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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Geomechanical Study Of Rock Properties In The Kafr El-Sheikh Formation At Sapphire Field, West Delta Deep Marine, Egypt, Moustafa Mohamed Ahmed Attia, Ali El-Sayed Farag, Mahmoud Y. Zein El-Din Aug 2024

Geomechanical Study Of Rock Properties In The Kafr El-Sheikh Formation At Sapphire Field, West Delta Deep Marine, Egypt, Moustafa Mohamed Ahmed Attia, Ali El-Sayed Farag, Mahmoud Y. Zein El-Din

Al-Azhar Bulletin of Science

Numerous challenges were encountered during the drilling operations conducted at the Sapphire oilfield. Instances of stuck pipe, wellbore instability, breakouts, and washouts have been documented in many wells within this field, resulting in unproductive time and additional expenditures. To mitigate these challenges, it is important to conduct a one-dimensional geomechanical model to get a viable resolution. This entails the creation of three primary in situ stress profiles and the assessment of mechanical characteristics of the geological formations. The primary focus of this investigation was to ascertain the mechanical characteristics of the rock. Therefore, this work offers great input while building …


Textural Investigation Into Rapid Welding Transitions In The Tuff Of Leslie Gulch Along Succor Creek At The Mahogany Mountain-Three Fingers Rhyolite Field, Southeastern Oregon, Alicia J. Martinez-Garling, Martin J. Streck May 2024

Textural Investigation Into Rapid Welding Transitions In The Tuff Of Leslie Gulch Along Succor Creek At The Mahogany Mountain-Three Fingers Rhyolite Field, Southeastern Oregon, Alicia J. Martinez-Garling, Martin J. Streck

Student Research Symposium

The Mahogany Mountain-Three Fingers Rhyolite Field (MM-TFrf) in southeastern Oregon, associated with mid-Miocene rhyolite activity and Columbia River flood basalts, has been the subject of geological scrutiny. Previous studies proposed separate origins for the tuff of Leslie Gulch (LGT) and Spring Creek, but Benson and Mahood (2006) suggested a single ignimbrite event at 15.8 Ma, prompting a reassessment of MM-TFrf's history. This research focuses on LGT, investigating textural disparities between welded and non-welded tuff formations. Petrographic examinations delve into the transformation stages of pyroclastic tuff deposition, revealing the dynamic influences of volcanological and magmatic processes on welded and non-welded tuff …


Analyzing Intensifying Storm Events Correlation To Landslide Frequency In Portland’S West Hills, Aurora Villa Juan May 2024

Analyzing Intensifying Storm Events Correlation To Landslide Frequency In Portland’S West Hills, Aurora Villa Juan

Student Research Symposium

As the Pacific Northwest climate changes, extreme weather, such as intensifying storms, and a shift in the type of precipitation experienced with warmer winters causing more precipitation to fall as rain instead of snow, may lead to an increased frequency of landslides. There have been several recent landslides in Portland, noticeable to the public, particularly in areas of high elevation such as Council Crest, which stands at 1,073 feet. Additionally, residents of neighboring homes have observed changes in the landscape, including those on private properties. To better safeguard both public and private property, comprehensive research and mitigation efforts are required. …


Estimating Crustal Thickness In Northwest Louisiana Using The Receiver Function Method, Delton Samuel Apr 2024

Estimating Crustal Thickness In Northwest Louisiana Using The Receiver Function Method, Delton Samuel

LSU Master's Theses

I aim to constrain the crustal thickness of the Sabine Block in the Sabine Uplift region of northwest Louisiana, using the frequency domain receiver function deconvolution technique followed by H-κ stacking. The passive margin on the southern edge of the North American continent experienced an active tectonic history, including the spreading events that led to the formation of the Gulf of Mexico. A previous study proposed the Sabine Block is a residual fragment of Proterozoic orogenic origin; however, its full extent and geometry are up for debate. It is now overlain by thick sedimentary sequences ranging from ~4-6 km deposited …


Reflectance Spectroscopy Datasets For The Validation Of Tanager, Kristiana Lapo, Kathleen Hoza, Sammy Theuer, Melissa S. Rice Apr 2024

Reflectance Spectroscopy Datasets For The Validation Of Tanager, Kristiana Lapo, Kathleen Hoza, Sammy Theuer, Melissa S. Rice

Geology Faculty Publications

The Three-Axis N-sample Automated Goniometer for Evaluating Reflectance (TANAGER) is a custom goniometer designed to rapidly acquire spectra of natural rock surfaces across the full scattering hemisphere. TANAGER interfaces with a Malvern Panalytical ASD Fieldspec 4 Hi-Res reflectance spectrometer to collect data from 350-2500 nm at a range of incidence, emission and azimuth angles. To validate the accuracy and repeatability of data collected with TANAGER - and to characterize any instrument noise, artifacts or sample heating effects - we collected spectra from three categories of targets: (1) powdered calcium sulfate (anhydrite), (2) naturally weathered basalt surfaces, and (3) color calibration …


Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal Jr. Mar 2024

Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal Jr.

School of Natural Resources: Faculty Publications

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Joint Map Of Hardin County, Kentucky, Steven L. Martin, Emily Morris Jan 2024

Joint Map Of Hardin County, Kentucky, Steven L. Martin, Emily Morris

Map and Chart--KGS

New field mapping of joints with previously published joint and fault locations. This fracture map can be used as a critical data source for hydrological, karst or geotechnical applications. Joint orientations were measured in 2009, 2022 and 2023, and are combined with joint and fault locations for Hardin County, Kentucky from 1:24,000-scale USGS geologic quadrangle maps that were published from 1962 to 1977. The geologic quadrangle maps for the county were digitized from 2002 to 2007.

The geology of Hardin County consists of Upper Devonian New Albany Shale overlain by Lower to Upper Mississippian-age sequences of limestone, dolomite, sandstone and …


Subsurface Mapping Of Intra-Arbuckle Shale In North-West Kansas Using Well Log Data, Cole M. Denny Jan 2024

Subsurface Mapping Of Intra-Arbuckle Shale In North-West Kansas Using Well Log Data, Cole M. Denny

Master's Theses

The aim of this research was to enhance knowledge of Intra-Arbuckle Shale (IAS) distribution and structure through new maps, cross sections, and well log correlations. Understanding the shale(s) ultimately advances the discernment of complex Arbuckle reservoirs that are critical to the Kansas petroleum industry. IAS has been intercepted by oil wells throughout Kansas, but this study focuses on their presence in portions of Ellis, Rooks, Graham, and Trego counties. To study the distribution and structure of IAS, data from micro-resistivity and gamma ray well logs were collected from more than three hundred Arbuckle oil and gas wells. On each well …


Studi Alimentari Italiani E Geologia: Vino E Vulcani Da Diverse Prospettive, Maria Varriale Gomez Dec 2023

Studi Alimentari Italiani E Geologia: Vino E Vulcani Da Diverse Prospettive, Maria Varriale Gomez

Italian Renaissance Foodways

Nel mio progetto di integrazione avanzata, mi impegnerò in un'esplorazione interdisciplinare del vino. Analizzerò il vino utilizzando gli studi alimentari italiani e la geologia, concentrandomi in particolare sugli effetti che i vulcani hanno avuto sul vino in Italia sin dal Medioevo e dal Rinascimento. Nel corso della storia, il vino è stato una parte cruciale della cultura italiana e i vulcani del paese hanno influenzato la produzione della bevanda in modi diversi come la varietà delle uve coltivate e il suo sapore basato sulla composizione del terreno vulcanico. Le numerose regioni in Italia producono vino diverso in gran parte a …


Environmental Fate Of Sulfur In Sulphur Creek, Valles Caldera, Nm: Implications For Metal Transport And Water Quality, Daniel Lavery Dec 2023

Environmental Fate Of Sulfur In Sulphur Creek, Valles Caldera, Nm: Implications For Metal Transport And Water Quality, Daniel Lavery

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The 1.2 Ma Valles Caldera in north-central New Mexico hosts a young igneous volcanic hydrothermal system after the model proposed in Goff and Janik (2000). The Sulphur Springs area within Valles Caldera is an acid-sulfate area typical of this model, discharging acidic waters (pH 1.5-3) formed by oxidation of magmatic H2S at the surface. We report on samples obtained from springs and streams collected between October 2021 and May 2023 in the Sulphur Creek and Alamo watersheds. Sulphur Creek receives input from Sulphur Springs and exhibits low pH (2-4) and high concentrations of Al (≤110 mg/L), Fe (≤60 …


Comparative Lineament And Geomorphic Analysis Of Chaotic Terrains And Noctis Labyrinthus, Mars, Sarah A. Walton Dec 2023

Comparative Lineament And Geomorphic Analysis Of Chaotic Terrains And Noctis Labyrinthus, Mars, Sarah A. Walton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Noctis Labyrinthus (NL) is an extensional trough network connecting the Tharsis rise and Valles Marineris on Mars. Chaotic terrains are a group of polygonally-fractured surface features commonly associated with subsidence due to rapid fluid loss within the subsurface. Polygonal surface patterns are seen at both sites, where geometric topographic highs are bounded by low troughs. Lineaments, topography, and geomorphology of NL and chaotic terrains were analyzed to determine tectonics and fluid influence in the formation and evolution of both sites. NL shows preferential fracture patterns associated with regional extension. Lineaments within chaotic terrains do not show cumulative preferential trends but …


The Regression Of The Flood In Virginia, James C. Rakestraw, Jim Melnick Dec 2023

The Regression Of The Flood In Virginia, James C. Rakestraw, Jim Melnick

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The geology, tectonics, and hydraulics of the regression of the Flood formed much of the geomorphology of Virginia. Opportunities to view and study geology and geomorphology are available through visiting parks, traveling on public roads, and viewing geographic information system (GIS) resources.

Virginia is part of the North American Plate. A series of “blocks” of basement rocks within the plate underlie the geomorphological provinces of Virginia. These “blocks” form a series of steps between the Atlantic Ocean Basin and the Blue Ridge. The “Fall Line” found in Virginia is a fault between two blocks of basement rock. The basement rocks …


Exploring Non-Orientable Topology: Deriving The Poincaré Conjecture And Possibility Of Experimental Vindication With Liquid Crystal, Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache Nov 2023

Exploring Non-Orientable Topology: Deriving The Poincaré Conjecture And Possibility Of Experimental Vindication With Liquid Crystal, Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

This review investigates the potential of non-orientable topology as a fundamental framework for understanding the Poincaré conjecture and its implications across various scientific disciplines. Integrating insights from Dokuchaev (2020), Rapoport, Christianto, Chandra, Smarandache (under review), and other pioneering works, this article explores the theoretical foundations linking non-orientable spaces to resolving the Poincaré conjecture and its broader implications in theoretical physics, geology, cosmology, and biology.


Restoration And Balancing Of A Cross Section Of The Mt. Crandell Duplex, Waterton National Park, Canada, Danielle Sommerman, M. Scott Wilkerson Oct 2023

Restoration And Balancing Of A Cross Section Of The Mt. Crandell Duplex, Waterton National Park, Canada, Danielle Sommerman, M. Scott Wilkerson

Student Research

Cross-section balancing provides a useful tool for checking the potential viability of structural interpretations through complexly deformed terranes. Balanced cross sections contain structures that are similar to those observed in outcrop or on seismic profiles in the area, that can be restored to a realistic pre-deformational configuration of faults and undeformed strata where areas are preserved between the deformed and restored states, and whose development from the undeformed state can be described in a kinematically reasonable sequence. Quick-look inspection of cross sections greatly facilitates the balancing process by comparing corresponding hanging wall and footwall features (particularly focusing on ramps and …


An Analysis Of Clinopyroxene Reaction Rims As Assimilation Chronometers At Cinder Cone Volcano, Lassen National Volcanic Park, California, Annabelle Carozza Oct 2023

An Analysis Of Clinopyroxene Reaction Rims As Assimilation Chronometers At Cinder Cone Volcano, Lassen National Volcanic Park, California, Annabelle Carozza

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

Cinder Cone is a monogenetic cinder cone volcano located in Lassen National Volcanic Park, California. It erupted in 1666 CE and had three eruptive phases, each producing tephra and lava flows that ranged in style from Hawaiian (low explosivity) to Strombolian (moderate to high explosivity). This eruptive style variability at Cinder Cone was not caused by viscosity or volatile differences, and ascent rate has been proposed as a causal factor in the observed explosivity difference between phases. Ubiquitous quartz crystals are entrained within tephra and lava and were likely sourced from the assimilation of a granitic basement rock underlying the …


Applications Of Observational Seismology: Insights Into Volcanic And Near Surface Processes, Justin T. Wilgus Aug 2023

Applications Of Observational Seismology: Insights Into Volcanic And Near Surface Processes, Justin T. Wilgus

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The field of observational seismology has made tremendous progress in the past two decades. This progress has been multi-faceted in form, but significant contributions emanated from 1) increases in both the quality and the quantity of seismic data 2) advances in computational power 3) advances in algorithmic capability, including machine learning. In this dissertation I report on three distinctly different seismic applications made possible by the aforementioned progress and discuss the insights these applications have provided in understanding volcanic and near surface processes of the Earth.

In the first chapter titled, “Shear Velocity Evidence of Upper Crustal Magma Storage Beneath …


Architecture Of Extraction: Imagining New Modes Of Inhabitation And Reclamation In The Mining Lifecyle, Erica Dewitt Aug 2023

Architecture Of Extraction: Imagining New Modes Of Inhabitation And Reclamation In The Mining Lifecyle, Erica Dewitt

Masters Theses

Mining is the primary method through which modern society obtains the minerals needed to fuel the global economy, provide for modern energy requirements, and support the built environment. Presently, mining accounts for nearly 1% of the global ice-free land surface, with a dramatic increase anticipated in the coming decades. Mining permanently changes and often destroys the pre-existing topography, hydrology, and ecology of the ground, and efforts to reclaim mining landscapes—with the aim of encouraging reforestation and soil replenishment—are often unsuccessful, rendering the land of abandoned mines both unusable and uninhabitable.

This thesis addresses the current state of mining in the …


Metagenomic Investigation Of Microbial Dark Carbon Fixation, Viral Interactions, And Horizonal Gene Transfer Within A Convergent Margin Subsurface Ecosystem, Timothy Joseph Rogers Aug 2023

Metagenomic Investigation Of Microbial Dark Carbon Fixation, Viral Interactions, And Horizonal Gene Transfer Within A Convergent Margin Subsurface Ecosystem, Timothy Joseph Rogers

Doctoral Dissertations

Convergent margins are geological regions where two or more tectonic plates collide, and the denser “subducting slab” is pushed beneath the less dense overriding plate. As the slab descends, it devolatilizes under higher temperatures and pressures, allowing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and redox active volatile rich fluids to cycle between the upper crust and Earth’s mantle. These fluids migrate through cracks and fissures in the upper mantle and crust, fueling chemolithoautotrophy-based microbial ecosystems in the subsurface before they are expelled on the surface in the form of hydrothermal seeps and springs. Chemolithoautotrophic ecosystems, such as those in the Costa Rican …


Lidar Monitoring Of Annual And Storm-Driven Episodic Erosion At Rainsford Island, Alan H. Bartels Aug 2023

Lidar Monitoring Of Annual And Storm-Driven Episodic Erosion At Rainsford Island, Alan H. Bartels

Graduate Masters Theses

Boston Harbor and its thirty-four islands are subject to erosion, driven by rain, winds, and waves. Climate change threatens to increase erosion over time as sea levels rise and the frequency and intensity of storms increase. Understanding the dynamics of coastal erosion is key to guiding the design of coastal shoreline protections, the research of which a goal of Stone Living Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts Boston. To better understand the impact of both annual weather and episodic severe storms, the high-resolution Riegl VZ400i LiDAR was deployed four times over 14 months from July 22, 2021 to October 19, …


Rift-Induced Disruption Of Cratonic Keels Drives Kimberlite Volcanism, Thomas M. Gernon, Stephen M. Jones, Sascha Brune, Thea K. Hincks, Martin Palmer, John C. Schumacher, Rebecca M. Primiceri, Matthew Field, William L. Griffin, Suzanne Y. O'Reilly, Derek Keir, Christopher J. Spencer, Andrew S. Merdith, Anne Glerum Jul 2023

Rift-Induced Disruption Of Cratonic Keels Drives Kimberlite Volcanism, Thomas M. Gernon, Stephen M. Jones, Sascha Brune, Thea K. Hincks, Martin Palmer, John C. Schumacher, Rebecca M. Primiceri, Matthew Field, William L. Griffin, Suzanne Y. O'Reilly, Derek Keir, Christopher J. Spencer, Andrew S. Merdith, Anne Glerum

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Kimberlites are volatile-rich, occasionally diamond-bearing magmas that have erupted explosively at Earth’s surface in the geologic past1,2,3. These enigmatic magmas, originating from depths exceeding 150 km in Earth’s mantle1, occur in stable cratons and in pulses broadly synchronous with supercontinent cyclicity4. Whether their mobilization is driven by mantle plumes5 or by mechanical weakening of cratonic lithosphere4,6 remains unclear. Here we show that most kimberlites spanning the past billion years erupted about 30 million years (Myr) after continental breakup, suggesting an association with rifting processes. Our dynamical …


Spatial Variations In Ancient Meteoric Water: An Investigation Of The Rattlesnake Tuff, Julian Michael Cohen Jul 2023

Spatial Variations In Ancient Meteoric Water: An Investigation Of The Rattlesnake Tuff, Julian Michael Cohen

Dissertations and Theses

Volcanic glass has been used extensively as a paleoclimate proxy. Deuterium (2H) concentrations in glass have been found to be stable over geologic timescales, making δD a reliable proxy for ancient water chemistry. However, continued work revolves around better understanding how different factors affect preserved water in ash. Here, I analyze δD in the Rattlesnake Tuff (RST), a widespread ca. 7 Ma ashflow tuff, and create an isoscape to assess variations in δD across Oregon during that time. Additionally, I examine compositional data from glass shards to explore the relationship between δD and shard composition. The RST exhibits well defined …


Understanding The Connection Between Gypsum Blooms And Human Health At The Salton Sea, Isabel Ichiyama May 2023

Understanding The Connection Between Gypsum Blooms And Human Health At The Salton Sea, Isabel Ichiyama

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Salton Sea is a closed hypersaline lake in Southern California that has been receiving little input over the past few decades, leading to desiccation that is rapidly increasing every year. This large-scale evaporation of the sea has led to increased dissolved solutes, high salinity, and gypsum blooms. Gypsum blooms, the precipitation of gypsum (CaSO42H2O) in the sea, have been a prominent facet of the sea and their distribution is well known. However, much of their chemistry and potential health hazards are still undetermined. Potential health effects from gypsum salt, an atmospheric dust particle present at the sea, have known …


Bulk Hydrogen Isotopes In Ordinary Chondrites, Michael J. Cato May 2023

Bulk Hydrogen Isotopes In Ordinary Chondrites, Michael J. Cato

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

Bulk hydrogen isotopes in nominally anhydrous meteorites are a key component in our understanding of the distribution of hydrogen in our solar system, including the provenance of water on the Earth. Here, we develop a step-heated continuous-flow method to measure the bulk hydrogen isotopes in nominally anhydrous rocks and use this method to significantly increase the dataset of bulk hydrogen isotopes in ordinary chondrites, nearly doubling the number of equilibrated members. We found that as thermal alteration increases from petrologic type 3.0 to 4, there is a correlated decrease in both hydrogen content and isotope ratio, followed by no significant …


Evaluating The Relationship Between Methane Seeps And Seafloor Geomorphology On The Northern Us Atlantic Margin, Gabriel Hernandez May 2023

Evaluating The Relationship Between Methane Seeps And Seafloor Geomorphology On The Northern Us Atlantic Margin, Gabriel Hernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Methane seeps are a transport pathway for carbon from seafloor sediments to the marine environment with important implications for global biogeochemical cycling. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in better understanding the processes that control seep location and predicting the distribution of seeps with existing seafloor datasets. Visual evaluation of methane seeps, in multibeam sonar water column data, suggests a spatial relationship between seeps and specific seafloor morphologic features such as ridge crests. In this thesis, seafloor geomorphology at 1996 seep detection sites on the US Atlantic margin was quantitatively characterized by geomorphologic phonotype, bathymetric position index, slope, rugosity, and aspect …


Quantifying Heterogeneity Along A Hillslope Using Seismic Refraction, Structure From Motion, And X-Ray Fluorescence In The Piedmont, South Carolina, Leah Topping May 2023

Quantifying Heterogeneity Along A Hillslope Using Seismic Refraction, Structure From Motion, And X-Ray Fluorescence In The Piedmont, South Carolina, Leah Topping

All Theses

The critical zone (CZ) is the life sustaining outer layer of the earth that spans from the top of unweathered bedrock to the tops of the trees. This dynamic zone is always evolving because a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes transform bedrock into regolith, creating a spatially heterogeneous CZ architecture. This study aims to investigate the relationships between regolith thickness, seismic velocities, and chemical profiles as a function of slope position and it is hypothesized bedrock composition, fracture density, and foliation are the key factors controlling the physical heterogeneity in the top 1-2 meters of the CZ. To …


Hydrothermal Fluid Transport Pathways Along Fractures And Veins At Brothers Volcano, Southern Kermadec Arc, Robert Atnip May 2023

Hydrothermal Fluid Transport Pathways Along Fractures And Veins At Brothers Volcano, Southern Kermadec Arc, Robert Atnip

Master's Theses

Hydrothermal fluid flow in fractures and veins is a key component in the mineralization of economic metals within calderas. But there are several methods by which fractures can form. Regional extension, episodic caldera collapse, and fluid overpressure all have the potential to create brittle features. Current studies focus on the formation of fractures and veins by these methods, but do not focus on the preferred movement of hydrothermal fluids through brittle features, nor which features are more dominant in active hydrothermal systems. This thesis introduces multiple studies to better understand which method of fracture creation dominates Brothers volcano. Data from …


Lesson Plans In Astronomy, Ecology And Biology, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Lesson Plans In Astronomy, Ecology And Biology, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

This document contains various lesson plan ideas for concepts within the fields of biology, ecology, astronomy, and geology.


Glass: The Material That Defines Us, Madisyn Rex Apr 2023

Glass: The Material That Defines Us, Madisyn Rex

Honors Projects

This Honors Project is an exploration of the intersections between glass science, geology, glass art, and my own personal experience with glass.


New U–Pb Geochronology For The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Critical Reevaluation Of High-Precision Ages And Their Impact On The End-Triassic Extinction Event, Alisson L. Oliveira, Mark D. Schmitz, Corey J. Wall, James L. Crowley, Antomat A. Macêdo Filho, Maria Helena B. M. Hollanda Apr 2023

New U–Pb Geochronology For The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Critical Reevaluation Of High-Precision Ages And Their Impact On The End-Triassic Extinction Event, Alisson L. Oliveira, Mark D. Schmitz, Corey J. Wall, James L. Crowley, Antomat A. Macêdo Filho, Maria Helena B. M. Hollanda

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The end-Triassic extinction (ETE) event represents one of the ‘big five’ episodes of mass extinction. The leading hypothesis for the cause of the ETE is the intrusion of voluminous magmas of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) into carbon-rich sediments of two South American sedimentary basins, around 201.5 Ma. The timing of dikes and sills emplacement, however, must be considered in light of age models from CAMP rocks occurring in North America. In this work, we present new high-precision ages for critical samples in NE Brazil (201.579 ± 0.057 Ma) and Canada (201.464 ± 0.017 Ma), in order to evaluate …


Exploring The Current Training Of Undergraduate Geology Students And Teaching Spatial Skills To Improve Student Outcomes, Ann Marie Klyce Apr 2023

Exploring The Current Training Of Undergraduate Geology Students And Teaching Spatial Skills To Improve Student Outcomes, Ann Marie Klyce

Theses and Dissertations

Spatial skills, which represent the ability to mentally manipulate objects (Schneider & McGrew, 2012; Atit et al., 2020) have been shown to be correlated with entrance, persistence and success in STEM (Shea et al., 2001; Wai et al., 2009). Specifically, these skills have been shown to be necessary to geologists and geoscientists (Hegarty, 2014; Gagnier et al., 2016). While we recognize the importance of these skills, explicit training in them is rarely offered (NRC 2006). Consequently, cognitive scientists and discipline based education researchers have begun concerted efforts to offer training in spatial skills to improve student outcomes (e.g. Uttal et …