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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Short-Range Magnetic Correlations, Spontaneous Magnetovolume Effect, And Local Distortion In Magnetic Semiconductor Mnte, Raju Baral Dec 2022

Short-Range Magnetic Correlations, Spontaneous Magnetovolume Effect, And Local Distortion In Magnetic Semiconductor Mnte, Raju Baral

Theses and Dissertations

The antiferromagnetic semiconductor MnTe has recently attracted significant interest as a potential high-performance thermoelectric material. Its promising thermoelectric properties are due in large part to short-range magnetic correlations in the paramagnetic state, which enhance the thermopower through the paramagnon drag effect. Using magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) analysis of neutron total scattering data, we present a detailed, real-space picture of the short-range magnetic correlation in MnTe, offering a deeper view into the paramagnon drag effect and the nature of the correlated paramagnetic state. We confirm the presence of nanometer-scale antiferromagnetic correlations far into the paramagnetic state, show the evolution of …


Quantifying Volatile Fatty Acid Concentrations During The Pretreatment And Anaerobic Digestion Process, Sascha Boutelle Dec 2022

Quantifying Volatile Fatty Acid Concentrations During The Pretreatment And Anaerobic Digestion Process, Sascha Boutelle

Theses and Dissertations

Producing renewable energy from biomass or from the wastewater treatment process has gained momentum in the past 20 years. Anaerobic digestion has historically been used as one step in the waste treatment process, to both reduce the mass of waste that needs to be disposed of and to generate biogas. This process is typically only able to reduce 30-40% of the waste mass because of the recalcitrant nature of the waste streams being treated. Anaerobic pretreatment with the thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (C. bescii) has been proven to increase the percentage of mass digested and consequently increase methane production to …


Effect Of X-Ray Illumination On Magnetic Domain Memory In [Co/Pd]/Irmn Multilayers, Colby Singint Walker Dec 2022

Effect Of X-Ray Illumination On Magnetic Domain Memory In [Co/Pd]/Irmn Multilayers, Colby Singint Walker

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on investigating the possible x-ray illumination effects on the magnetic domain memory (MDM) in magnetic [Co/Pd]IrMn multilayers. In this material, MDM is induced via exchange couplings between the ferromagnetic Co/Pd layer and the antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. To carry out this investigation, we have used magneto-transport and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering. The use of magneto-transport in-situ at synchrotron x-ray scattering facility has allowed us to follow the gradual effect of x-ray illumination on the amount of exchange bias, initially present after field cooling the material. With our in-situ measurements we have been able to see that x-ray illumination …


A Usability Study Of Fido2 Hardware Tokens On Mobile Devices, Stephen Lambert Dec 2022

A Usability Study Of Fido2 Hardware Tokens On Mobile Devices, Stephen Lambert

Theses and Dissertations

Passwords as the primary form of authentication on the web have many issues, such as password re-use across sites and difficulty in remembering secure passwords. The FIDO Alliance has created a passwordless system that has with support from companies like Google, Apple, and Microsoft: FIDO2. Studies have shown so far that users find FIDO2 usable on personal computers, but no work has been published on its usability on mobile devices. I conducted a lab study in which participants used FIDO2 passwordless authentication with hardware tokens on a mobile phone. Participants found FIDO2 usable on mobile devices, but had similar fears …


Determining Figure Skating Jump Under-Rotation In Real-Time Using Imu Sensors During Practice, Duncan O. Furgeson Dec 2022

Determining Figure Skating Jump Under-Rotation In Real-Time Using Imu Sensors During Practice, Duncan O. Furgeson

Theses and Dissertations

We explore the use of machine learning to detect under-rotation in figure skating jumps. Under- rotation in jumps is difficult for the skater to sense but learning to recognize under-rotation is an impor- tant part of learning proper jump technique. To address this difficulty, we present the Under-rotation Monitor, or UR Monitor, a system for detecting under-rotated figure skating jumps in real-time. UR Monitor uses a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the skater's waist that sends a stream of accelerometer and gyroscope data to a mobile phone via Bluetooth. The mobile phone creates and sends an input vector …


Computational Studies Of Dinuclear Catalytic Reaction Mechanisms, James Curtis Coombs Iii Dec 2022

Computational Studies Of Dinuclear Catalytic Reaction Mechanisms, James Curtis Coombs Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Heterodinuclear and homodinuclear metal complexes with a direct metal-metal interaction offer the potential for unique catalysis due to cooperativity effects that impact reaction mechanisms, reactivity, and selectivity. Quantum-chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations can directly examine the origin of dinuclear reactivity and selectivity effects. Chapter 1 provides a short overview of heterodinuclear and homodinuclear catalysts that have been experimentally and computationally examined. Chapter 2 reports our study using DFT methods to understand the mechanism and reactivity of a heterodinuclear Co-Zr catalyst with phosphinoamide ligands that catalyzes a Kumada coupling between alkyl halides and alkyl Grignards. Chapter 3 reports DFT calculations …


Wildfire Modeling With Data Assimilation, Andrew Johnston Dec 2022

Wildfire Modeling With Data Assimilation, Andrew Johnston

Theses and Dissertations

Wildfire modeling is a complex, computationally costly endeavor, but with droughts worsening and fires burning across the western United States, obtaining accurate wildfire predictions is more important than ever. In this paper, we present a novel approach to wildfire modeling using data assimiliation. We model wildfire spread with a modification of the partial differential equation model described by Mandel et al. in their 2008 paper. Specifically, we replace some constant parameter values with geospatial functions of fuel type. We combine deep learning and remote sensing to obtain real-time data for the model and employ the Nelder-Mead method to recover optimal …


Complete Equitable Decompositions, Joseph Paul Drapeau Dec 2022

Complete Equitable Decompositions, Joseph Paul Drapeau

Theses and Dissertations

A well-known result in spectral graph theory states that if a graph has an equitable partition then the eigenvalues of the associated divisor graph are a subset of the graph's eigenvalues. A natural question question is whether it is possible to recover the remaining eigenvalues of the graph. Here we show that if a graph has a Hermitian adjacency matrix then the spectrum of the graph can be decomposed into a collection of smaller graphs whose eigenvalues are collectively the remaining eigenvalues of the graph. This we refer to as a complete equitable decomposition of the graph.


Structural Reasoning With Rational Expressions, Dana Steinhorst Dec 2022

Structural Reasoning With Rational Expressions, Dana Steinhorst

Theses and Dissertations

Many students struggle to make sense of algebraic expressions in math. This lack of understanding results in students making symbolic manipulation errors, hindering their procedural fluency. Researchers believe these errors are linked to students' lack of structural reasoning. While research has shown that students rarely engage in expert structural reasoning, little is known about how students actually reason structurally. In this study, I interviewed six high school calculus students to study the way they identified, matched, and evaluated structures as they solved problems involving rational expressions and equations. I analyzed the participant interviews and outlined the matching process they used …


Developing A Quantitative Understanding Of U-Substitution In First-Semester Calculus, Leilani Camille Heaton Fonbuena Dec 2022

Developing A Quantitative Understanding Of U-Substitution In First-Semester Calculus, Leilani Camille Heaton Fonbuena

Theses and Dissertations

In much of calculus teaching there is an overemphasis on procedures and manipulation of symbols and insufficient emphasis on conceptual understanding of calculus topics. As such students to struggle to understand and use calculus ideas in applied settings. Research shows that learning calculus topics from a quantitative reasoning-perspective results in more powerful and flexible conceptions of calculus topics like integration. However, topics beyond introducing integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, like u-substitution, have yet to be explored from a quantity-based perspective. In this study, I conducted a set of two clinical interviews where we discussed quantitative meanings of integrals, …


Determination Of A Catalytic Mechanism By Time Resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy And Time Domain Analysis Of Data From Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Jacob T. Davis Dec 2022

Determination Of A Catalytic Mechanism By Time Resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy And Time Domain Analysis Of Data From Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Jacob T. Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Heterobimetallic catalysts offer large potential for efficient and selective catalysis of a wide range of reactions. Better understanding of these catalytic mechanisms could yield further improvement in their catalytic abilities. Cp(CO)2Fe-Cu(IPr) (IPr = N,N-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) is a catalyst that has been reported to catalyze arene borylation. The catalytic mechanism of this catalyst that had been previously proposed had the initial step being a metal-metal cleavage. However, computational modeling suggested an alternate mechanism that could be more energetically favorable. Rather than a metal-metal cleavage as the initial step, we proposed a photoactivated carbonyl dissociation. To support this proposition, we performed time resolved …


Single-Shot, Ultrafast, Multi-Frame X-Ray Imaging Of Defect-Bearing Ablator Materials In Extreme Conditions, Daniel S. Hodge Dec 2022

Single-Shot, Ultrafast, Multi-Frame X-Ray Imaging Of Defect-Bearing Ablator Materials In Extreme Conditions, Daniel S. Hodge

Theses and Dissertations

Characterization of the dynamic behavior of defect-bearing ablator materials subjected to extreme conditions is essential in advancing fusion energy as an reliable and abundant energy source. By understanding how materials evolve spatially and temporally we can minimize hydrodynamic instabilities, which are major contributing factors to energy yield degradation in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. In this thesis we demonstrate the capabilities of an ultrafast x-ray imaging (UXI) detector, the Icarus V2, where we capture multiple frames of single void-bearing sample compressed by a high-intensity laser shockwave. Using the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source …


Zeros Of A Family Of Complex-Valued Harmonic Rational Functions, Alexander Lee Dec 2022

Zeros Of A Family Of Complex-Valued Harmonic Rational Functions, Alexander Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra is a useful tool in determining the number of zeros of complex-valued polynomials and rational functions. It does not, however, apply to complex-valued harmonic polynomials and rational functions generally. In this thesis, we determine behaviors of the family of complex-valued harmonic functions $f_{c}(z) = z^{n} + \frac{c}{\overline{z}^{k}} - 1$ that defy intuition for analytic polynomials. We first determine the sum of the orders of zeros by using the harmonic analogue of Rouch\'e's Theorem. We then determine useful geometry of the critical curve and its image in order to count winding numbers by applying the harmonic …


Identity Work To Teach Mathematics For Social Justice, Navy B. Dixon Dec 2022

Identity Work To Teach Mathematics For Social Justice, Navy B. Dixon

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, mathematics educators are conceptualized as individuals with multiple, simultaneous figured worlds that inform their decisions while planning. The study explores how two mathematics educators negotiated and orchestrated their figured worlds to plan two mathematics lessons for social justice. The results highlight how numerous the figured worlds each participant surfaced through background interviews. Some of the figured worlds were elicited by the interview questions (i.e., Race, Family, Social Justice Teaching) but other figured worlds organically surfaced through the interviews (i.e., Sexuality, Community, Activism, Critical Information Consumption). A discursive analysis of a selection of these figured worlds revealed conceptualizations …


Facies Architecture And Provenance Of The Highly Progradational, Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Depositional System Of The Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation On The North Slope Of Alaska, Sarah N. Naone Dec 2022

Facies Architecture And Provenance Of The Highly Progradational, Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Depositional System Of The Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation On The North Slope Of Alaska, Sarah N. Naone

Theses and Dissertations

The Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation of northern Alaska records extremely rapid shoreline progradation across the Colville Basin during the Albian-Cenomanian epochs. Additionally, it records a period of tectonic realignment in the region, as the main sediment source began to transition from the Chukotkan orogeny to the west to a more local sediment source of the proximal Brooks Range to the south. Through detailed outcrop characterization and 3-D modeling of three exposed outcrops along the axial trend of the Colville Basin on the North Slope and the Upper section of the Nanushuk, this study clarifies the relative timing of the early Brookian …


Evaluating Multi-Agent Modeller Representations, Jonathan Demke Nov 2022

Evaluating Multi-Agent Modeller Representations, Jonathan Demke

Theses and Dissertations

The way a multi-agent modeller represents an agent not only affects its ability to reason about agents but also the interpretability of its representation space as well as its efficacy on future downstream tasks. We utilize and repurpose metrics from the field of representation learning to specifically analyze and compare multi-agent modellers that build real-valued vector representations of the agents they model. By generating two datasets and analyzing the representations of multiple LSTM- or transformer-based modellers with various embedding sizes, we demonstrate that representation metrics provide a more complete and nuanced picture of a modeller's representation space than an analysis …


Design And Evaluation Of Miniaturized Ion Trap Mass Analyzers Using Simulation, Radhya Weligama Gamage Oct 2022

Design And Evaluation Of Miniaturized Ion Trap Mass Analyzers Using Simulation, Radhya Weligama Gamage

Theses and Dissertations

Mass spectrometry is a technique that analyzes the chemical compositions of compounds based on the mass-to-charge ratio of their ionized constituents. Miniaturized ion trap mass spectrometry finds application in a wide range of fields where portable, rugged, and reliable analytical instruments are required. Ion traps of various designs have been introduced over the past decades, each with their own unique advantages and capabilities. However, the process of developing a novel miniaturized ion trap mass spectrometer continues to be fraught with challenges. This dissertation discusses simulation studies pertaining to the development of a novel dual ion trap, the simplified coaxial ion …


Stemficohort1preinterviewdata, Rebecca L. Sansom, Bryn Stclair, Jamie Jensen, Richard West Oct 2022

Stemficohort1preinterviewdata, Rebecca L. Sansom, Bryn Stclair, Jamie Jensen, Richard West

ScholarsArchive Data

The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty institute (STEMFI) is a National Science Foundation funded project designed to provide support, measurement, and training to BYU faculty developing their own student-centered curriculum.

This PDF file contains pre-institute participation interview data from the first cohort of faculty involved in the STEM faculty institute (2018).


Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry Using Printed Circuit Board Arrays For The Analysis Of Microparticles In The Martian Atmosphere, Elaura Luanne Gustafson Sep 2022

Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry Using Printed Circuit Board Arrays For The Analysis Of Microparticles In The Martian Atmosphere, Elaura Luanne Gustafson

Theses and Dissertations

Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is a single particle technique capable of simultaneously measuring charge and mass-to-charge ratios for individual ions or particles. The linear array CDMS design theoretically has no upper mass limit and is therefore a choice method for the analysis of high mass and heterogeneous samples, such as dust microparticles in the Martian atmosphere. This dissertation describes the development of a novel charge detection mass spectrometer made of printed circuit boards (PCB) for the analysis of dust microparticles in the Martian atmosphere. Development of this device has required investigations in analysis methods and the engineering design of …


An Analog For Large-Scale Lacustrine Deposits: 3d Characterization Of A Pleistocene Lake Bonneville Spit, Eli D. Lopez Sep 2022

An Analog For Large-Scale Lacustrine Deposits: 3d Characterization Of A Pleistocene Lake Bonneville Spit, Eli D. Lopez

Theses and Dissertations

Ultra-high-resolution subsurface stratigraphy mapped from 3D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can provide insights into the fine-scale heterogeneity of reservoirs and other geologic features. Analog models derived from 3D GPR aid in understanding reservoir compartmentalization that may be sub-seismic but still affect fluid flow. We integrate 2D profiles and 3D GPR volumes with measured stratigraphic sections from outcrop exposure to characterize the fine-scale stratigraphy of an ancient Lake Bonneville shoreline deposit (locally, circa 20 ka based on carbon-14 dating) in the Great Basin (northwestern Utah). The heterogeneity of the deposit is expressed as multiple discordant patterns, separated by unconformities that likely were …


Air Quality Impacts From Mineral Dust, Fireworks, And Urban Pollution Revealed By Trace Element Chemistry And Strontium Isotopes Ratios In The Wasatch Front, Utah, Usa, Micah J. Marcy Aug 2022

Air Quality Impacts From Mineral Dust, Fireworks, And Urban Pollution Revealed By Trace Element Chemistry And Strontium Isotopes Ratios In The Wasatch Front, Utah, Usa, Micah J. Marcy

Theses and Dissertations

Airborne particulate matter (PM) in urban areas is derived from a combination of natural and anthropogenic sources. To identify PM sources and their effects on air quality, we collected PM using active filter samplers over a two-year period in the urban Wasatch Front, northern Utah, an area affected by multiple pollution sources. Filters from active samplers and other PM samples were analyzed for major and trace element concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. We identified wind-blown mineral dust from dry lake beds, winter inversions, and fireworks as primary PM sources affecting air quality in the Wasatch Front. Dust contributes Al, Be, Ca, …


Still No Crystal Ball: Toward An Application For Broad Evaluation Of Student Understanding, Piper Armstrong Aug 2022

Still No Crystal Ball: Toward An Application For Broad Evaluation Of Student Understanding, Piper Armstrong

Theses and Dissertations

Evaluation of student understanding of learning material is critical to effective teaching. Current computer-aided evaluation tools exist, such as Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT); however, they require expert knowledge to implement and update. We propose a novel task, to create an evaluation tool that can predict student performance (knowledge) based on general performance on test questions without expert curation of the questions or expert understanding of the evaluation tool. We implement two methods for creating such a tool, find both methods lacking, and urge further investigation.


Design And Characterization Of A Miniaturized Spectrometer For Wearable Applications, Tyler Richard Westover Aug 2022

Design And Characterization Of A Miniaturized Spectrometer For Wearable Applications, Tyler Richard Westover

Theses and Dissertations

As individual health monitors continue to become more widely adopted in helping individuals make informed decisions, new technologies need to be developed to obtain more biometric data. Spectroscopy is a well-known tool to gain biological information. Traditionally spectrometers are large and expensive making personal or wearable health monitors difficult. Here we present the development and characterization of a miniaturized short wavelength infrared spectrometer for wearable applications. We present a carbon nanotube parallel hole collimator can effectively select a narrow set of allowed angles of light to be separated by a linear variable filter and detected at a photodiode array making …


Distribution And Transportation Of Sand And Potential Sand Source Materials On Titan: Implications For The Geologic History, Benjamin Dean Lake Aug 2022

Distribution And Transportation Of Sand And Potential Sand Source Materials On Titan: Implications For The Geologic History, Benjamin Dean Lake

Theses and Dissertations

Titan is an important planetary body for aeolian research because of the vast equatorial sand seas that span 20% of its surface. Previous studies have determined the general margins of sand and sand seas on Titan, and have speculated about the source of Titan's sand. Little research has been done concerning where sand collects in the sand seas. Additionally, the relationships be-tween material distributions as observed by the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and the history of erosion and transportation of sediments across equatorial latitudes is not fully understood. This work focuses on an in depth evaluation of …


Measuring Nonlinear Thomson Scattering At Arbitrary Emission Angles, Mahonri Romero Carranza Aug 2022

Measuring Nonlinear Thomson Scattering At Arbitrary Emission Angles, Mahonri Romero Carranza

Theses and Dissertations

We use photon-counting to measure nonlinear Thomson scattering from low-density electrons in an intense laser focus. The azimuthal and longitudinal polarization components of the second harmonic are measured across much of the full emission sphere. The data show, for the first time experimentally, emission structure in the ‘Northern’ and ‘Southern’ hemispheres, where the ‘North Pole’ aligns with the direction of laser propagation. To obtain these measurements, we installed an additional power amplifier on our Ti:sapphire laser system at BYU. The upgrade delivers ten times more energy to the laser focus than we had previously. This increase comes partly from the …


Multiscale Modeling And Analysis Of X-Ray Windows, Microcantilevers, And Bioimpedance Microelectrodes, Kyle Grant Larsen Aug 2022

Multiscale Modeling And Analysis Of X-Ray Windows, Microcantilevers, And Bioimpedance Microelectrodes, Kyle Grant Larsen

Theses and Dissertations

X-ray detector windows must be thin enough to transmit sufficient low-energy x-rays, yet strong enough to withstand up to an atmosphere of differential pressure. Traditional low-energy x-ray windows consist of a support layer and pressure membrane spanning that support. Numerical modeling of several x-ray windows was used to show that both low- and high-energy x-ray transmission can be improved by adding a secondary support structure. Finite element analysis of the x-ray window models showed that the stress from a typical applied load does not exceed the ultimate strength or yield strength of the respective materials. The specific x-ray window models …


Considerations For And Development Of Sound Level Maps For The M16a4 Rifle, Reese D. Rasband Aug 2022

Considerations For And Development Of Sound Level Maps For The M16a4 Rifle, Reese D. Rasband

Theses and Dissertations

Small firearms can create sound levels exceeding the safe threshold of human hearing with even one shot. Understanding how the sound propagates will lead to better range and military drill design. This thesis describes errors associated with different predictive interpolation models for the M16A4. Before directly discussing potential sources of error, the thesis first seeks to validate the data acquired. This is done through waveform inspection with a focus on shot-to-shot consistency. Finding the standard deviation in level between a 10-shot volley provides a good baseline with which other sources of error can be compared to. For both peak and …


A Machine Learning Approach That Integrates Clinical Data And Ptm Proteomics Identifies A Mechanism Of Ack1 Activation And Stabilization In Cancer, Eranga Roshan Balasooriya Loku Balasooriyage Aug 2022

A Machine Learning Approach That Integrates Clinical Data And Ptm Proteomics Identifies A Mechanism Of Ack1 Activation And Stabilization In Cancer, Eranga Roshan Balasooriya Loku Balasooriyage

Theses and Dissertations

Identification of novel cancer driver mutations is crucial for targeted cancer therapy, yet a difficult task especially for low frequency drivers. To identify cancer driver mutations, we developed a machine learning (ML) model to predict cancer hotspots. Here, we applied the ML program to 32 non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) and identified 36 potential cancer driver mutations, with high probability mutations in 10 genes, including ABL1, ABL2, JAK1, JAK3, and ACK1. ACK1 is a member of the poorly understood ACK family of NRTKs that also includes TNK1. Although ACK1 is an established oncogene and high-interest therapeutic target, the exact mechanism of …


Ion Structure Characterization And Energetics In The Gas Phase Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry And Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Tina Heravi Aug 2022

Ion Structure Characterization And Energetics In The Gas Phase Using Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry And Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Tina Heravi

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I used Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to study the structure and energetics of supramolecular complex ions in the gas phase. Using the CRAFTI (cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance) technique developed by Dearden’s lab we observed that complexes with alkali cations capping the portals of cucurbit[5]uril (CB[5]) bind halide anions size-selectively in the gas phase. Our data suggest that Cl– binds inside the CB[5] cavity, Br– binds both inside (with Na+ions capping the portals of CB[5]) and outside (when K+caps CB[5]), and I– binds weakly …


Understanding The Complexities Of Anemia In Chronic Inflammatory Diseases From Diagnosis To Treatment, Naomi Rae Flindt Aug 2022

Understanding The Complexities Of Anemia In Chronic Inflammatory Diseases From Diagnosis To Treatment, Naomi Rae Flindt

Theses and Dissertations

Iron is an essential nutrient for energy and DNA replication. Its homeostasis is commonly perturbed by chronic inflammatory mechanisms. Chronic inflammation upregulates a cytokine, hepcidin, that degrades the iron export protein ferroportin. Without a way to export iron into the bloodstream iron availability in blood becomes depleted. Iron depletion in the blood stream hinders erythropoiesis and is termed anemia. Herein I investigate and inhibit the mechanism of hepcidin activation. Inhibition of hepcidin activation has released iron from tissues and alleviated anemic conditions in a cancer model. I have laid the foundation to investigate this pathway in a 3D spheroid model. …