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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Leveraging Biological Mechanisms In Machine Learning, Kyle J. Rogers Jun 2024

Leveraging Biological Mechanisms In Machine Learning, Kyle J. Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis integrates biologically-inspired mechanisms into machine learning to develop novel tuning algorithms, gradient abstractions for depth-wise parallelism, and an original bias neuron design. We introduce neuromodulatory tuning, which uses neurotransmitter-inspired bias adjustments to enhance transfer learning in spiking and non-spiking neural networks, significantly reducing parameter usage while maintaining performance. Additionally, we propose a novel approach that decouples the backward pass of backpropagation using layer abstractions, inspired by feedback loops in biological systems, enabling depth-wise training parallelization. We further extend neuromodulatory tuning by designing spiking bias neurons that mimic dopamine neuron mechanisms, leading to the development of volumetric tuning. This …


Investigation Of Collision Cross Sections & Time-Resolved Structural Modification Of Biomolecules, Host-Guest Systems, & Small Molecules Using Ion Mobility & Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Noah Mismash Jun 2024

Investigation Of Collision Cross Sections & Time-Resolved Structural Modification Of Biomolecules, Host-Guest Systems, & Small Molecules Using Ion Mobility & Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Noah Mismash

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the structures and structural changes of supramolecular host-guest systems, proteins, and other small molecules in the gas phase, utilizing a combination of computational modeling and experimental data. The primary instruments employed were a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) and an ion mobility mass spectrometer (IM-MS). In the IM-MS experiments, the focus was on investigating the binding behavior of cyclodextrin macrocycles—specifically α, β, and γ-cyclodextrin—with per-fluoroalkane substances (PFAS), which are pervasive environmental contaminants. This investigation involved measuring ion-neutral collision cross sections and using computational modeling to determine whether PFAS compounds bind inside or outside the …


Minimal Specialization: The Coevolution Of Network Structure And Dynamics, Annika King May 2024

Minimal Specialization: The Coevolution Of Network Structure And Dynamics, Annika King

Theses and Dissertations

The changing topology of a network is driven by the need to maintain or optimize network function. As this function is often related to moving quantities such as traffic, information, etc., efficiently through the network, the structure of the network and the dynamics on the network directly depend on the other. To model this interplay of network structure and dynamics we use the dynamics on the network, or the dynamical processes the network models, to influence the dynamics of the network structure, i.e., to determine where and when to modify the network structure. We model the dynamics on the network …


Dna-Templated Nanofabrication Of Metal-Semiconductor Heterojunctions And Their Electrical Characterization, Chao Pang May 2024

Dna-Templated Nanofabrication Of Metal-Semiconductor Heterojunctions And Their Electrical Characterization, Chao Pang

Theses and Dissertations

Bottom-up nanofabrication, although still in its early stages with formidable challenges, is considered a potential alternative method to address the limitations of traditional top-down techniques by offering benefits including process simplification, cost reduction, and environmental friendliness. DNA-templated nanofabrication, one of the most powerful bottom-up methods, presents an innovative way to create advanced nanoelectronics. In this approach, nanomaterials with specific electronic, photonic, or other functions are precisely and programmably positioned on DNA nanostructures from a disordered collection of smaller parts. These self-assembled structures offer significant potential for improving many fields such as biosensing, drug delivery and electronic device manufacturing. This dissertation …


A Bilevel Approach To Resource Allocation For Utility-Based Request-Response Systems, Tanner Jack Sundwall May 2024

A Bilevel Approach To Resource Allocation For Utility-Based Request-Response Systems, Tanner Jack Sundwall

Theses and Dissertations

We present a novel bilevel programming formulation that aims to solve a resource allocation problem for request-response systems. Our formulation is motivated by potential inefficiencies in the allocation of computational resources to incoming user requests in such systems. In our experience, systems often operate with a surplus of resources despite potentially incurring unjustifiable cost. Our work attempts to optimize the tradeoff between the financial cost of resources and the opportunity cost of unfulfilled user demand. Our bilevel formulation consists of an \textit{upper} problem which has a constraint value appearing in the \textit{lower} problem. We derive efficient methods for finding global …


Dissecting Trypanosome Metabolism By Discovering Glycolytic Inhibitors, Drug Targets, And Glycosomal Ph Regulation, Daniel Hale Call May 2024

Dissecting Trypanosome Metabolism By Discovering Glycolytic Inhibitors, Drug Targets, And Glycosomal Ph Regulation, Daniel Hale Call

Theses and Dissertations

Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, and its relatives Trypanosoma cruzi and several Leishmania species belong to a class of protozoa called kinetoplastids that cause a significant health burden in tropical and semitropical countries across the world. While an improved therapy was recently approved for African trypanosomiasis, the therapies available to treat infections caused by T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. remain relatively poor. Improving our understanding of T. brucei metabolism can inform on metabolism of its relatives. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation was to develop novel tools and methods to study metabolism in T. …


Model Of The Effect Of Voltage On Contact Angle In An Electrolytic Cell Reaction, Aaron Essilfie May 2024

Model Of The Effect Of Voltage On Contact Angle In An Electrolytic Cell Reaction, Aaron Essilfie

Reviews, Analyses, and Instructional Studies in Electrochemistry (RAISE)

This paper investigates the hypothesis that the contact angle at the meniscus of an electrode-electrolyte can be altered during a redox reaction through the coupled understanding of electrowetting and capillarity rise. Recent studies in electrowetting have focused on dielectric surfaces but research on contact angle at the electrode-electrolyte surface is lacking. The study employs a basic electrolytic cell. By applying principles of electrowetting and capillary rise the research aims to understand the relationship between applied voltage and contact angle, to advancements in electrochemistry and microfluidics.


An Overview Of How To Measure The Kinetic Properties Of An Anode Material For The Chlorine Evolution Reaction, Cameron Vann May 2024

An Overview Of How To Measure The Kinetic Properties Of An Anode Material For The Chlorine Evolution Reaction, Cameron Vann

Reviews, Analyses, and Instructional Studies in Electrochemistry (RAISE)

The process of generating chlorine gas using electrolysis in aqueous systems is well established. However, a new process requires chlorine to be generated at high temperatures using molten salt. This harsh environment requires a new study of anode materials for the chlorine evolution reaction. Anode materials can be compared by their kinetic parameters, the transfer coefficient α and the exchange current i0. The basic theory of these properties as they relate to the chlorine evolution reaction has been detailed and an analysis method for finding these effective parameters has been shown and demonstrated.


Model To Demonstrate Effects Of Mass Transfer And Applied Current In An Electrolytic Cell, George Ankrah May 2024

Model To Demonstrate Effects Of Mass Transfer And Applied Current In An Electrolytic Cell, George Ankrah

Reviews, Analyses, and Instructional Studies in Electrochemistry (RAISE)

This study investigates the relationship between applied current and resulting cell potential in an electrolytic system, considering the transport of electroactive species. By applying Michael Faraday's laws of electrolysis and the Nernst-Planck equation, the behavior of electroactive species in diffusion-controlled systems with and without stirring is modeled. The plots demonstrate how stirring enhances ion transport and establishes a stable Nernst diffusion layer, affecting the kinetics of electrochemical reactions. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for optimizing electrolysis processes.


Review Of Cyclic Voltammetry Measurements For Uranium In Flinak Molten Salt, Jackson Ivory May 2024

Review Of Cyclic Voltammetry Measurements For Uranium In Flinak Molten Salt, Jackson Ivory

Reviews, Analyses, and Instructional Studies in Electrochemistry (RAISE)

The electrochemical behavior of uranium FLiNaK molten salts is explored, focusing on cyclic voltammetry (CV) as a powerful tool for redox characterization and diffusion studies. Through a comprehensive review of recent research, the study highlights the significance of CV in understanding electrode kinetics, material compatibility, and process optimization in molten salt environments. The findings underscore the potential of FLiNaK molten salt reactors in advancing nuclear energy technologies, fuel processing, and waste management strategies. Collaborative interdisciplinary efforts are emphasized to address challenges and accelerate innovation in electrochemical methods for nuclear applications.


Probing The Surface Structure Of Ferrocene Modified Electrodes Using Cyclic Voltammetry, Rebekah S. Stanley May 2024

Probing The Surface Structure Of Ferrocene Modified Electrodes Using Cyclic Voltammetry, Rebekah S. Stanley

Reviews, Analyses, and Instructional Studies in Electrochemistry (RAISE)

Modifying electrodes imparts new electrochemical properties for use in various applications. To fully understand these electrochemical properties the structure of the modified surface needs to be characterized. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) offers a quick and simple way to determine if the surface structure has been homogeneously modified even at low surface concentrations. Nonideal responses in CV scans give insights to the microenvironments and structure of the monolayer surface that may be indistinguishable in other techniques. Peak fitting CV data, coupled with other surface techniques, can further characterize the contributions and nature of these microenvironments and aid in structural determination.


An Investigation Of The Interactions Of Gradient Coherence And Network Pruning In Neural Networks, Zachary Yauney Apr 2024

An Investigation Of The Interactions Of Gradient Coherence And Network Pruning In Neural Networks, Zachary Yauney

Theses and Dissertations

We investigate the coherent gradient hypothesis and show that the coherence measurements are different on real and random data regardless of the network's initialization. We introduce "diffs," an attempt at an element-wise approximation at coherence, and investigate their properties. We study how coherence is affected by increasing the width of simple fully-connected networks. We then prune those fully-connected networks and find that sparse networks outperform dense networks with the same number of nonzero parameters. In addition, we show that it is possible to increase the performance of a sparse network by scaling the size of the dense parent network it …


Trip - Transformer Interatomic Potential Predicts Realistic Energy Surface Using Physical Bias, Bryce Eric Hedelius Apr 2024

Trip - Transformer Interatomic Potential Predicts Realistic Energy Surface Using Physical Bias, Bryce Eric Hedelius

Theses and Dissertations

Accurate interatomic energies and forces enable high-quality molecular dynamics simulations, torsion scans, potential energy surface mapping, and geometry optimization. Machine learning algorithms have enabled rapid estimates of energies and forces with high accuracy. Further development of machine learning algorithms holds promise for producing general potentials that support dozens of atomic species. I present my own Transformer Interatomic Potential (TrIP): a chemically sound potential based on the SE(3)-Transformer. TrIP's species-agnostic architecture--using continuous atomic representation and homogenous graph convolutions--encourages parameter sharing between atomic species for more general representations of chemical environments, keeps a reasonable number of parameters, serves as a form of …


Head Tail Open: Open Tailed Classification Of Imbalanced Document Data, Chetan Joshi Apr 2024

Head Tail Open: Open Tailed Classification Of Imbalanced Document Data, Chetan Joshi

Theses and Dissertations

Deep learning models for scanned document image classification and form understand- ing have made significant progress in the last few years. High accuracy can be achieved by a model with the help of copious amounts of labelled training data for closed-world classification. However, very little work has been done in the domain of fine-grained and head-tailed(class imbalance with some classes having high numbers of data points and some having a low number of data points) open-world classification for documents. Our proposed method achieves a better classification results than the baseline of the head-tail-novel/open dataset. Our techniques include separating the head-tail …


Unique K3 Surfaces With Purely Non-Symplectic Automorphism: Insights From Weighted Projective Spaceunique K3 Surfaces With Purely Non-Symplectic Automorphism:\\Insights From Weighted Projective Space, Elizabeth Melville Apr 2024

Unique K3 Surfaces With Purely Non-Symplectic Automorphism: Insights From Weighted Projective Spaceunique K3 Surfaces With Purely Non-Symplectic Automorphism:\\Insights From Weighted Projective Space, Elizabeth Melville

Theses and Dissertations

K3 surfaces have garnered attention across various fields, from optics and dynamics to high energy physics, making them a subject of extensive study for many decades. Recent work by mathematicians, including Brandhorst [1], has focused on non-symplectic automorphisms, aiming to categorize K3 surfaces that admit such automorphisms. Brandhorst made a list of unique K3 surfaces with purely non-symplectic automorphisms and established specific criteria for a K3 surface to be isomorphic to one on his list. This thesis aims to provide an alternative representation of select K3 surfaces from Brandhorst's list. While Brandhorst predominantly characterizes these surfaces as elliptic K3 surfaces, …


Multifunctional And Moisture Tolerant Zinc-Based Mono- And Bi-Metallic Metal-Organic Framework (Mof) Thin Films, Emmanuel Agbata Apr 2024

Multifunctional And Moisture Tolerant Zinc-Based Mono- And Bi-Metallic Metal-Organic Framework (Mof) Thin Films, Emmanuel Agbata

Theses and Dissertations

Many applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly dependent on their structures. The type and consistency of structure inform their properties. Zinc-based MOFs are applicable in different fields because of the low toxicity of zinc materials and are therefore also useful for catalysis. While MOF-5, a zinc-based MOF with carboxylate linkers is moisture intolerant, a variant of this is moisture tolerant. The introduction of a nitrogen-based linker in the zinc MOF which renders the structure moisture-tolerant. This material has not been explored as much, despite its multifunctional properties. Furthermore, the growth of Zn-based bimetallics of this MOF has not yet …


The Generation Of Terahertz Light And Its Applications In The Study Of Vibrational Motion, Aldair Alejandro Apr 2024

The Generation Of Terahertz Light And Its Applications In The Study Of Vibrational Motion, Aldair Alejandro

Theses and Dissertations

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a powerful tool that uses ultrashort pulses of light to study the properties of materials on picosecond time scales. THz light can be generated through a variety of methods. In our lab, we generate THz through the process of optical rectification in nonlinear optical (NLO) organic crystals. THz light can be used to study several phenomena in materials, such as spin precession, electron acceleration, vibrational and rotational motion. The work presented in this dissertation is divided into two parts: (1) the generation of THz light and (2) applications of THz light. The first portion of this …


Applying Mathematical Modeling To The Study Of Family Systems, Dahlia Maxwell Apr 2024

Applying Mathematical Modeling To The Study Of Family Systems, Dahlia Maxwell

Theses and Dissertations

Mathematical modeling provides a powerful framework for insight into current scientific theories as well as hypothesis generation for further research. Despite its undeniable potential to enrich scientific advancement, the application of mathematical modeling remains conspicuously scarce in the field of family science. The complexity inherent in family dynamics, coupled with the intricate interplay of emotions in the individual, underscores the necessity of a robust analytical approach. Addressing this critical gap in the literature, this thesis introduces a sophisticated mathematical model of family dynamics integrating essential elements from family systems theory, emotion dynamics, and appraisal theory. The model is implemented as …


Advancing Single-Cell Proteomics Through Innovations In Liquid Chromatography And Mass Spectrometry, Kei Grant Isaac Webber Apr 2024

Advancing Single-Cell Proteomics Through Innovations In Liquid Chromatography And Mass Spectrometry, Kei Grant Isaac Webber

Theses and Dissertations

Traditional proteomics studies can measure many protein biomarkers simultaneously from a single patient-derived sample, promising the possibility of syndromic diagnoses of multiple diseases sharing common symptoms. However, precious cellular-level information is lost in conventional bulk-scale studies that measure tissues comprising many types of cells. As single cells are the building blocks of organisms and are easier to biopsy than traditional bulk samples, performing proteomics on a single-cell level would benefit clinicians and patients. Single-cell proteomics, combined with mass spectrometry imaging, can be used to analyze cells in their microenvironment, preserving spatial information. We have previously used laser-capture microdissection to isolate …


Robot Proficiency Self-Assessment Using Assumption-Alignment Tracking, Xuan Cao Apr 2024

Robot Proficiency Self-Assessment Using Assumption-Alignment Tracking, Xuan Cao

Theses and Dissertations

A robot is proficient if its performance for its task(s) satisfies a specific standard. While the design of autonomous robots often emphasizes such proficiency, another important attribute of autonomous robot systems is their ability to evaluate their own proficiency. A robot should be able to conduct proficiency self-assessment (PSA), i.e. assess how well it can perform a task before, during, and after it has attempted the task. We propose the assumption-alignment tracking (AAT) method, which provides time-indexed assessments of the veracity of robot generators' assumptions, for designing autonomous robots that can effectively evaluate their own performance. AAT can be considered …


Reproduce Or Live Longer?: A Life History Analysis Of Black Bears In A Semiarid Environment, Brenden M. Orocu, Cambria Armstrong, Janene Auger, Hal L. Black, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. Mcmillan, Mark C. Belk Mar 2024

Reproduce Or Live Longer?: A Life History Analysis Of Black Bears In A Semiarid Environment, Brenden M. Orocu, Cambria Armstrong, Janene Auger, Hal L. Black, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. Mcmillan, Mark C. Belk

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

In population demographics, each population has an age stage vital rate (fecundity and survival) in its life history that has the greatest influence on the asymptotic population growth rate, λ.

American black bears (Ursus americanus) are found throughout North America. Other studies on population demographics have focused on populations in higher resource availability areas but none in semiarid environments where resource scarcity is a result of the variable climate.

Objective

Our objective was to determine if factors influencing population dynamics of black bears in semi-arid environments were similar to factors affecting population dynamics in mesic environments where …


Cell Motion And Multicellular Organization: A Mathematical Model For Pattern Formation In The Dictyostelium Discoideum Slug, Henry Tullis, Emily Evans, John Dallon Mar 2024

Cell Motion And Multicellular Organization: A Mathematical Model For Pattern Formation In The Dictyostelium Discoideum Slug, Henry Tullis, Emily Evans, John Dallon

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

Understanding multicellular behavior is key to biology and medicine

  • Embryonic development requires coordinated cell motion, differentiation
  • Wound healing also relies on emergent multicellular processes
  • Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) has been identified as a model organism for biomedical research, partly because it is a simple example of multicellularity
  • Understanding Dd can improve, inform approaches to these tricky problems


Cold And Traffic Tolerance Of Hybrid Bermudagrass And Kentucky Bluegrass In A Cool Season, Arid Climate, Caden J. Seely, H. Burgin, N. Hansen, G. Wear, Bryan G. Hopkins Mar 2024

Cold And Traffic Tolerance Of Hybrid Bermudagrass And Kentucky Bluegrass In A Cool Season, Arid Climate, Caden J. Seely, H. Burgin, N. Hansen, G. Wear, Bryan G. Hopkins

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

  • Due to climate change, warm-season Hybrid Bermudagrass (HBG) is beginning to be grown in northern climates.
  • This is potentially desirable because it may use less water than traditional species.
  • However, there is concern regarding winter kill and excessively long dormant periods.
  • There is particular interest in HBG with regards to sports turf, but there is concern with its ability to withstand heavy traffic damage when grown in a cool-season climate.

Objective: Assess the cold and traffic tolerance of common Bermudagrass [CBG; Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers.] and seven triploid interspecific hybrids (HBG; Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) in …


The Biomechanics Of Ursine Predation: Investigating The Force Generation And Mechanical Properties Of Bear Claws And Teeth In Predatory Behavior, Katie Dooley, Megan Doxey, Josh Jewell, Tom Smith Mar 2024

The Biomechanics Of Ursine Predation: Investigating The Force Generation And Mechanical Properties Of Bear Claws And Teeth In Predatory Behavior, Katie Dooley, Megan Doxey, Josh Jewell, Tom Smith

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2024

  • Studied over 2,200 human-bear conflicts in North America and witnessed the shear force that bears can exert to access food and eliminate any threats.
  • Polar bears at the Hogle Zoo in Salt Lake City punctured and bent high density polyurethane (HDPE) objects when playing with them.
  • This prompted research into the force it takes bears to puncture objects with their canines and claws.


N-H Nhc Palladium Catalysts Derived From Unique 2-Phosphinoimidazole Precursors For C-C Cross Coupling Reactions And Application Of Slow Releasing Polymers Impregnated With Gibberellic Acid To Overcome Seed Dormancy For Land Reclamation, Alexandra Jean Setelin Larson Mar 2024

N-H Nhc Palladium Catalysts Derived From Unique 2-Phosphinoimidazole Precursors For C-C Cross Coupling Reactions And Application Of Slow Releasing Polymers Impregnated With Gibberellic Acid To Overcome Seed Dormancy For Land Reclamation, Alexandra Jean Setelin Larson

Theses and Dissertations

Organometallic chemistry is highly dependent upon the ligands which are employed on a metal's surface. These ligands control steric bulk and electronics of the metal center which can change the reactivity of the organometallic complex. Ligands that are standard in organometallic chemistry include phosphine ligands. These phosphine ligands have been utilized in the field since the 1960's and have shaped the development of many key organometallic catalysts. Phosphine ligands are easily functionalized and highly reactive. This increased reactivity, however, causes severe limitations as phosphine ligands are often unstable under standard benchtop conditions and must be handled both air and moisture …


Gt-Ches And Dycon: Improved Classification For Human Evolutionary Systems, Joseph S. Johnson Mar 2024

Gt-Ches And Dycon: Improved Classification For Human Evolutionary Systems, Joseph S. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to rethink the process of learning in human evolutionary systems. We take a sober look at how game theory, network theory, and chaos theory pertain specifically to the modeling, data, and training components of generalization in human systems. The value of our research is three-fold. First, our work is a direct approach to align machine learning generalization with core behavioral theories. We made our best effort to directly reconcile the axioms of these heretofore incompatible disciplines -- rather than moving from AI/ML towards the behavioral theories while building exclusively on AI/ML intuition. Second, this …


Development Of Bifunctional Peptides As Scaffolds For Bifunctional Catalysis And A Novel Method Of Peptide Stapling Using Squaric Esters, Adam X. Wayment Mar 2024

Development Of Bifunctional Peptides As Scaffolds For Bifunctional Catalysis And A Novel Method Of Peptide Stapling Using Squaric Esters, Adam X. Wayment

Theses and Dissertations

Enzymes are some of nature's most powerful tools in chemical processes. However, their molecular complexity makes them difficult to synthesize and complicates their application in traditional organic synthesis. Peptides, a building block of enzymes, can be rapidly synthesized and have been used as a possible alternative in achieving enzyme-like catalysis. However, most peptide-based catalysts are limited in reaction-scope and are unable to incorporate traditional organic catalysts. We have designed a helical peptide scaffold capable of being functionalized with a wide variety of organocatalysts as well as transition-metal based catalysts. In order to understand how the peptide structure effects reactivity and …


Raw Nmr Data For Tripeptides, David J. Michaelis, Scott R. Burt, Mariur Rodriguez Moreno, Nye C. Johnson, Christopher B. Stewart, Mary L. Setelin, Adam X. Wayment, Braxton M. Felix Feb 2024

Raw Nmr Data For Tripeptides, David J. Michaelis, Scott R. Burt, Mariur Rodriguez Moreno, Nye C. Johnson, Christopher B. Stewart, Mary L. Setelin, Adam X. Wayment, Braxton M. Felix

ScholarsArchive Data

This data set contains primary data for 50 tripeptides that were generated as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory experience in solid phase peptide synthesis. The raw data can be processed sing NMR interpretation software and can be used as problems for exams and quizzes or as supplementary materials for a laboratory experience


Historical Ozone Isopleths For Salt Lake Valley, Ut, Usa, Callum Flowerday, Isaac Sudweeks, Brad Adams, Jaron C. Hansen Feb 2024

Historical Ozone Isopleths For Salt Lake Valley, Ut, Usa, Callum Flowerday, Isaac Sudweeks, Brad Adams, Jaron C. Hansen

ScholarsArchive Data

EPA quality assured data, collected by the Utah Division of Air Quality, was used for this analysis.


Historical Analysis Of Urban Dust Generated By The Great Salt Lake Playa, Callum Flowerday, Jaron C. Hansen, Rebekah Stanley, Kaitlyn Brewster Feb 2024

Historical Analysis Of Urban Dust Generated By The Great Salt Lake Playa, Callum Flowerday, Jaron C. Hansen, Rebekah Stanley, Kaitlyn Brewster

ScholarsArchive Data

Historical PM10 filters, provided by the Utah Division of Air Quality, were analyzed for elemental composition of various metals. This was done using ICP-MS.

Also included, EPA PM10 historical data and bathymetry data provided by the Utah USGS.