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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Plants Database: Providing Basic Plant Information, J S. Peterson, J F. Henson, W Oaks, J T. Kartesz Feb 2024

The Plants Database: Providing Basic Plant Information, J S. Peterson, J F. Henson, W Oaks, J T. Kartesz

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The PLANTS database provides basic plant information to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), its clients, cooperators, and the general public via the World Wide Web (Fig. 1). The foundation of PLANTS is a taxonomic backbone (checklist) of the vascular and nonvascular plants of North America (north of Mexico) and United States territories in the Caribbean and Pacific regions. Attribute data are appended to this backbone pertaining to distribution, vegetative specifications, nativity, federal and state status, crop data, growth form, growth parameters, species abstracts, and images.


Development Of Forage Curriculum For Extension Educators In The Southeast Usa, L. S. Silva, L. Dillard, K. Mullenix, M. Wallau, J. J. Tucker, C. Vasco Feb 2024

Development Of Forage Curriculum For Extension Educators In The Southeast Usa, L. S. Silva, L. Dillard, K. Mullenix, M. Wallau, J. J. Tucker, C. Vasco

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

In the Southeast USA, livestock production is one of the largest agricultural activities, and forages are the primary feed source. Most livestock systems are highly dependent on off-farm inputs to support forage production and animal performance, which elevates production costs and the activity's carbon footprint. There is a strong need to develop forage educational resources to enhance productivity, environmental sustainability, resilience, and profitability of agricultural systems in the region. This multi-disciplinary initiative was a collaboration among several land-grant Universities across the region. The objective was to develop decision tools and provide in-classroom training associated with hands-on demonstrations to Extension agents …


Innovative Approaches And Challenges In Brunei's Agricultural Management, Nuramalina Manshor, Ulaganathan Subramanian Jan 2024

Innovative Approaches And Challenges In Brunei's Agricultural Management, Nuramalina Manshor, Ulaganathan Subramanian

ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development

The management and development in agriculture attract agricultural economic science for the pricing, business, farm policy, and financial knowledge. It conjointly draws on plant and animal sciences for soil, seed and fertilizer information, weed control, insect management, and rationing and breeding; agricultural engineering knowledge for farmhouses, vehicles, irrigation, field drying, drainage, and management of erosions; and data on human behavior in Science and Social Science.


Breaking The Loop: Strategies For Fighting Climate Change On U.S. Farms, Ashley Barry Nov 2023

Breaking The Loop: Strategies For Fighting Climate Change On U.S. Farms, Ashley Barry

Honors Capstones

Climate change is an increasingly urgent area of research due to the hardships it causes for lands and communities across the globe. Specifically in regard to the United States (U.S.), climate change has many concerning implications on our agricultural system. Increased weather hazards, decreased crop production, and drought are just a few of the hardships American farmers are facing in their fight to keep their farms alive and feed their communities, despite a rapidly changing climate. This study investigates how farmers can fight and prevent climate change through the use of specific mitigation and adaptation strategies on their farms. Semi- …


The Influence Of Framing And Recent Experience On Farmer Choices In Experimental Games Depicting Risk-Reducing Agricultural Technologies, Ana Maria Ospina Tobar Aug 2023

The Influence Of Framing And Recent Experience On Farmer Choices In Experimental Games Depicting Risk-Reducing Agricultural Technologies, Ana Maria Ospina Tobar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is a major threat to food security, particularly in low and middle-income countries that are highly dependent on staple crops for subsistence. The vulnerability of staple crops, like maize, in the face of climate change, is increasing due to the increasing frequency of droughts. This thesis aims to evaluate two mechanisms through which farmers may be more willing to adopt new technologies that increase their resilience to climate change: First, I evaluate the effectiveness of a new virtual maize farming game as a learning tool to teach farmers about the outcomes they could obtain under different weather events …


Pronghorn Survival And Resource Selection In Western Nebraska's Agriculturally Dominated Landscape, Katie Piecora Jul 2023

Pronghorn Survival And Resource Selection In Western Nebraska's Agriculturally Dominated Landscape, Katie Piecora

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Nebraska’s pronghorn population has been stable over the last decade, yet their presence on the landscape remains a contentious subject amongst private landowners. Conversion of grassland for crop production and increased anthropogenic activity has drastically altered pronghorn behavior throughout their current range, however basic ecology and resource use by pronghorn in Nebraska remains poorly understood. Establishing baseline population metrics and seasonal patterns of resource use for this population at the eastern periphery of the species range is critical to guide management actions. We deployed GPS collars on 110 adult pronghorn to quantify survival, mortality risk, and seasonal resource selection in …


Determining The Impact Of Post-Harvest Water Management On Chironomid Abundance, Agrochemical Biomass And Potential Trophic Biomagnification, Mason Thomas May 2023

Determining The Impact Of Post-Harvest Water Management On Chironomid Abundance, Agrochemical Biomass And Potential Trophic Biomagnification, Mason Thomas

Theses and Dissertations

Agriculture has diminished shorebirds’ natural habitat in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Remaining natural stopover sites are supplemented with agricultural fields during the fall and winter. This study evaluates the impact of 4 different post-harvest water management strategies on shorebird food abundance and potential agrochemical biomagnification. Chironomid samples estimated abundance, biomass, and chironomid agrochemical concentration in each field. A risk assessment of agrochemical biomagnification to shorebirds was made across all treatments. Of treatments represented on all study sites, winter treatment had greatest chironomid abundance and biomass. Models indicated that days since flood initiation, start date, and temperature are significant predictors of …


The Last Drought Frontier: Building A Drought Index For The State Of Alaska, Olivia Campbell May 2023

The Last Drought Frontier: Building A Drought Index For The State Of Alaska, Olivia Campbell

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Drought is characterized by periods of below average precipitation. There are five major types of drought recognized in the literature: meteorological, hydrological, agricultural, socioeconomic, and ecological. A relatively new concept in the drought literature is “snow drought.” A key part of the definition of drought is that it is not always accompanied by extreme heat. This means drought can occur even in cold climates, cold seasons, and higher latitudes and altitudes, like Alaska. Drought is a natural part of climate variability, but Alaska’s climate is changing faster than any other state in the United States. Alaska is no stranger to …


Application Of A High-Resolution Climate Model Dataset To Assess Habitat Suitability For Spotted Wing Drosophila In Southwest Idaho, Elizabeth Padian May 2023

Application Of A High-Resolution Climate Model Dataset To Assess Habitat Suitability For Spotted Wing Drosophila In Southwest Idaho, Elizabeth Padian

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

As global climate change continues to produce large deviations from the normals of the 19th and 20th centuries, the agricultural sector will need to adapt to these changes in order to maintain yields and feed the global population. Crop selections, yield amounts, and pest management techniques may need to be adjusted to adapt. The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is a small fruit fly-like bug that can infest berries and stone fruit crops by burrowing into the fruit (at most points in the fruit’s lifecycle) and laying its eggs. These eggs will hatch and the larvae will burrow back out of …


Practical Improvements For Pivot And Surface Irrigation, Jonathan A. Holt May 2023

Practical Improvements For Pivot And Surface Irrigation, Jonathan A. Holt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Irrigation is critical to meeting global food and fiber demands. Optimizing agricultural irrigation may help sustain production levels, while reducing its demand for water. This research evaluated precision sprinklers and drip irrigation for pivots, five pivot track mitigation tools, three scientific irrigation scheduling (SIS) methods, sensors for surface irrigation cutoff, and automating surface systems to implement surge irrigation. With pivots and surface irrigation being the most common methods for irrigation in the West, small improvements from these tools could result in significant water savings.

Low energy precision application (LEPA) sprinklers and mobile drip irrigation (MDI) were tested on two pivots. …


Water And Agriculture In The San Diego Region, Olivia Frigyes, Darbi Berry, A-Bel Gong Jan 2023

Water And Agriculture In The San Diego Region, Olivia Frigyes, Darbi Berry, A-Bel Gong

San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

The San Diego region is susceptible to drought with little annual precipitation. The rising temperature and changing precipitation is expected to affect the agriculture economy. Classified as having a mediterranean climate, San Diego has hot, dry summers and cooler, wet winters. In this blog, learn about how San Diego's climate shapes its agricultural communities' reliance on water supply.


Pro-Environmental Diversification Of Pasture-Based Dairy And Beef Production In Ireland, The United Kingdom And New Zealand: A Scoping Review Of Impacts And Challenges, Maria Markiewicz-Keszycka, Aileen Carter, Donal O'Brien, Maeve Henchion, Simon Mooney, Paul Hynds Jan 2023

Pro-Environmental Diversification Of Pasture-Based Dairy And Beef Production In Ireland, The United Kingdom And New Zealand: A Scoping Review Of Impacts And Challenges, Maria Markiewicz-Keszycka, Aileen Carter, Donal O'Brien, Maeve Henchion, Simon Mooney, Paul Hynds

Articles

Grass-fed dairy and beef products are valued by consumers for their unique nutrient profile, enhanced animal welfare and lower environmental footprint compared to conventional produce derived from animals reared indoors on higher volumes of concentrate feeds (O'Callaghan et al., Reference O'Callaghan, Vázquez-Fresno, Serra-Cayuela, Dong, Mandal, Hennessy, McAuliffe, Dillon, Wishart, Stanton and Ross2018; Moscovici Joubran et al., Reference Moscovici Joubran, Pierce, Garvey, Shalloo and O'Callaghan2021). For the current study, pasture-based production of dairy and beef is defined as a system within which cattle graze freely outdoors on green pasture for ≥6 months per year, using grazed grass as the primary feed …


Predicting The Effects Of Climate Change On Irish Agriculture, Rodrigo Matsumoto, Sarah Kuprian Carrinho Jan 2023

Predicting The Effects Of Climate Change On Irish Agriculture, Rodrigo Matsumoto, Sarah Kuprian Carrinho

ICT

The impact of climate change on agriculture is a growing concern worldwide, and Ireland is no exception. The purpose of this project is to use machine learning techniques to predict the effects of climate change on Irish agriculture and identify strategies for adaptation and mitigation. The project uses the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) methodology to guide the data analysis process, MoSCoW prioritization to identify the most critical needs, and SWOT analysis to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats our project may encounter. Historical temperature data for Ireland and Dublin will be used as our data sources. …


Climatological, Hydrological, And Economic Analysis Of Agriculture In Montana And The Western U.S.A., Zachary H. Lauffenburger Jan 2023

Climatological, Hydrological, And Economic Analysis Of Agriculture In Montana And The Western U.S.A., Zachary H. Lauffenburger

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Many studies have addressed the impact of climate on agriculture; however, fewer studies addressed how farmers adapt to climate change, to what extent implementation of adaptation strategies mitigates economic losses or alters the hydrologic system. Analyses of how historical climate affected not only farmer decision making, but also the economic and hydrological consequences of farmers’ adaptations to climate variations, and projections of the spatiotemporal climatic regimes at finer regional scales are critical for aiding in actionable climate change adaptations. This dissertation helps fill knowledge gaps on the impacts of climate change in rural regions of the agricultural western U.S.A. and …


Public Works Programmes And Agricultural Risk: Evidence From India, Vis Taraz Jan 2023

Public Works Programmes And Agricultural Risk: Evidence From India, Vis Taraz

Environmental Science and Policy: Faculty Publications

The agricultural sectors in many low-and middle-income countries remain highly vulnerable to weather risk, a vulnerability that will only intensify under climate change. The globally trending public works programmes have the potential to impact weather-related agricultural risk. I explore the impact of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) on weather-related agricultural risk. My empirical strategy explores the staggered roll-out of NREGA and random weather fluctuations. Using a nationwide panel of data, I find that NREGA makes crop yields more sensitive to low rainfall shocks. I posit that these results are consistent with a labour market channel, by which NREGA …


Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow Jan 2023

Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most successful invasive species globally and are often implicated in agricultural damage. This damage is expected to increase as ranges of wild pigs expand, impacting the human food supply and increasing costs of food production. Our objective was to evaluate movement behaviors of wild pigs relative to resource availability and landscape features in an agriculture-dominated landscape, with a goal of informing management practices for reducing damage to corn. We monitored hourly movements of adult wild pigs relative to corn crops using GPS collars during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons (Feb–Sept) in …


New Office Supports Maine Climate Action, Parker Gassett, Ivan Fernandez Jan 2023

New Office Supports Maine Climate Action, Parker Gassett, Ivan Fernandez

Maine Policy Review

Expanding and expediting access to climate change information can improve collective action outcomes. Accordingly, the Maine Climate Action Plan called for the creation of an information-coordinating hub, to enable effective and efficient use of climate information in Maine’s climate change response. To aid that need, the University of Maine created the Maine Climate Science Information Exchange (MCSIE) office as a gateway to information about climate-relevant research, the scientists conducting that research, and the most recent data and applied science efforts relating to Maine’s climate change strategies. The office was established in 2023, after a year of developing prototypes of the …


Climate Changes In El Salvador: Impacts Of ‘La Canícula’ (Midsummer Drought) On Agricultural Practices And Decision-Making In Rural Communities, Paola M. Rivera González Jan 2023

Climate Changes In El Salvador: Impacts Of ‘La Canícula’ (Midsummer Drought) On Agricultural Practices And Decision-Making In Rural Communities, Paola M. Rivera González

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a tropical, dry-forest region, is characterized by distinct rainy and dry seasons, which influence the local agricultural calendar and planting decisions in rural communities. La canícula is a period of decreased precipitation during the rainy season, which occurs during the corn-planting season in El Salvador. La canícula is expected to change in intensity and duration in the next decades, which would impact small-scale farmers and their livelihoods. Climate variability and uncertainty has led to crop loss, water scarcity, and food insecurity in rural communities dependent on subsistence farming. Farmers’ experiences with a changing climate …


Groundwater Governance And Agricultural Sustainability: Examining Farmer Interactions With California’S Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, Zachary Matthew Goldstein Jan 2023

Groundwater Governance And Agricultural Sustainability: Examining Farmer Interactions With California’S Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, Zachary Matthew Goldstein

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Climate change has exacerbated groundwater depletion globally, and policymakers have struggled to effectively manage groundwater resources. California enacted the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) in 2014 to restore groundwater to sustainable levels.

The first paper of this thesis examines the drivers associated with uptake of groundwater conservation practices in agriculture. While a rich body of research has explored farmers’ conservation practice adoption, understanding of groundwater conservation practices is more limited. This study explores how information sources influence the actual and intended adoption of groundwater management practices in California. Using survey data from farmers (n = 553) in three largely agricultural …


Resilience Theory And Coerced Resilience In Agriculture, S. M. Sundstrom, D. G. Angeler, C. R. Allen Jan 2023

Resilience Theory And Coerced Resilience In Agriculture, S. M. Sundstrom, D. G. Angeler, C. R. Allen

School of Natural Resources: Documents and Reviews

No abstract provided.


Application Of The Fine Sediment Biotic Index To Three Drain Tiled And Ditched Agricultural Systems In Southern Minnesota, Bailey Sanders Jan 2023

Application Of The Fine Sediment Biotic Index To Three Drain Tiled And Ditched Agricultural Systems In Southern Minnesota, Bailey Sanders

All Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Artificial drainage is a common agricultural management technique in the United States used to remove excess water from poorly drained soils. Approximately 22.48 million hectares of crop land are drain-tiled in the United States, providing long-term economic benefits to farmers. However, artificial drainage increases sediment transport in agricultural watersheds, which can degrade aquatic systems, destroy habitats, and limit biological diversity. Biotic indices based on benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess surface water quality, but recent studies show potential in developing sediment biotic indices using benthic macroinvertebrates to estimate fine sediment in streams. The objective of this study was to …


Exploring Beaver-Facilitated Restoration In Grassland Channelized Streams, Jessica L. Sikora Jan 2023

Exploring Beaver-Facilitated Restoration In Grassland Channelized Streams, Jessica L. Sikora

Graduate Research Theses & Dissertations

Freshwater streams provide vital ecosystem services, but their ecological function is gravely impacted by agricultural practices especially in grassland ecosystems. Though there is evidence that the re-introduction of beavers can help restore the ecological function of streams, little is known about their restorative impacts in grasslands. At Nachusa Grasslands Preserve in Franklin Grove, IL, we investigated the presence and impact of beaver dams on their waterways. With increasing beaver dam volume, we found an increase in sediment retention and less sediment retention with increasing beaver dams upstream from a dam. Though we did not find evidence that beaver dam volume …


An Investigation Of Change In Drone Practices In Broadacre Farming Environments, Hrishikesh S. Neetye Jan 2023

An Investigation Of Change In Drone Practices In Broadacre Farming Environments, Hrishikesh S. Neetye

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The application of drones in broadacre farming is influenced by novel and emergent factors. Drone technology is subject to legal, financial, social, and technical constraints that affect the Agri-tech sector. This research showed that emerging improvements to drone technology influence the analysis of precision data resulting in disparate and asymmetrically flawed Ag-tech outputs. The novelty of this thesis is that it examines the changes in drone technology through the lens of entropic decay. It considers the planning and controlling of an organisation’s resources to minimise harmful effects through systems change. The rapid advances in drone technology have outpaced the systematic …


Analyzing The Effects Of Climate Impacts In El Salvador And How They Influence Pollution, Ecosystems And Communities, Veronica Norio-Tomasino Dec 2022

Analyzing The Effects Of Climate Impacts In El Salvador And How They Influence Pollution, Ecosystems And Communities, Veronica Norio-Tomasino

Master's Projects and Capstones

Due to projections of rising temperatures and increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events, the rate at which climate change is impacting nations is devastating. However, developing countries and vulnerable communities are not the primary contributors to climate change, but they are at a greater risk for climate impacts by industrialized nations. As a result of increased human activity, developing nations such as El Salvador are particularly susceptible to climate-related events. Deforestation, water pollution, and human health risks are some activities that have contributed to El Salvador's vulnerability to climate change, drastically affecting rural communities suffering from multidimensional poverty. …


Agricultural Aerosols: The Impact Of Farming Activity On Ice Nucleating Particles, Joseph Robinson Nov 2022

Agricultural Aerosols: The Impact Of Farming Activity On Ice Nucleating Particles, Joseph Robinson

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Farming activities cause particles such as soil dust and plant material to be emitted into the air. Some of these aerosols can become ice nucleating particles (INPs), serving as seeds for ice and mixed-phase clouds. While there have been ground-based studies of these particles in the western Great Plains and a single air-based study in Indiana, there is a distinct lack of ground-based studies in the Midwest. In Indiana, over two-thirds of the state is farmland, with over 75% of land in Tippecanoe County used for agriculture. Despite farming being such an essential part of life in Indiana, the connection …


Agriculture And Sustainable Farming In Vietnam, Minh Hoan Le Oct 2022

Agriculture And Sustainable Farming In Vietnam, Minh Hoan Le

Asian Management Insights

Le Minh Hoan, Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam, talks about the future of sustainable agriculture in ASEAN.


Why New Zealand’S Indigenous Reconciliation Process Has Failed To Empower Māori Fishers: Distributional, Procedural, And Recognition-Based Injustices, Hekia Bodwitch, Andrew M. Song, Owen Temby, John Reid, Megan Bailey, Gordon M. Hickey Sep 2022

Why New Zealand’S Indigenous Reconciliation Process Has Failed To Empower Māori Fishers: Distributional, Procedural, And Recognition-Based Injustices, Hekia Bodwitch, Andrew M. Song, Owen Temby, John Reid, Megan Bailey, Gordon M. Hickey

School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

How is it that the New Zealand government’s process for re-establishing Indigenous fishing rights has failed to deliver thriving Māori fisheries? This paper examines why, at Te Waihora, a coastal lake, and site of one of the nation’s longest running and best-funded state-Māori co-governance agreements, Māori fishers have been unable to use their rights to support their fishery. As of 2018, the lake’s culturally and ecologically significant eel population was no longer commercially viable, a decline fishers have attributed to rampant dairy industry expansion upstream. Drawing on environmental justice literatures, we deploy a multi-dimensional framework to identify factors shaping possibilities …


Acreage Of Foreign Owned Farmland In The Mountain West, 2020, Geneva Martin, Saha Salahi, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Aug 2022

Acreage Of Foreign Owned Farmland In The Mountain West, 2020, Geneva Martin, Saha Salahi, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet examines foreign-owned farmland in the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, as originally reported by the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Farm Service Agency.


Assessment Of Historical Climate Variability In Maine With Implications For Future Agricultural Productivity And Adaptation, Carly Frank Aug 2022

Assessment Of Historical Climate Variability In Maine With Implications For Future Agricultural Productivity And Adaptation, Carly Frank

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is a wicked problem with global impacts, one of which being the sustainability of the existing global food system. As temperatures and variability in precipitation are projected to increase, the challenges to agriculture are expected to intensify. This thesis examines the Maine historical climate record over the growing season, in combination with future projections, to assess how conditions have changed and will change with agricultural implications. In this analysis, relevant climatic variables are analyzed, and agriculture-significant measures are derived for Maine’s three climate divisions using four decades of daily and monthly gridded datasets. In addition, this thesis explores …


Manganese Geochemistry And Plant Availability In Response To Agricultural Practices, Ashleigh R. Montgomery Aug 2022

Manganese Geochemistry And Plant Availability In Response To Agricultural Practices, Ashleigh R. Montgomery

Masters Theses

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for all organisms. In soils, Mn forms determine availability to plants. Most Mn research has been conducted in forest ecosystems and Mn cycling in agricultural systems is understudied. Therefore, the objective of the experiment is to understand the effect of different agricultural management strategies on Mn cycling and plant availability. First, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different application rates of two Mn fertilizers (MnSO4 and MnEDTA) on soil geochemical properties and growth of corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max). The fertilizers were applied to …