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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model For Classifying Marginal Cropland In Nebraska Using Historical Crop Yield And Biophysical Characteristics, Andrew Laws May 2022

Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model For Classifying Marginal Cropland In Nebraska Using Historical Crop Yield And Biophysical Characteristics, Andrew Laws

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Marginal cropland is suboptimal due to historically low and variable productivity and limiting biophysical characteristics. To support future agricultural management and policy decisions in Nebraska, U.S.A, it is important to understand where cropland is marginal for its two most economically important crops: corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max). As corn and soybean are frequently planted in a crop rotation, it is important to consider if there is a relationship with cropland marginality. Based on the current literature, there exists a need for a flexible yet robust methodology for identifying marginal land at different scales, which takes advantage ...


Debe Ser Dirigida: Theories Of Community Organizing For Research Management In The Context Of Rural Ecuador, Meghan Edwards Apr 2022

Debe Ser Dirigida: Theories Of Community Organizing For Research Management In The Context Of Rural Ecuador, Meghan Edwards

Student Symposium

This research analysis and literature review discusses the factors that mobilize individuals to take an active role in community-led resource management. After reviewing major contemporary theories of resource management such as Elinor Ostrom's polycentric theory, CPR theories, and Arnstein's ladder, the essay then applies these theories to the context of the Quijos Valley in Ecuador, where the author conducted informal interviews with community members both involved and not-involved in managing fragile soil ecosystems. The literature review considers the idea that individuals are more likely to take an active role in research management when there are strong community bonds ...


Land Use Effects On Fish Assemblages In Mississippi River Tributaries In Scott County, Ia And Rock Island County, Il, Benjamin Ford, Kevin Geedey Apr 2022

Land Use Effects On Fish Assemblages In Mississippi River Tributaries In Scott County, Ia And Rock Island County, Il, Benjamin Ford, Kevin Geedey

Urban Watershed Project

Fish assemblages are viable indicators of stream quality because they respond predictably to changes in abiotic and biotic factors, such as habitat and water quality, and human exploitation and species additions. In this a study we examined the relationship between fish abundance, diversity, and IBI (Index of Biotic Integrity), and urban and agricultural land use in Scott County, IA and Rock Island County, IL. Fish were sampled during the summer of 2021 within 12 local watersheds, which contain a variety of land use types. We followed a standardized sampling method of a single pass with a backpack electrofishing unit through ...


Irrigation’S Impact On A Precipitation Event During Grainex In Nebraska, Usa, Daniel Whitesel Mar 2022

Irrigation’S Impact On A Precipitation Event During Grainex In Nebraska, Usa, Daniel Whitesel

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Numerous precipitation events were observed during the Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX). However, the precipitation event that was observed the morning of 23 July 2018 is the focus of this thesis. Six experiments were conducted which involved increasing or decreasing soil moisture by 5% increments over the irrigated cropland. An additional experiment, which changed the irrigated land use to grassland, showed precipitation increases. It was found that regardless of strength of irrigation, average precipitation decreased. Average precipitation decreased by up to 72% when irrigation increased compared to the control simulation and decreased by up to 85% when irrigation decreased compared ...


Conversion Of Forest To Agro-Silvo-Pastoral System – Montado – In Mediterranean Environments, J. Potes, F. Jorge, T. Montes, D. Palha Feb 2022

Conversion Of Forest To Agro-Silvo-Pastoral System – Montado – In Mediterranean Environments, J. Potes, F. Jorge, T. Montes, D. Palha

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Mediterranean environment regions are characterized by climate and soil specificities that justify low productive capacity for primary production when compared to other environments on earth. The Mediterranean forests are essentially formed by trees and shrubs. The shrubs are the perfect fuel to feed the forest fires that occur in a natural and cyclical manner in these environmental conditions. Therefore, the Mediterranean Systems of Agriculture have evolved to control the shrubs and the extensification of the systems because of low productivity. Sustainability is achieved by increase of productivity through improvement of the soil and irrigation. The application of these principles ...


Biochar: Properties And Potential Benefits For Agricultural Soil In Rwanda, Andromede Uwase Jan 2022

Biochar: Properties And Potential Benefits For Agricultural Soil In Rwanda, Andromede Uwase

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Physical and chemical soil degradation is becoming a major challenge for agricultural productivity in Rwanda, which is the most important part of the country’s economy. The wide spreading soil degradation in Rwanda is mainly a result of naturally poor soils coupled with unsustainable soil management leading to, for example, accelerated soil erosion, acidification, nutrient loss, compaction, and to decreasing yields. Biochar, as an end product of pyrolysis of biomass in the absence of oxygen, has been proposed as a soil amendment in remediation strategies because of its positive effects on soil productivity relevant parameters such as soil pH, structure ...


Drivers Of Environmental Degradation In Turkey: Designing An Sdg Framework Through Advanced Quantile Approaches, Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Ephraim Bonah Agyekum, Salah Kamel, Hossam Zawbaa, Mehmet Altuntaş Jan 2022

Drivers Of Environmental Degradation In Turkey: Designing An Sdg Framework Through Advanced Quantile Approaches, Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Ephraim Bonah Agyekum, Salah Kamel, Hossam Zawbaa, Mehmet Altuntaş

Articles

Turkey is a laggard in terms of the achievement of its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and one of the primary issues it faces is environmental deterioration. Therefore, a policy-level reorientation may be needed to address this relevant issue. From this standpoint, this research assesses the impact of renewable energy (RE) use and financial development on the emissions of CO2 as well as the role of urbanization and agriculture, utilizing a dataset stretching between 1985 and 2019. By applying the innovative quantile-on-quantile regression (QQR) and non-parametric Granger causality in quantiles techniques, the study assesses the ways in which the quantiles of ...


Linking Migration To Community Resilience In The Receiving Basin Of A Large-Scale Water Transfer Project, Anna Erwin, Zhao Ma, Ruxandra Popovici, Emma Patricia Salas O’Brien, Laura Zanotti, Chelsea A. Silva, Eliseo Zeballos Zeballos, Jonathan Bauchet, Nelly Ramírez Calderón, Glenn Roberto Arce Larreah Dec 2021

Linking Migration To Community Resilience In The Receiving Basin Of A Large-Scale Water Transfer Project, Anna Erwin, Zhao Ma, Ruxandra Popovici, Emma Patricia Salas O’Brien, Laura Zanotti, Chelsea A. Silva, Eliseo Zeballos Zeballos, Jonathan Bauchet, Nelly Ramírez Calderón, Glenn Roberto Arce Larreah

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Large-scale water transfer projects (LWTPs) transfer water to urban and agricultural areas. The Majes-Siguas canal, established in 1983, is an LWTP that created a thriving agricultural area through irrigating the Majes district in the Atacama Desert of Peru. Like other LWTP receiving basins, the project has attracted an influx of migrants who work on the farms. At the same time, the Majes LWTP is the district’s only source of water and has an aging infrastructure which presents significant risks. While many studies critically analyze the consequences of LWTPs in water supply basins, few evaluate the resilience of communities living ...


Towards A More Comprehensive Understanding Of Wild Pig (Sus Scrofa) Impacts On Agricultural Producers: Insights From A Texas Case Study, Keith M. Carlisle, Nicole Didero, Sophie Mckee, Julie Elser, Stephanie A. Shwiff Dec 2021

Towards A More Comprehensive Understanding Of Wild Pig (Sus Scrofa) Impacts On Agricultural Producers: Insights From A Texas Case Study, Keith M. Carlisle, Nicole Didero, Sophie Mckee, Julie Elser, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

This research investigates the impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa Linneaus) on agricultural producers in Texas, with the aim of identifying and describing all categories of wild pig impacts and quantifying the extent of producers’ over- or underestimation of their total wild pig-related costs in 2018, as compared to calculations based upon data subsequently provided by the producers about individual wild pig-related costs and losses. Based on interviews with 23 producers in 16 Texas counties, we identified more than 20 discrete categories of negative impacts and negligible positive impacts associated with wild pigs. Among them were categories that have ...


Cover Crop Effects On Infiltration, Aggregate Stability, And Water Retention On Loessial And Alluvial Soils Of The Lower Mississippi River Valley, Shelby G. Lebeau Dec 2021

Cover Crop Effects On Infiltration, Aggregate Stability, And Water Retention On Loessial And Alluvial Soils Of The Lower Mississippi River Valley, Shelby G. Lebeau

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cover crops are a widely considered practice to improve soil health in the form of erosion control, organic matter additions, and improving water-holding capacity. Despite the well-documented benefits, little is known about the effect of cover crops on soils in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV), an area historically dominated by intensive cultivated agriculture, with soils prone to erosion, and unsustainable aquifer withdrawals for irrigation. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cover crops [with cover crops (CC) and without cover crops (NCC)] on near-surface soil physical/chemical- and infiltration-related properties, aggregate stability, and water ...


Recharge Assessment In The Context Of Expanding Agricultural Activity: Urucuia Aquifer System, Western State Of Bahia, Brazil, Glauco Z.S. Eger, Gerson C. Silva Junior, Eduardo A.G. Marques, Bernardo R.C. Leão, Diana G.T.B. Da Rocha, Troy E. Gilmore, Luís G.H. Do Amaral, Juremá A.O. Silva, Christopher Neale Oct 2021

Recharge Assessment In The Context Of Expanding Agricultural Activity: Urucuia Aquifer System, Western State Of Bahia, Brazil, Glauco Z.S. Eger, Gerson C. Silva Junior, Eduardo A.G. Marques, Bernardo R.C. Leão, Diana G.T.B. Da Rocha, Troy E. Gilmore, Luís G.H. Do Amaral, Juremá A.O. Silva, Christopher Neale

Conservation and Survey Division

Groundwater recharge rate estimation is crucial to sustainable development of aquifers in intensely pumped regions, such as the Urucuia Aquifer System (UAS). A sedimentary aquifer in Western Bahia, Brazil, that underlies one of the major agricultural areas of the country where there has been major growth of irrigated areas. This study seeks to evaluate the recharge component of the water budget in the UAS area, based on three complementary techniques. The double-ring infiltrometer test was used to evaluate surface infiltration capacity, an important control on recharge. Water level data from wells (2011–2019 period, 19 wells) in the Brazilian Geological ...


A Biological Assessment Of Water Quality In El Placer, Ecuador: The Effect Of Agriculture On Stream Health And The Quality Of Historical Versus Current Drinking Water Sources, Danielle Kleinberg Oct 2021

A Biological Assessment Of Water Quality In El Placer, Ecuador: The Effect Of Agriculture On Stream Health And The Quality Of Historical Versus Current Drinking Water Sources, Danielle Kleinberg

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Although fresh water is one of Ecuador’s most abundant resources, high quality drinking water for its inhabitants is scarce (Wingfield et al., 2021). The most prevalent sources of water pollution in Ecuador are domestic waste, silver and gold mining, oil production, and agricultural chemicals (Buckalew et al., 1997). El Placer, a village located in Tungurahua, Ecuador, is highly dependent on agriculture as a source of income. The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of agriculture on the El Placer’s Tía Anita Stream through comparing the water quality at three sites with varying agricultural influence ...


Investigating The Impact Of Land Use On Avian Diversity And Abundance In Areas Surrounding Mabamba Swamp, Uganda, Sydney Marie Jones Oct 2021

Investigating The Impact Of Land Use On Avian Diversity And Abundance In Areas Surrounding Mabamba Swamp, Uganda, Sydney Marie Jones

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of wetland-adjacent land use on avian species richness and abundance areas surrounding Mabamba Swamp, Uganda. Four types of land use were investigated: Eucalyptus plantations, wetland-edge agricultural fields, residential areas, and mature secondary forests. A total of 40-morning point counts were conducted for ten days in late November and late December of 2021. One-way ANOVA tests and Tukey’s HSD tests revealed significant differences in mean avian richness and abundance between all sites except residential areas and Nkima Forest. Additionally, Nkima Forest was found to contain the most number of ...


Investigating Epikarst Recharge Dynamics Under Agricultural Landuse Using Hydrometeorological And Isotopic Tracers, Austin Shane Deering Oct 2021

Investigating Epikarst Recharge Dynamics Under Agricultural Landuse Using Hydrometeorological And Isotopic Tracers, Austin Shane Deering

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Epikarst systems have complex recharge – discharge processes in telogenetic karst systems, including highly variable storage, flowpaths, and mixing dynamics. This research aimed to characterize the epikarst zone using hydrogen and oxygen isotopic tracers of these processes within south-central Kentucky’s Crumps Cave system located in the Pennyroyal Sinkhole Plain. Data and statistical analyses were applied to highresolution rainfall (RF), lysimeter (10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm depths), and an epikarst Waterfall 1 (WF1) isotope data collected on a weekly basis between 2011-2018. These data were coupled with WF1 discharge measurements and weather station data collected at Crumps Cave Preserve during ...


Novel Pilot Development Of A Closed-Loop Sustainable System Between Biogas Renewable Energy, Distilling, And Aquaculture By Vermiculture Of Stillage Wastes, Samuel C. Kessler Sep 2021

Novel Pilot Development Of A Closed-Loop Sustainable System Between Biogas Renewable Energy, Distilling, And Aquaculture By Vermiculture Of Stillage Wastes, Samuel C. Kessler

The Cardinal Edge

This study provides a mixed-methods approach in analyzing a potential closed-loop system between renewable biogas production from anaerobic digestion, vermiculture production, aquaculture production, and organic wastes with a particular focus on stillage wastes. Such system may hold significant promise for significantly reducing organic carbon and methane emissions from its components, and should be assessed for such. The 2021 IPCC report essentially identified methane reduction as the single fastest way to slow global warming (IPCC, 2021), making the study and implementation of methane-reducing systems and supportive policy for them critical. Knowledge gaps to implementing this system were qualitatively identified as disconnect ...


Power-Over-Tether Unmanned Aerial System Leveraged For Trajectory Influenced Atmospheric Sensing, Daniel Rico Aug 2021

Power-Over-Tether Unmanned Aerial System Leveraged For Trajectory Influenced Atmospheric Sensing, Daniel Rico

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in agriculture has risen in the past decade and is helping to modernize agriculture. UASs collect and elucidate data previously difficult to obtain and are used to help increase agricultural efficiency and production. Typical commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) UASs are limited by small payloads and short flight times. Such limits inhibit their ability to provide abundant data at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In this thesis, we describe the design and construction of the tethered aircraft unmanned system (TAUS), which is a novel power-over-tether UAS configured for long-term, high throughput atmospheric monitoring with an array of ...


Data-Driven Agriculture For Rural Smallholdings, Kerry Taylor, Martin Amidy Jul 2021

Data-Driven Agriculture For Rural Smallholdings, Kerry Taylor, Martin Amidy

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Spatial information science has a critical role to play in meeting the major challenges facing society in the coming decades, including feeding a population of 10 billion by 2050, addressing environmental degradation, and acting on climate change. Agriculture and agri-food value-chains, dependent on spatial information, are also central. Due to agriculture's dual role as not only a producer of food, fibre and fuel, but also as a major land, water and energy consumer, agriculture is at the centre of both the food-water-energy-environment nexus and resource security debates. The recent confluence of a number of advances in data analytics, cloud ...


Assessing Impacts Of Winter-Hay Feeding On Soil And Forage Nutrient Dynamics In A Rotationally-Grazed Pasture System In Arkansas, Lawrence Gordon Berry Iv Jul 2021

Assessing Impacts Of Winter-Hay Feeding On Soil And Forage Nutrient Dynamics In A Rotationally-Grazed Pasture System In Arkansas, Lawrence Gordon Berry Iv

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

More than 38 % of United States’ rural land area was used for grazing (i.e., pastureland or rangeland) ruminant animals in 2017, constituting the largest private land use group. The expansive nature of these lands means that grazing and pasture management decisions have potential to impact water quality as well as profit margins. As a result, beef producers are under increased pressure from economic and environmental standpoints to limit application of nutrients beyond those required to grow the forage needed for animal consumption. At the same time, a large amount of nutrients is recycled back to pasture systems directly from ...


Automatic Detection Of Citrus Fruit And Leaves Diseases Using Deep Neural Network Model, Asad Khattak, Muhammad Usama Asghar, Ulfat Batool, Muhammad Zubair Asghar, Hayat Ullah, Mabrook Al-Rakhami, Abdu Gumaei Jun 2021

Automatic Detection Of Citrus Fruit And Leaves Diseases Using Deep Neural Network Model, Asad Khattak, Muhammad Usama Asghar, Ulfat Batool, Muhammad Zubair Asghar, Hayat Ullah, Mabrook Al-Rakhami, Abdu Gumaei

All Works

Citrus fruit diseases are the major cause of extreme citrus fruit yield declines. As a result, designing an automated detection system for citrus plant diseases is important. Deep learning methods have recently obtained promising results in a number of artificial intelligence issues, leading us to apply them to the challenge of recognizing citrus fruit and leaf diseases. In this paper, an integrated approach is used to suggest a convolutional neural networks (CNNs) model. The proposed CNN model is intended to differentiate healthy fruits and leaves from fruits/leaves with common citrus diseases such as Black spot, canker, scab, greening, and ...


Another Dangerous Fire Season Is Looming In The Western U.S., And The Drought-Stricken Region Is Headed For A Water Crisis, Mojtaba Sadegh, Amir Aghakouchak, John Abatzoglou May 2021

Another Dangerous Fire Season Is Looming In The Western U.S., And The Drought-Stricken Region Is Headed For A Water Crisis, Mojtaba Sadegh, Amir Aghakouchak, John Abatzoglou

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Just about every indicator of drought is flashing red across the western U.S. after a dry winter and warm early spring. The snowpack is at less than half of normal in much of the region. Reservoirs are being drawn down, river levels are dropping and soils are drying out.

It’s only May, and states are already considering water use restrictions to make the supply last longer. California’s governor declared a drought emergency in 41 of 58 counties. In Utah, irrigation water providers are increasing fines for overuse. Some Idaho ranchers are talking about selling off livestock because ...


Estimation Of Spatial Change In Cropland Area And Evaluation Of Irrigation Performance In Imperial Valley Using Remotely Sensed Data, Usha Poudel May 2021

Estimation Of Spatial Change In Cropland Area And Evaluation Of Irrigation Performance In Imperial Valley Using Remotely Sensed Data, Usha Poudel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Imperial Valley (IV) in the US is an extensively irrigated agricultural region, which includes multiple crops changing on an annual and semiannual basis. The valley is facing grave concerns about water management due to its semi-arid environment, water intensive crops, and limited water supply. A simple, inexpensive, and repeatable method to detect changes in cropping patterns may assist irrigation managers to understand crop diversification and associated consumptive use. In addition, a spatial assessment of existing water irrigation system performance and productivity is crucial to benchmark and improve current water management strategies. This thesis estimates the spatial pattern of change ...


Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison May 2021

Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-term agricultural sustainability and productivity are controlled by the integrative effects of different management practices on the soil. Many Arkansas producers use the double-crop system to grow soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Studying combinations of different, non-traditional, alternative agricultural techniques may help producers better understand the long-term implications of various management practice options on sustainability and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices, including residue level, tillage, irrigation, and burning, and soil depth on the change in various soil properties from 2010 to 2020 in a long-term ...


Pectin And Alginate Extraction To Treat Liquid Cafo Manure, Clare Sunderman May 2021

Pectin And Alginate Extraction To Treat Liquid Cafo Manure, Clare Sunderman

Honors Projects

For this project, various extraction methods were used to extract pectin from Pastinaca Sativa and alginate from Macrocystis. These extractions were then dried and used in treating 250mL of manure along with a CaCl2 or FeCl3 coagulant. It was found that CaCl2 was not as effective as FeCl3 in coagulating manure. But the results obtained suggest that pectin and alginate obtained with a simpler extraction method is just as effective as the highly purified and refined pectin and alginate produced for the food industry, in the treatment of CAFO manure. The liquid portion of the manure ...


A Study Of The Social, Cultural, And Environmental Influences On Appalachian Agriculture, Morganne May Apr 2021

A Study Of The Social, Cultural, And Environmental Influences On Appalachian Agriculture, Morganne May

Senior Theses

Appalachia, despite its rich history and abundant biological and cultural diversity, is commonly associated with a generalized notion of ignorance, resistance to progress, and "backwardness." This study aims to shed light on the socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental influences which have shaped the present food systems of Appalachia through a review of relevant literature. This history provides the necessary context to strategize a region-specific, socioeconomically and environmentally sustainable food system moving forward.


Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department Mar 2021

Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department

Illustration Course Work & Materials

"These essays were were written and illustrated by students at the Rhode Island school of Design in February, 2021. Their perspectives are entirely personal and reflect their efforts within a 5.5-week fused studio/seminar course that was centered on the Sixth Mass Extinction and how biodiversity is changing because of humans. Discovering that science communication is more than delivering just the facts, students were invited to research a topic of personal interest that is relevant to human impacts on biodiversity. Through analysis of data and other scientific information, each sought to synthesize their research and opinions on their topic ...


Sediment Nutrient Dynamics In Fondriest Agricultural Settling Pond, Marie Grace Bezold Jan 2021

Sediment Nutrient Dynamics In Fondriest Agricultural Settling Pond, Marie Grace Bezold

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Excess loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is a serious global problem and has numerous negative impacts on water quality of aquatic ecosystems including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia. Anthropogenic activities (such as the Haber-Bosch process, burning of fossil fuels, sewage treatment, and manure reuse) have led to excess N loading to aquatic systems. Sediment N dynamics were examined from Oct 2019 – Oct 2020 in an agricultural settling pond connected to a constructed wetland adjacent to an agricultural field. Intact sediment cores were amended with 15N for continuous-flow incubations to measure denitrification and N fixation rates, as well ...


Enhancing Wku Sustainable Food Systems Through Education And Local Agriculture Development, Chloe Cooper Jan 2021

Enhancing Wku Sustainable Food Systems Through Education And Local Agriculture Development, Chloe Cooper

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In an effort to increase the amount of locally sourced food utilized by dining services at WKU, the Office of Sustainability, WKU Restaurant Group, and the WKU Agriculture & Research Education Center have partnered to establish garden spaces on campus properties. This project developed a detailed plan for implementation of this effort. In addition, this project established a plan to educate students and the local community alike on the benefits of sustainable farming and locally-sourced food, while also creating profiles on local farmers from whom the university could buy crops in order to further supplement items for dining services. Using these ...


Strategies For Reducing Greenhouse Gases From Liquid Dairy Manure, Vera Sokolov Jan 2021

Strategies For Reducing Greenhouse Gases From Liquid Dairy Manure, Vera Sokolov

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Livestock production, including the storage, handling, and spreading of manure, are among the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. Liquid dairy manure storages are hot spots of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3). Both CH4 and N2O are greenhouse gases (GHG) which contribute to global warming, while NH3 is an indirect source of N2O and a risk to human health. Reducing emissions from manure storages is important not only for protection of environment and humans, but also for conserving the nutrients in manure making ...


A Survey On Subsurface Signal Propagation, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Dec 2020

A Survey On Subsurface Signal Propagation, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Wireless Underground Communication (WUC) is an emerging field that is being developed continuously. It provides secure mechanism of deploying nodes underground which shields them from any outside temperament or harsh weather conditions. This paper works towards introducing WUC and give a detail overview of WUC. It discusses system architecture of WUC along with the anatomy of the underground sensor motes deployed in WUC systems. It also compares Over-the-Air and Underground and highlights the major differences between the both type of channels. Since, UG communication is an evolving field, this paper also presents the evolution of the field along with the ...


Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence In Aquatic Environments, Josephus F. Borsuah, Tiffany L. Messer, Daniel D. Snow, Steve D. Comfort, Aaron R. Mittelstet Dec 2020

Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence In Aquatic Environments, Josephus F. Borsuah, Tiffany L. Messer, Daniel D. Snow, Steve D. Comfort, Aaron R. Mittelstet

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Neonicotinoids have been the most commonly used insecticides since the early 1990s. Despite their efficacy in improving crop protection and management, these agrochemicals have gained recent attention for their negative impacts on non-target species such as honeybees and aquatic invertebrates. In recent years, neonicotinoids have been detected in rivers and streams across the world. Determining and predicting the exposure potential of neonicotinoids in surface water requires a thorough understanding of their fate and transport mechanisms. Therefore, our objective was to provide a comprehensive review of neonicotinoids with a focus on their fate and transport mechanisms to and within surface waters ...