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Climate change

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Livelihood Vulnerability Of Smallholder Farmers To Climate Change: A Comparative Analysis Based On Irrigation Access In South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Arifah, Darmawan Salman, Amir Yassi, Eymal Bahsar Demmallino Dec 2022

Livelihood Vulnerability Of Smallholder Farmers To Climate Change: A Comparative Analysis Based On Irrigation Access In South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Arifah, Darmawan Salman, Amir Yassi, Eymal Bahsar Demmallino

Regional Sustainability

Bulukumba Regency is one of the major rice-producing areas in South Sulawesi, Indonesia and has experienced frequent climate disasters over the past decade. Several downstream villages within the Bettu River irrigation area have been affected by the drought, culminating in reduced lowland rice production and increasing the vulnerability of farmers’ livelihoods. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability of the livelihood system among rice farmers in the Bettu River irrigation area by classifying the area into two zones based on the distance from the main irrigation canal, namely the upstream area and downstream area. The livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) framework …


Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota Dec 2022

Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Historical and future drought and surplus periods in the Colorado River basin are evaluated based on eight climate scenarios. Unimpaired streamflow from 17 stations in the Colorado River are evaluated based on U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Projection 5 downscaled data from 1950–2099. Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios are considered for four climate models (HadGEM2-ES, CNRM-CM5, CanESM2, MI-ROC5). Drought (surplus) quantities, magnitudes, severities, and water year flows are compared for the historical and future periods. Results indicate that there is a significant difference between the historical record and future projections. The …


Predictions And Drivers Of Sub-Reach-Scale Annual Streamflow Permanence For The Upper Missouri River Basin: 1989–2018, Kendra E. Kaiser Dec 2022

Predictions And Drivers Of Sub-Reach-Scale Annual Streamflow Permanence For The Upper Missouri River Basin: 1989–2018, Kendra E. Kaiser

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The presence of year-round surface water in streams (i.e., streamflow permanence) is an important factor for identifying aquatic habitat availability, determining the regulatory status of streams, managing land use change, allocating water resources, and designing scientific studies. However, accurate, high resolution, and dynamic prediction of streamflow permanence that accounts for year-to-year variability at a regional extent is a major gap in modeling capability. Herein, we expand and adapt the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) PRObability of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model from its original implementation in the Pacific Northwest (PROSPERPNW) to the upper Missouri River basin (PROSPERUM), a …


Estimation Of Economic Risk From Coastal Natural Hazards In Louisiana, Rubayet Bin Mostafiz Nov 2022

Estimation Of Economic Risk From Coastal Natural Hazards In Louisiana, Rubayet Bin Mostafiz

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Louisiana, U.S.A., is among the most vulnerable areas globally to coastal natural hazards, with risk vulnerability likely increasing. The risks associated with non-tropical-cyclone hazards in Louisiana’s coastal zone have been understudied. This research enhances present and future (i.e., 2050) Louisiana risk assessment using locally-weighted, model-based hazard frequency/intensity and population projections.

Results suggest that property risks associated with extreme cold temperature and tornado are and will remain costlier than those for hail and lightning. Property risks of extreme cold temperature and hail are projected to decrease with the expected warming temperatures, with those of all four of these hazards peaking in …


Changing Climates And Extreme Weather For Minnesota, Patrick A. Tebbe Nov 2022

Changing Climates And Extreme Weather For Minnesota, Patrick A. Tebbe

Mechanical and Civil Engineering Department Publications

Climate change is impacting the design, prediction, and operation of HVAC systems for the built environment, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. This presentation reviews climate predictions for the upper Midwest and how they will affect the HVAC industry. Topics such as changing design conditions, extreme weather impact, and increased electrification will be addressed.


Water: Arizona's Ticking Time Bomb, Bailey Wambold Oct 2022

Water: Arizona's Ticking Time Bomb, Bailey Wambold

Access*: Interdisciplinary Journal of Student Research and Scholarship

For a landlocked state dominated by desert, Arizona has done an exceptional job supporting tremendous development and population growth with limited water resources. However, as climate change and anthropogenic environmental degradation further stress the region’s already-strained water resources, the future of Arizona’s still-growing populace hangs in the balance as current water policies and practices are proving inherently unsustainable. Despite an abundance of literature citing the consequences of a liberal attitude towards water in an arid climate, a myopic focus on promoting Arizona’s economic and political growth has resulted in the state’s modern need to adopt previously-unseen conservation measures in order …


Comparative Behavioral Ecotoxicology Of Inland Silverside Larvae Exposed To Pyrethroids Across A Salinity Gradient, Sara J. Hutton, Samreen Siddiqui, Emily I. Pedersen, Christopher Y. Markgraf, Amelie Segarra, Michelle L. Hladik, Richard E. Connon, Susanne M. Brander Oct 2022

Comparative Behavioral Ecotoxicology Of Inland Silverside Larvae Exposed To Pyrethroids Across A Salinity Gradient, Sara J. Hutton, Samreen Siddiqui, Emily I. Pedersen, Christopher Y. Markgraf, Amelie Segarra, Michelle L. Hladik, Richard E. Connon, Susanne M. Brander

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Pyrethroids, a class of commonly used insecticides, are frequently detected in aquatic environments, including estuaries. The influence that salinity has on organism physiology and the partitioning of hydrophobic chemicals, such as pyrethroids, has driven interest in how toxicity changes in saltwater compared to freshwater. Early life exposures in fish to pyrethroids cause toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations, which can alter behavior. Behavior is a highly sensitive endpoint that influences overall organism fitness and can be used to detect toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of aquatic pollutants. Inland Silversides (Menidia beryllina), a commonly used euryhaline model fish species, were exposed …


Outdoor Thermal Comfort Research In Transient Conditions: A Narrative Literature Review, Yuliya Dzyuban, Graces N.Y. Ching, Sin Kang Yik, Adrian J. Tan, Shreya Banerjee, Peter J. Crank, Winston T. L. Chow Oct 2022

Outdoor Thermal Comfort Research In Transient Conditions: A Narrative Literature Review, Yuliya Dzyuban, Graces N.Y. Ching, Sin Kang Yik, Adrian J. Tan, Shreya Banerjee, Peter J. Crank, Winston T. L. Chow

Research Collection College of Integrative Studies

In recent years, urban planners and designers are paying greater attention to Outdoor Thermal Comfort (OTC) studies due to the imminent threat of the Urban Heat Island and climate change on human health. Historically, indoor thermal comfort research assumed steady-state conditions, centralizing on the concept of thermal neutrality to determine optimal environmental parameters. Such research pivoted to investigating how non-steady-state, transient environmental conditions influence comfort. Recent studies underscore the usefulness of positive alliesthesia in providing a productive framework for OTC evaluation. In this article we first clarify the concepts related to thermal comfort-related terms, scales, and models in the literature. …


Outdoor Thermal Comfort Research In Transient Conditions: A Narrative Literature Review, Yuliya Dzyuban, Graces N.Y. Ching, Sin Kang Yik, Adrian J. Tan, Shreya Banerjee, Peter J. Crank, Winston T. L. Chow Oct 2022

Outdoor Thermal Comfort Research In Transient Conditions: A Narrative Literature Review, Yuliya Dzyuban, Graces N.Y. Ching, Sin Kang Yik, Adrian J. Tan, Shreya Banerjee, Peter J. Crank, Winston T. L. Chow

Research Collection College of Integrative Studies

In recent years, urban planners and designers are paying greater attention to Outdoor Thermal Comfort (OTC) studies due to the imminent threat of the Urban Heat Island and climate change on human health. Historically, indoor thermal comfort research assumed steady-state conditions, centralizing on the concept of thermal neutrality to determine optimal environmental parameters. Such research pivoted to investigating how non-steady-state, transient environmental conditions influence comfort. Recent studies underscore the usefulness of positive alliesthesia in providing a productive framework for OTC evaluation. In this article we first clarify the concepts related to thermal comfort-related terms, scales, and models in the literature. …


A Mathematical Model For The Energy Stored In Green Roofs, Maria Aguareles, Marc Calvo-Schwarzwalder, Francesc Font, Timothy G. Myers Oct 2022

A Mathematical Model For The Energy Stored In Green Roofs, Maria Aguareles, Marc Calvo-Schwarzwalder, Francesc Font, Timothy G. Myers

All Works

A simple mathematical model to estimate the energy stored in a green roof is developed. Analytical solutions are derived corresponding to extensive (shallow) and intensive (deep) substrates. Results are presented for the surface temperature and energy stored in both green roofs and concrete during a typical day. Within the restrictions of the model assumptions the analytical solution demonstrates that both energy and surface temperature vary linearly with fractional leaf coverage, albedo and irradiance, while the effect of evaporation rate and convective heat transfer is non-linear. It is shown that a typical green roof is significantly cooler and stores less energy …


Climate Impacts On North American Quail, Shelby M. Perry, Erin Moser, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna Sep 2022

Climate Impacts On North American Quail, Shelby M. Perry, Erin Moser, Jeffrey G. Whitt, Kelly S. Reyna

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

North America’s quail population trends are often linked to regional climate. Extreme climate events such as severe drought, hard freezes, or excessive winter precipitation can reduce quail populations by as much as 84%. Above-average spring and summer temperatures coincident with drought can reduce the laying season for quail by ≤60 days. Exposure of quail eggs to high temperatures during preincubation can initiate and alter embryonic development. Here, we review the impacts of extreme climate events and a changing climate on the survival, reproduction, and population trends of 6 North American quail species: California quail (Callipepla californica), Gambel’s quail …


Northern Bobwhite And Fire: A Review And Synthesis, David A. Weber, Evan P. Tanner, Theron M. Terhune Ii, J. Morgan Varner, James A. Martin Sep 2022

Northern Bobwhite And Fire: A Review And Synthesis, David A. Weber, Evan P. Tanner, Theron M. Terhune Ii, J. Morgan Varner, James A. Martin

National Quail Symposium Proceedings

Our understanding of the relationship between northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) and fire began with Herbert Stoddard’s work in the early 20th century. Research on the topic has continued, but our application of fire is deeply rooted in Stoddard’s work, even as it has become evident that fire regimes must be adapted to variable environmental conditions that are evolving with a changing landscape and climate. A comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on this topic would help formalize research advancements since Stoddard and identify knowledge gaps for future research. Results from experiments suggest fire creates favorable …


An Interdisciplinary Discussion On Climate Change, Aamira Shah, Jaley F. Adkins, Kelsey Littrell, Priyadarshini Chandrashekhar Sep 2022

An Interdisciplinary Discussion On Climate Change, Aamira Shah, Jaley F. Adkins, Kelsey Littrell, Priyadarshini Chandrashekhar

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru Sep 2022

Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru

Publications and Research

Natural hazards (NHs) associated with climate change have been increasing in frequency and intensity. These acute events impact humans both directly and through their effects on social and environmental determinants of health. Rather than relying on a fully reactive incident response disposition, it is crucial to ramp up preparedness initiatives for worsening case scenarios. In this perspective, we review the landscape of NH effects for human health and explore the potential of health informatics to address associated challenges, specifically from a preparedness angle. We outline important components in a health informatics agenda for hazard preparedness involving hazard-disease associations, social determinants …


The Global Climate Change Knowledge And Practices Of 4-H And Extension Youth Educators, Roberta H. Hunter, Hui-Hui Wang, Bryanna J. Nelson, Devarati Bhattacharya Sep 2022

The Global Climate Change Knowledge And Practices Of 4-H And Extension Youth Educators, Roberta H. Hunter, Hui-Hui Wang, Bryanna J. Nelson, Devarati Bhattacharya

Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education

4-H and Extension educators who work with youth are uniquely positioned to help them meaningfully learn about global climate change (GCC) in a way that connects to their everyday lives and interests. Yet we don’t have a baseline understanding of these educators’ knowledge of GCC or how they teach about it. This paper presents brief findings of a study intended to fill that gap in knowledge. Educators from six states responded to an online survey in 2020. GCC knowledge varied by topic and by educator instructional focus, with STEM and Civic Engagement educators scoring highest. Questions about greenhouse gasses and …


Reimagining Community Engagement To Increase Resilience To Climate Change In El Punto Neighborhood, Salem, Massachusetts, Elizabeth Sweet, Fabián Torres-Ardila, Daniela Bravo, Leandra Jara Sep 2022

Reimagining Community Engagement To Increase Resilience To Climate Change In El Punto Neighborhood, Salem, Massachusetts, Elizabeth Sweet, Fabián Torres-Ardila, Daniela Bravo, Leandra Jara

Gastón Institute Publications

In November 2021, the Mauricio Gastón Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston partnered with the Woods Hole Group (WHG) to develop a community outreach strategy for the Climate Change Deep Dive Model, Alternative Analysis, and Targeted Outreach & Engagement project in the Point/Palmer Cove neighborhood (El Punto), in the city of Salem, MA. El Punto, including its residents, workers, infrastructure, and development areas, is particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts (such as sea level rise, storm surge, precipitation, and heat waves). Researchers from the Gaston institute engaged El Punto residents to:

  • Increase the community’s knowledge of current and future …


Science Education To The Rescue? Assessing The Relationship Between Scientific Literacy And Carbon Emissions, Anthony Schmidt Aug 2022

Science Education To The Rescue? Assessing The Relationship Between Scientific Literacy And Carbon Emissions, Anthony Schmidt

Doctoral Dissertations

Human activities have radically changed the climate, negatively impacting all life on earth. The technical means to address this climate crisis exist, but there are major social and political hurdles that stand in the way. Education has been touted as one possible means for helping to move forward necessary action on climate change. A hybrid model of planned behavior and human capital helps explain how education can affect climate change. The current dissertation sought to assess what relationship may exist between changes in per capita carbon emissions and science education as measured by the Programme for International Student Achievement (PISA). …


Chihuahuan Desert Rock Pool Community Assemblages: Patterns Of Taxonomic Diversity, Joseph Lee Mcdaniel Aug 2022

Chihuahuan Desert Rock Pool Community Assemblages: Patterns Of Taxonomic Diversity, Joseph Lee Mcdaniel

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

As climate change continues to become more prevalent, increasing temperatures and altering precipitation patterns will disrupt the environmental balance of ecosystems and spark the imminent threat of a 6th mass extinction event. Many researchers believe this has already begun, as losses for numerous taxonomic clades have been well documented; however, the loss of invertebrates is still unknown and may be much more severe than those of other animal clades. A significant factor contributing to the shortfall of invertebrate biodiversity loss is rooted in the lack of understanding of the diversity and distribution of these animals. There is still much to …


Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin Aug 2022

Chromosome Number Evolution, Phylogeography, And The Effects Of Climate Change On Species Distributions In Polyploid Plant Systems, Courtney H. Babin

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Polyploidy, a term used to describe organisms with cells having more than two paired sets of chromosomes, is a significant driver of diversification among land plants. Over a century of research has advanced our understanding of polyploidization in some taxa, but polyploid organisms remain understudied. In this dissertation, I investigate chromosome number evolution, phylogeographic structure, genetic differentiation, and the effects of climate change on ploidy level distribution using polyploid plant systems. In the first chapter, I inferred a molecular phylogeny of Allium, an economically important genus that includes cultivated crops and ornamentals, to investigate evolutionary transitions in chromosome number …


Assessment Of Historical Climate Variability In Maine With Implications For Future Agricultural Productivity And Adaptation, Carly Frank Aug 2022

Assessment Of Historical Climate Variability In Maine With Implications For Future Agricultural Productivity And Adaptation, Carly Frank

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is a wicked problem with global impacts, one of which being the sustainability of the existing global food system. As temperatures and variability in precipitation are projected to increase, the challenges to agriculture are expected to intensify. This thesis examines the Maine historical climate record over the growing season, in combination with future projections, to assess how conditions have changed and will change with agricultural implications. In this analysis, relevant climatic variables are analyzed, and agriculture-significant measures are derived for Maine’s three climate divisions using four decades of daily and monthly gridded datasets. In addition, this thesis explores …


The Mangrove Walks: An Econometric Analysis Of Climate Migration Drivers From Coastal Bangladesh And Their Geopolitical Impacts, Kendall Scott Byers Aug 2022

The Mangrove Walks: An Econometric Analysis Of Climate Migration Drivers From Coastal Bangladesh And Their Geopolitical Impacts, Kendall Scott Byers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Coastal Bangladesh is subject to extreme climate change forces upon poor, rural populations. The aim of this thesis is to determine the strength of environmental drivers of migration and discern whether planned or catastrophic migration predominates in the polder areas of Bangladesh. I use regression analysis on a 1,025 household, 2016 IRRI/IWMI analysis of Polder 28/1, 28/2, and 30 within Satkhira district to determine factor correlations with migration. Progressive salinization is the strongest environmental driver, while flooding decreases migration through trapping household capital investment. Religion has the greatest correlation with migration. Hindus migrate less frequently, but do so with more …


Wildfire Risk In Mountain West States, 2017-2021, Olivia K. Cheche, Corryn Richardson, Zachary Billot, Miguel Soriano Ralston, Vanessa Booth, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Jul 2022

Wildfire Risk In Mountain West States, 2017-2021, Olivia K. Cheche, Corryn Richardson, Zachary Billot, Miguel Soriano Ralston, Vanessa Booth, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet examines data on wildfire destruction in the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The original report from the Insurance Information Institute presents findings on percent of properties at risk of wildfire destruction, the number of wildfires by state, and numbers of acres burned per state.


Dossier: The Hunger Plan: The Holocaust, Resource Scarcity, And Preventing Genocide In A Changing Climate, Emily Sample Jul 2022

Dossier: The Hunger Plan: The Holocaust, Resource Scarcity, And Preventing Genocide In A Changing Climate, Emily Sample

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Nazi leadership sought to exploit the biological fear of starvation and scapegoat the Jewish population and other “useless eaters” for taking more than their fair share. The Nazis utilized and hyperbolized well-known prejudices against Jewish people, and entrenched narratives of Jewish parasitism as a threat to current and future German lives. In this analysis, food scarcity was one of several reasons for the Holocaust, and the first step to seeking Lebensraum for pure Germans to live to the highest international standard. This article will focus on different aspects of the complex antisemitic rhetoric surrounding issues of resource scarcity, including Hitler’s …


Biological Hydrogen Gas Production From Food Waste As A Sustainable Fuel For Future Transportation, Pitiporn Asvapathanagul, Leanne Deocampo, Nicholas Banuelos Jul 2022

Biological Hydrogen Gas Production From Food Waste As A Sustainable Fuel For Future Transportation, Pitiporn Asvapathanagul, Leanne Deocampo, Nicholas Banuelos

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

In the global search for the right alternative energy sources for a more sustainable future, hydrogen production has stood out as a strong contender. Hydrogen gas (H2) is well-known as one of the cleanest and most sustainable energy sources, one that mainly yields only water vapor as a byproduct. Additionally, H2 generates triple the amount of energy compared to hydrocarbon fuels. H2 can be synthesized from several technologies, but currently only 1% of H2 production is generated from biomass. Biological H2 production generated from anaerobic digestion is a fraction of the 1%. This study aims to enhance biological H2 production …


Equitable, Affordable And Climate-Cognizant Housing Construction, Shelby D. Green Jun 2022

Equitable, Affordable And Climate-Cognizant Housing Construction, Shelby D. Green

Arkansas Law Review

In this Article, I recount some of the history of unwise and improvident land use policy and practices that have led to gross inequities and to the climate-exposed state, not only in terms of where people were assigned spaces to live, but how. I go on to suggest that communities should be designed with intent, with regard for the threats of climate change as well as accessibility to those historically excluded.


Designing Narrative-Based Interfaces For Collective Action: A Case Study Using Amazon, Climate Change, And Consumer Behavior, Catherine Parnell Jun 2022

Designing Narrative-Based Interfaces For Collective Action: A Case Study Using Amazon, Climate Change, And Consumer Behavior, Catherine Parnell

Dartmouth College Undergraduate Theses

Climate change is the most pressing issue facing future generations. Amongst expanses of the population there is a lack of collective action on environmental issues, as there is a large gap between awareness and behavior change. This study suggests persuasive design that utilizes a narrative framing as a solution to reduce barriers to engaging in issues of collective action. Through extensive need-finding studies to understand target users, this thesis uses online-shopping via Amazon as a context for arguing that narrative can support actionable change in behavior. The technical artifact resulting from this research is a developed chrome extension and web …


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan May 2022

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors, …


Exploring The Impact Of End-User Engagement On The Diffusion And Adoption Of A Climate Resilience Tool In The Gulf Of Mexico, Renee C. Collini May 2022

Exploring The Impact Of End-User Engagement On The Diffusion And Adoption Of A Climate Resilience Tool In The Gulf Of Mexico, Renee C. Collini

Theses and Dissertations

Climate change-related hazards negatively impact ecosystems, economies, and quality of life. Significant resources have been invested in data collection and research with the goal of enhanced understanding and capacity to predict future conditions in order to mitigate or adapt to intensifying hazard risk. The expansive production of climate science has generated a necessary complimentary enterprise dedicated to enhancing decision-makers’ understanding of and access to climate science as it is essential for future societal and ecological well-being. Though the aim of these many tools is to support resilient decision-making in the face of climate change, professionals report an underutilization of climate …


Into The Depths: Climate Change Part 4, Felicia Bedford May 2022

Into The Depths: Climate Change Part 4, Felicia Bedford

D.U.Quark

No abstract provided.


Vermont Global Warming Solutions Act: The Costs Of Inaction From Land Conversions, Grayson L. Younts May 2022

Vermont Global Warming Solutions Act: The Costs Of Inaction From Land Conversions, Grayson L. Younts

All Theses

The Vermont (VT) Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA, 2020) sets greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets as 26% below 2005 by 2025, 40% below 1990 by 2030 and 80% below 1990 by 2050 for energy-related emissions only. Vermont’s omission of GHG emissions from land conversions can result in significant costs of inaction (COI), which can hinder state’s mitigation and adaptation plans and result in a climate crisis-related risks (e.g., credit downgrade). Science-based spatio-temporal data of GHG emissions from soils as a result of land conversions can be integrated into the conceptual framework of “action” versus “inaction” to prevent GHG emissions. …