans For Stonefly (Insecta, Plecoptera) Species Of Greatest Conservation Need, Kathryn Greene

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs) were created in order to identify Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) and develop plans to prevent their populations from further decline and the possibility of being listed as threatened or endangered. Which SGCNs are included are decided based on characteristics that determine their vulnerability. As of early 2021, approximately 720stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera) species are found in the U.S., but only 143 are listed as SGCN. Only 29 states have stoneflies included on their SGCN lists, but 37 states use EPT (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera) metrics when assessing water quality issues in running water habitats ...


Simulated Atmospheric Response To Four Projected Land-Use Land-Cover Change Scenarios For 2050 In The North-Central United States, P. Flanagan, R. Mahmood, T. Sohl, M. Svoboda, B. Wardlow, M. J. Hayes, E. Rappin Jan 2021

Simulated Atmospheric Response To Four Projected Land-Use Land-Cover Change Scenarios For 2050 In The North-Central United States, P. Flanagan, R. Mahmood, T. Sohl, M. Svoboda, B. Wardlow, M. J. Hayes, E. Rappin

Papers in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


A Transdisciplinary Analysis Of Just Transition Pathways To 100% Renewable Electricity, Adewale Aremu Adesanya Jan 2021

A Transdisciplinary Analysis Of Just Transition Pathways To 100% Renewable Electricity, Adewale Aremu Adesanya

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The transition to using clean, affordable, and reliable electrical energy is critical for enhancing human opportunities and capabilities. In the United States, many states and localities are engaging in this transition despite the lack of ambitious federal policy support. This research builds on the theoretical framework of the multilevel perspective (MLP) of sociotechnical transitions as well as the concept of energy justice to investigate potential pathways to 100 percent renewable energy (RE) for electricity provision in the U.S. This research seeks to answer the question: what are the technical, policy, and perceptual pathways, barriers, and opportunities for just transition ...


Procedures For Estimation Of The Livestock Ecological Footprint In Us Drylands, Robert A. Washington‐Allen, John E. Mitchell Sep 2020

Procedures For Estimation Of The Livestock Ecological Footprint In Us Drylands, Robert A. Washington‐Allen, John E. Mitchell

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Vampire Bats: Preparing For Range Expansion Into The U.S., Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman Aug 2020

Vampire Bats: Preparing For Range Expansion Into The U.S., Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The common vampire bat apparently is expanding its range northwards in Mexico and seems poised to enter the southern United States. Climate models predict suitable habitat in the U.S. in south Texas and parts of southern Arizona. While vampire bats’ northward range expansion is not unexpected, the fact that this species brings a strain of rabies that impacts livestock and people warrants a strategic response. Annual economic damages from bats are estimated between $7M and $9M, largely associated with deaths of livestock from rabies. To prepare for the emerging rabies issue, USDA Wildlife Services programs in Texas and Arizona ...


The Opioid Crisis And Life Expectancy In The U.S., Gabriel Lozano May 2020

The Opioid Crisis And Life Expectancy In The U.S., Gabriel Lozano

Joseph Wharton Scholars

Since the 1990s, when opioids started to be grossly over-prescribed, almost 450,000 people have died as a direct result of opioid abuse in the United States. This study analyzes the role the opioid crisis has in the decreasing life expectancy in the United States, a troubling trend given the enormous and growing national healthcare expenditure. Employing a multiple decrement model and national life expectancy tables, this paper removes the opioid-related mortality and develops a new life expectancy model. The actuarial analysis of the observed and estimated life expectancies reveals the impact of opioid-related deaths: overall, U.S persons are ...


Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang Apr 2020

Mathematic Modeling Of Covid-19 In The United States, Yuanji Tang, Shixia Wang

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Since the early reports of COVID-19 cases in China in late January 2020 (1-2), the worst pandemic in 100 years has spread to the entire globe with approximately 2.4 million diagnosed cases and over 165,000 deaths up to April 20, 2020.

While scientists from various public and private groups use math and computer to simulate the course of this pandemic to try to predict how this outbreak might evolve (3), most of such analyses are either quite complicated or not publicly available.

Here a simple mathematic modeling approach is taken to track the outbreaks of COVID-19 in the ...


Analysis Of The Homeless Population Of Three Major Cities, Katherine Ferrara Apr 2020

Analysis Of The Homeless Population Of Three Major Cities, Katherine Ferrara

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

No abstract provided.


A Comprehensive Cybersecurity Policy For The United States Government According To Cyberattacks And Exploits In The 21st Century, Diana Hallisey Apr 2020

A Comprehensive Cybersecurity Policy For The United States Government According To Cyberattacks And Exploits In The 21st Century, Diana Hallisey

Honors Program Contracts

Adversaries launch cyberattacks or cyber-exploits with contrasting intentions and desired outcomes. A cyberattack is a malicious attempt by a state, third party, or individual to disrupt a computer’s network; whereas, a cyber-exploit is an action that uncovers and steals “confidential” information from a computer’s data. 1 Within this research paper, the main adversary of such cyberattacks and/or exploits will be the nation-state. The victims of these cyberattacks will range from multinational corporations, such as Sony, to nuclear programs in Iran. This essay will focus on four motivations behind such cyberattacks: (1) private sector hacking (the theft of ...


Problematic Plant Monitoring In Homestead National Monument Of America, 2006–2017, Craig C. Young Mar 2020

Problematic Plant Monitoring In Homestead National Monument Of America, 2006–2017, Craig C. Young

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Abstract

Managers are challenged with the impact of problematic plants, including exotic, invasive, and pest plant species. Information on the abundance, distribution, and location of these plants is essential for developing risk-based approaches to managing these species. Based on surveys conducted in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2017, Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network staff and contractors identified a cumulative total of 20 potentially problematic plant species in Homestead National Monument of America (NMA). Of the 13 species found in 2017, we characterized 4 as very low frequency, 4 as low frequency, 2 as medium frequency, and 3 as high frequency. Only ...


Homestead National Monument Of America, Acoustic Monitoring, 2011-2012 Feb 2020

Homestead National Monument Of America, Acoustic Monitoring, 2011-2012

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

This report presents acoustical data gathered by Student Conservation Association interns and the Natural Resource Specialist at Homestead National Monument of America in 2011 and 2012. Data were collected at four sites to provide park managers with information on the acoustical environment, sources of noise, and the existing ambient sound levels within the monument. The data will also inform the park managers with information regarding the potential impact of traffic on Highway 4.

Monitoring occurred at each site during two different seasons (except HOME002) in order to document seasonal variations. In each deployment, sound pressure level (SPL) was ...


Homestead National Monument Of America, Acoustic Monitoring Report, 2017, Emma Brown Feb 2020

Homestead National Monument Of America, Acoustic Monitoring Report, 2017, Emma Brown

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

This report presents acoustical data gathered by Student Conservation Association interns and the Natural Resource Specialist at Homestead National Monument of America in 2017. Data were collected at one site to provide park managers with information about the acoustical environment, sources of noise, and the existing ambient sound levels within the monument. This deployment also captured acoustic conditions during the total solar eclipse on 8/21/2017. (Results of the eclipse monitoring effort are provided in Appendix B.)

In this deployment, sound pressure level (SPL) was measured continuously every second by a calibrated sound level meter. Other equipment ...


Bird Community Monitoring At Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Kansas, Status Report 2001–2018, David G. Peitz, Kathleen A. Kull Feb 2020

Bird Community Monitoring At Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Kansas, Status Report 2001–2018, David G. Peitz, Kathleen A. Kull

U.S. National Park Service Publications and Papers

Executive Summary

In 2001, the Heartland I&M Network initiated breeding bird surveys on Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve, Kansas, to assess the ecological integrity of the preserve’s habitat. Birds are an important component of ecosystems and can serve as good indicators of habitat change in an ecosystem. In the 17 years of bird surveys at the preserve (2001 to 2018, excluding 2003), there were 2,089 plot visits and 119 different bird species recorded, 96 of which have the potential to breed within the preserve. These 96 species represent approximately 81% of the total species one would reasonably expect ...


Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: January 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones Jan 2020

Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: January 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report provides a summary of the weather and climate forecast for January 2020. It includes forecast information specific to the Pacific Northwest and the western United States, as well as forecast information for other portions of the United States and abroad.