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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Geologic Mapping Of The Sparta 7.5-Minute Quadrangle In Northern Mississippi Via Remote Sensing, Traditional Geologic Survey, And Applied Geospatial Information Systems Methods, Rayford Dean Parnell Dec 2022

Geologic Mapping Of The Sparta 7.5-Minute Quadrangle In Northern Mississippi Via Remote Sensing, Traditional Geologic Survey, And Applied Geospatial Information Systems Methods, Rayford Dean Parnell

Theses and Dissertations

Traditional geologic mapping involves substantial time and labor in the field as geologic contacts are manually examined and interpreted. The processes of mapping geologic contacts can be condensed into a quicker and less laborious process using advances in remote sensing and GIS (geospatial information systems), including increased resolution and computerized data management and interpretation. Application of these advances reduces the costs and time of geologic mapping. The Sparta 7.5-minute quadrangle provides a mostly unaltered view of regional Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous geology due to its rural locale, lack of development, and stream topography. Recently LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) survey …


Surficial Geologic Mapping Of The Starkville 7.5-Minute United States Geological Survey Quadrangle 33088d-7 In Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, Jonathan Leard Dec 2022

Surficial Geologic Mapping Of The Starkville 7.5-Minute United States Geological Survey Quadrangle 33088d-7 In Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, Jonathan Leard

Theses and Dissertations

The Starkville Quadrangle is a hotspot for geological research. The Late Cretaceous is represented by the Demopolis Formation in the northeast corner of the quadrangle, followed by the Ripley Formation, and the Prairie Bluff Formation. The K-Pg boundary is exposed in the quadrangle, and the remarkable paleontology is of global importance. The Clayton Formation is the first Paleocene unit. Where the Clayton Formation channel sands are in contact with the underlying Prairie Bluff Formation, springs occur. Springs were a rare source of water in the Black Prairie and spurred the settlement of the area over 10,000 years ago. The Paleocene …


Geology, Soils And Climate Of Western Australia's Wine Regions, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner Dec 2022

Geology, Soils And Climate Of Western Australia's Wine Regions, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner

Bulletins 4000 -

This bulletin details what is special and unique about the geology, soil and climate of the south-west of Western Australia (WA), an area that encompasses the state’s 9 wine regions.

We have arranged the information into 2 parts:

  • In Part 1, we broadly describe the special geological, soil and climate features of the south-west of WA to provide context for the wine regions.
  • In Part 2, we describe the geology, soil and climate of the regions and subregions of the Geographical Indications (GI) scheme (administered by Wine Australia) for WA.

Through this work we have found that the wine regions …


A Field Guide To Jezero Crater, Mars, Lee Adair Oct 2022

A Field Guide To Jezero Crater, Mars, Lee Adair

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

This project aims to blend art, creative writing, and scientific inquiry to explore the possibilities of geology research on our neighboring planet, Mars. This exploratory field guide combines journals, notes, and images to inform the reader of what they can expect to see on the Martian surface.


Structural Interpretation Of An Alkaline-Carbonatite Complex Using Gravity And Magnetic Methods At Magnet Cove, Arkansas, Chelsea Morgan Amaral Aug 2022

Structural Interpretation Of An Alkaline-Carbonatite Complex Using Gravity And Magnetic Methods At Magnet Cove, Arkansas, Chelsea Morgan Amaral

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Magnet Cove alkaline-carbonatite complex in the Ouachita Mountains of south-central Arkansas could be a valuable resource for rare earth elements, though it has not yet been thoroughly studied using geophysical methods, and existing geophysical models simplify its diverse nature. Prior to this study, the subsurface structure and extent of the Magnet Cove complex was poorly understood and, in general, the process of emplacement of alkaline carbonatite complexes worldwide is also not fully understood. The Magnet Cove complex hosts an extensive variety of rare rock types and mineral resources that contrast significantly to the sedimentary rocks into which they have …


Emplacement Of The Dadeville Complex Of The Southernmost Inner Piedmont Within The 7.5 Min. Cusseta Quadrangle, Chambers County, Alabama: Channel Flow, Klippe Kinematics, Or Orogen Parallel Translation, Timothy Black Jun 2022

Emplacement Of The Dadeville Complex Of The Southernmost Inner Piedmont Within The 7.5 Min. Cusseta Quadrangle, Chambers County, Alabama: Channel Flow, Klippe Kinematics, Or Orogen Parallel Translation, Timothy Black

Master's Theses

The Appalachian Mountains have a complex geologic history spanning three orogenic periods, the Taconic, the Acadian/Neoacadian, and Alleghanian orogenies. The Inner Piedmont of the Appalachian Mountains within Alabama contains two distinct lithologic complexes, the Dadeville Complex, and the Opelika Complex separated by the Stonewall Line. These complexes were formed during an arc-back arc fringing system during the Taconic orogeny and emplaced and recorded peak metamorphism during the Acadian orogeny.

The Dadeville Complex is an allochthonous arc terrain built on extended Laurentian crust. The mode of transportation and accretion after formation is not well understood, which has implications for the role …


Echoed Sites And The Unknowable Object, Joseph Canizales May 2022

Echoed Sites And The Unknowable Object, Joseph Canizales

MFA in Visual Art

This thesis will discuss the expanded field of sculpture, simulacra, digital technology, and two terms I’ve devised: the unknowable object, and echoed sites. Within these two terms, I’m concerned with the complicated relationship between humans and geology and how we extract material from the ground without reflecting on the geologic history of the site. In echoed sites I create sculptures with and without a geologic site or object, by way of digital technology. These forms display two states paradoxically in balance, where what’s presented leaves more questions than answers. Thus, as part of echoed sites, exists the unknowable object. …


Structural Geology And Cenozoic Deformation: Western Northern Range, Trinidad, Abigail Faye Clark May 2022

Structural Geology And Cenozoic Deformation: Western Northern Range, Trinidad, Abigail Faye Clark

Geology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The Northern Range, Trinidad underwent deformation due to oblique collision of Caribbean plate with northern South America, which was then followed by transform plate motion. Deformation began in the late Miocene when sedimentary protoliths were ductility deformed and metamorphosed to greenschist facies; this event and subsequent transform deformation drove exhumation of these rocks to the surface and created their high topography. This project provides constraints of the structural history of the western Northern Range where bedrock mapping and structural analyses are most complete. Initial geologic mapping of Northern Range, which continued from the 1950s,1960s, and 1990s, focused on attempting to …


Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis May 2022

Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis

2022 Symposium

Geology and geologic processes have featured in many pieces of classical music such as Alan Hovhaness’ symphonic works after Mt. St. Helens and Glacier Peak but these pieces are impressionistic and only take general inspiration from the geology of their subjects. This paper describes the creation of Tectonics (2021) a piece which incorporates and describes many geologic principles and processes, such as mantle convection, through the musical form of cannon, the formation of fold and thrust belts whose cross sections are directly visually recreated in the score, and the physical dynamics of earthquake waves demonstrated through variations of pitch and …


Mastcam Multispectral Database From The Curiosity Rover’S Traverse In Gale Crater, Mars (Sols 0-2302), Melissa S. Rice May 2022

Mastcam Multispectral Database From The Curiosity Rover’S Traverse In Gale Crater, Mars (Sols 0-2302), Melissa S. Rice

Geology Faculty Publications

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has explored fluvio-deltaic, lacustrine, and aeolian strata as it climbed over 400 m in elevation over the first 2302 sols of its traverse. Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) instrument is a pair of multispectral imagers covering visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths (445 nm - 1013 nm). Mastcam spectra can broadly distinguish between iron phases and oxidation states, and in combination with chemical data from other instruments, Mastcam spectra can help constrain mineralogy, depositional origin, and diagenesis. This dataset includes representative Mastcam spectra from >600 multispectral observations acquired across Curiosity’s traverse through Vera Rubin ridge …


Understanding Hydrogen Variations In Silicate Glasses As A Result Of Degassing: Fire-Fountaining On The Moon And Earth, Erin M. Recchuiti May 2022

Understanding Hydrogen Variations In Silicate Glasses As A Result Of Degassing: Fire-Fountaining On The Moon And Earth, Erin M. Recchuiti

Masters Theses

Volatiles, particularly hydrogen, play a key role in volcanic eruptions, especially explosive eruptions like fire-fountaining [e.g., Saal et al. 2002; Dixon 1997; Arndt & von Engelhardt 1987; Yoder 1976]. Discerning volatile abundance and behavior during ascent and eruption can aid in understanding the source melt and primary volatile content of planetary interiors. Volcanic glasses are samples closest to the primary melt, as they quench quickly enough to limit fractionation or crystallization. This is paramount for volatile studies, especially pertaining to water as its constituents are oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen is the most volatile element and one of the first to …


Texture And Composition Of An Arid-Climate Weathering Profile And The Link Between Bedrock And Derived Sediment Composition, Kristan Leigh Watkins May 2022

Texture And Composition Of An Arid-Climate Weathering Profile And The Link Between Bedrock And Derived Sediment Composition, Kristan Leigh Watkins

Masters Theses

Multiple compositional aspects of Holocene, terrigenous-clastic sediment differ from its source, the underlying Cretaceous Stepladder granodiorite (Mojave Desert, California). Different processes can cause sediments to change in composition from source, including chemical weathering, hydrodynamic sorting during transport, and diagenesis. Sorting and physical processes have previously suggested. To assess the relative contributions of these processes to understand provenance reconstruction, the textures and compositions of an exposed Holocene saprolite weathering profile, grus, and granodiorite bedrock were studied. Fracture density in the weathering profile decreased from ~10% at the top to ~2% at the bottom of the profile in contact with the bedrock. …


Sediment Buffering And Recycling On An Annual To Centennial Scale Along The Mississippi River, Nikki E. Neubeck Apr 2022

Sediment Buffering And Recycling On An Annual To Centennial Scale Along The Mississippi River, Nikki E. Neubeck

LSU Master's Theses

Although the Mississippi River and its tributaries have been investigated for many years, the alteration of the river through dams, levees, and diversions has affected how sediment is transported from source to sink (>103 y). Previous provenance research using detrital zircon U-Pb dating indicates a slow transport time from source-to-sink, but recent anthropogenic alterations of the river may potentially diminish the transportation time of heavy minerals due to an increase in flow efficiency. The objective of this study is to analyze the degree of buffering and recycling of Mississippi River sediment over a range of short time scales, …


Jillson, Willard Rouse, 1890-1975 (Mss 682), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Apr 2022

Jillson, Willard Rouse, 1890-1975 (Mss 682), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 682. Writings and supporting materials of Willard Rouse Jillson, State Geologist of Kentucky, author and historian. Includes manuscripts, page proofs, photographic negatives, and promotional pamphlets for his books.


Conflicting Narratives In Geology: The Current Debate Surrounding The Beginning Of The Anthropocene Epoch, Carter Mitchell Apr 2022

Conflicting Narratives In Geology: The Current Debate Surrounding The Beginning Of The Anthropocene Epoch, Carter Mitchell

Student Writing

Geologists currently debate the addition a new Epoch of geologic time called the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene is characterized by changes in the lithosphere resulting directly from human activity. This paper analyses the arguments in favor of and against the Anthropocene as well as the conflicting narratives concerning the beginning and scope of the Anthropocene.


Processing Seismic, Gravity And Magnetic Data Over Diebold Knoll On Juan De Fuca Plate, Md Ariful Islam, Irina Filina Apr 2022

Processing Seismic, Gravity And Magnetic Data Over Diebold Knoll On Juan De Fuca Plate, Md Ariful Islam, Irina Filina

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Graduate

The Juan de Fuca plate is subducting beneath the North American plate along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The CSZ is associated with multiple earthquakes, although compared to other subduction zones, it is less active. Many studies suggest that subduction will cause major mega thrust earthquake in near future, while others oppose this view. This project is focused on the Diebold Knoll on the JdF plate Various geophysical methods will be integrated to determine its origin and tectonic history.


Instructor Selection And Use Of Virtual Field Experiences In College Geoscience Course, Kristen Foley Apr 2022

Instructor Selection And Use Of Virtual Field Experiences In College Geoscience Course, Kristen Foley

Masters Theses

Virtual Field Experiences (VFEs) are a growing supplement and gateway to traditional fieldwork in the geosciences. With VFEs becoming more accepted for use in college geoscience courses, how instructors find and choose VFEs for their students is critical to creating greater accessibility and future resources. VFEs that are not easily accessed by instructors may go unused, and the effort put into making them would have been wasted. This phenomenological descriptive study utilized five focus groups of college geoscience instructors in the United States. Each 1-to-1.5-hour focus group session of 3-7 participants took place on video conferencing software, which was recorded …


Can Women Science?: A Climate Survey To Address Gender Inequity In Wwu’S Geology And Physics/Astronomy Departments, Raina Shaw Apr 2022

Can Women Science?: A Climate Survey To Address Gender Inequity In Wwu’S Geology And Physics/Astronomy Departments, Raina Shaw

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

This research study aims to assess and analyze gendered differences in student perceptions of the environment and climate in WWU’s Geology and Physics & Astronomy Departments. Underlying hypotheses involve the perceptions, comfort, and discrimination of women and gender minorities in male-dominated spaces. We also theorize that these gendered differences will increase with seniority and more so within physics than in geology. In addition to testing these hypotheses, we sought to collect relevant student feedback on factors that influence their perceptions of the climate & environment, to identify areas for future study and formal program assessment. From 56 respondents, this study …


Geology Online Lab Activities An Open Educational Resource For Community College Students And Instructors, Rondi Davies Mar 2022

Geology Online Lab Activities An Open Educational Resource For Community College Students And Instructors, Rondi Davies

Open Educational Resources

The online geology lab for community college students was developed by Dr. Rondi Davies, a faculty member at Queensborough Community College, City University New York, during two years of forced online synchronous learning brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. This open educational resource collects many of Dr. Davies’ favorite open-access materials and supplements them with her own work within a single, cohesive laboratory manual intended for two-year, non-major college students from the New York area.

Dr. Davies wanted to develop labs that were fun, engaging, and that excited students about the subject, were relevant to their lives, helped them to …


Toward The Understanding Of The 2018 Arnold, Ne Earthquake Cluster: Relocation Of Hypocenters And Establishment Of New Gravity Base Stations, Kris Guthrie Mar 2022

Toward The Understanding Of The 2018 Arnold, Ne Earthquake Cluster: Relocation Of Hypocenters And Establishment Of New Gravity Base Stations, Kris Guthrie

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

In 2018, 27 unexpected earthquakes occurred in central Nebraska near Arnold. These earthquakes have no readily apparent cause and no evidence of the responsible fault system is seen at the surface. A joint analysis of vintage, regional gravity and magnetic datasets before the first earthquake revealed a lineament that could represent a pre-existing fault system. New high resolution potential fields data are needed to confidently map the subsurface features around the cluster. To design a survey and collect the data, the following tasks need to be addressed: [1] The earthquakes’ hypocenters need to be improved (relocated) to increase the efficiency …


Analysis Of Skills Sought By Employers Of Bachelors-Level Geoscientists, Gregory Shafer, Karen Viskuptic, Anne E. Egger Feb 2022

Analysis Of Skills Sought By Employers Of Bachelors-Level Geoscientists, Gregory Shafer, Karen Viskuptic, Anne E. Egger

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

Bachelors-level geoscientists make up the majority of the geoscience workforce, and positions for entry-level geoscientists are expected to grow rapidly over the next decade, with some jobs anticipating upward of 10% growth (National Center for O*NET Development, 2021). Are geoscience departments adequately preparing undergraduate students to succeed in these positions?


Interaction With Augmented Reality Sandbox Does Not Produce Greater Gains In Topographic Map Skills For Undergraduate Students, Celeste Kenworthy Jan 2022

Interaction With Augmented Reality Sandbox Does Not Produce Greater Gains In Topographic Map Skills For Undergraduate Students, Celeste Kenworthy

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The augmented reality (AR) sandbox allows students to interact with topographic maps in a 3D space. Being able to understand topographic maps is important to geologists and they are taught in many introductory geology courses. Recent research has focused on whether the AR sandbox can improve students’ topographic map skills. Previous studies have found that students who interact with the AR sandbox do not score significantly better on topographic map assessments (TMAs) than their peers. One proposed reason for this is the limited time students have to interact with the AR sandbox. This study sought to address this by creating …


Deciphering Regional Geology Using The New Usgs-Ewu Mineral Separation Lab, Zachary Shimp, Katlin Gamache, Travis Morton, Chad Pritchard Jan 2022

Deciphering Regional Geology Using The New Usgs-Ewu Mineral Separation Lab, Zachary Shimp, Katlin Gamache, Travis Morton, Chad Pritchard

2022 Symposium

U/Pb radiometric dating of zircon is one of the most widely used methods to determine the crystallization ages of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the provenance of sedimentary rocks. Eastern Washington University (EWU) has collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to build a mineral separation lab for isolating zircon (and other) minerals for analysis. This lab was completed in Fall 2022 and is currently being transferred to the new ISC for future use. Graphically illustrated below are the methods used for sampling and pulverizing the rock, as well as grain mount preparation techniques. One of the EWU projects that …


Evaluating The Relationship Between Floodplain Topography And Channel Avulsion: Evidence From The Devonian Catskill Formation, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Molly O'Halloran Jan 2022

Evaluating The Relationship Between Floodplain Topography And Channel Avulsion: Evidence From The Devonian Catskill Formation, North-Central Pennsylvania, Usa, Molly O'Halloran

Honors Theses

Topographic complexity on floodplains can route flow, control sediment dispersal, and influence channel behavior, but studying floodplain-channel interactions in modern rivers is challenging because of human modifications and the short timescales of observable data. This project assesses the link between different types of floodplain microtopography and avulsion style in the Devonian Catskill Formation, north-central Pennsylvania, where thick stacks of fluvial strata provide a lengthy record of channel-floodplain interaction. Using a combination of field observations and computer modeling, this study identifies sedimentary features indicative of floodplain complexity and analyzes their impact on avulsion style at fourteen Catskill Formation outcrops.

Based on …


Dye Tracing And The Effects Of Infrastructure In Hidden River Cave, Horse Cave, Ky, Alexa G. Franks Jan 2022

Dye Tracing And The Effects Of Infrastructure In Hidden River Cave, Horse Cave, Ky, Alexa G. Franks

Master's Theses

Hidden River Cave is a stream cave system found in Horse Cave, KY with continuous water flow of its two branches, Wheet River and East River. The infrastructure of the city of Hose Cave, KY was originally designed to utilize natural sinkholes for drainage of all wastewaters. The city uses many of these, now modified, sinkholes for wastewater disposal and storm water drainage. Historically, Hidden River Cave has been severely impacted by unmonitored dumping of contamination. To better understand and identify specific flow paths from sinkholes and infrastructure into Hidden River Cave, this study documented various sinkholes and other infrastructure, …


Geology Of The Jacksonville 7.5 Minute Quadrangle And U–Pb And (U–Th)/He Reveal Sediment Routing And Uplift In The Southern Appalachian Valley And Ridge Province, Derek L. Spurgeon Jan 2022

Geology Of The Jacksonville 7.5 Minute Quadrangle And U–Pb And (U–Th)/He Reveal Sediment Routing And Uplift In The Southern Appalachian Valley And Ridge Province, Derek L. Spurgeon

MSU Graduate Theses

The southern Appalachian Mountains have experienced multiple deformation events having undergone two full Wilson cycles. The foreland Valley and Ridge province is composed of sedimentary Paleozoic rock that range in age from earliest Cambrian to Middle Pennsylvanian. This sedimentary basin was intensely folded and faulted during the collision of Gondwana during the Middle to Late Carboniferous Period. From previous geologic structural mapping that has taken place, some large-scale structures in the Valley and Ridge Province seem to be out of sequence. To better understand the relationships in these structures, geologic mapping in high detail at the 1:24,000 scale coupled with …


Structural History Of The Bald Mountain Mining District, Nevada, Usa, David Paul Ryan Jan 2022

Structural History Of The Bald Mountain Mining District, Nevada, Usa, David Paul Ryan

WWU Graduate School Collection

The Bald Mountain Mining district, like much of central Nevada, has experienced a complex deformation history. The mining district is considered here as a southern extension of the well-studied Carlin trend of gold deposits to the north. In order to gain a better understanding of how the Bald Mountain Mining District structural style relates to other structural models developed to the north in the Carlin trend, I completed a mapping and structural domain analysis in the district, with a focus on the North Mooney basin area where a high spatial concentration of Carlin-type gold deposits occur. The identification of structural …


Building Interest And Knowledge In Geosciences Through Place- & Field-Based Teacher Professional Learning Programs: A Comparative Multi-Case Study, Emily Gochis Jan 2022

Building Interest And Knowledge In Geosciences Through Place- & Field-Based Teacher Professional Learning Programs: A Comparative Multi-Case Study, Emily Gochis

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The focus of this study was to develop and evaluate a geoscience professional development model that would improve K-12 teachers’ capacity to effectively build geoscience literacy and interests in students from a variety of settings and cultural groups. The research compared the application of a geoscience professional development model realized through multiple case studies of varying settings and scales. The study investigated the capacity of each approach in improving teachers’ geoscience background knowledge, awareness of local geologically and culturally significant examples, and ability to integrate place-based, field investigations into standards-based curricula. By using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the study …


Using Remote Sensing And Machine Learning To Locate Groundwater Discharge To Salmon-Bearing Streams, Mary E. Gerlach, Kai C. Rains, Edgar J. Guerrón-Orejuela, William J. Kleindl, Joni Downs, Shawn M. Landry, Mark C. Rains Jan 2022

Using Remote Sensing And Machine Learning To Locate Groundwater Discharge To Salmon-Bearing Streams, Mary E. Gerlach, Kai C. Rains, Edgar J. Guerrón-Orejuela, William J. Kleindl, Joni Downs, Shawn M. Landry, Mark C. Rains

School of Geosciences Faculty and Staff Publications

We hypothesized topographic features alone could be used to locate groundwater discharge, but only where diagnostic topographic signatures could first be identified through the use of limited field observations and geologic data. We built a geodatabase from geologic and topographic data, with the geologic data only covering ~40% of the study area and topographic data derived from airborne LiDAR covering the entire study area. We identified two types of groundwater discharge: shallow hillslope groundwater discharge, commonly manifested as diffuse seeps, and aquifer-outcrop groundwater discharge, commonly manifested as springs. We developed multistep manual procedures that allowed us to accurately predict the …


Reconstructing Deglacial And Holocene Climatic And Environmental Change In The Snowy Mountains Of Southeast Australia, Aidan Warner Burdick Jan 2022

Reconstructing Deglacial And Holocene Climatic And Environmental Change In The Snowy Mountains Of Southeast Australia, Aidan Warner Burdick

WWU Graduate School Collection

Multi-proxy, long-term records of deglacial and Holocene climatic and environmental change in southeast Australia are rare, leaving the region a gap in local and large-scale synoptic climate reconstructions. The Snowy Mountains include the highest and coldest regions of mainland Australia and were the only part of the mainland that was glaciated during the late Pleistocene. Lakes formed by the glaciers have provided continuous sediment traps since glacial retreat following the Last Glacial Maximum. In this report, I reconstruct the maximum ice extents of glaciers during the last glacial period and estimate their equilibrium line altitudes, revising the work of Barrows …