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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Pathways Of Systemic Dissemination Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Mice, Vitaly V. Ganusov May 2024

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Pathways Of Systemic Dissemination Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Mice, Vitaly V. Ganusov

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Incorporating Adaptive Human Behavior Into Epidemiological Models Using Equation Learning, Austin Barton, Jordan Klein, Jonathan Greer, Kevin Flores, Patrick Haughey Nov 2023

Incorporating Adaptive Human Behavior Into Epidemiological Models Using Equation Learning, Austin Barton, Jordan Klein, Jonathan Greer, Kevin Flores, Patrick Haughey

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Predicting Dengue Incidence In Central Argentina Using Google Trends Data, Sahil Chindal, Elizabet Estallo, Yanjun Qian, Michael Robert May 2023

Predicting Dengue Incidence In Central Argentina Using Google Trends Data, Sahil Chindal, Elizabet Estallo, Yanjun Qian, Michael Robert

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne May 2022

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review …


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez Mar 2022

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


Covid-19: A One Health Issue, Karen Gruszynski Jun 2021

Covid-19: A One Health Issue, Karen Gruszynski

Cumberland Mountain Naturalist

COVID-19 has very rapidly become part of modern societal lexicon as the disease highlights the importance understanding zoonotic diseases and the impact they can have on human life. With a 177million human cases and 3.82million deaths globally at the time of this publication, the "One Health" nature of the disease has had a lasting impact across the planet. As the disease spread rapidly, it highlighted the dissemination of information through social media and other sources. With this in mind, Dr. Gary Vroegindewey, Director for One Health at LMU-CVM, put forth the idea to have students collect and summarize information about …


Media Analysis Of Coverage Of Environmental Issues In The Midst Of A Pandemic, Alexandria N. Miller, Lucia A. Bolles Apr 2021

Media Analysis Of Coverage Of Environmental Issues In The Midst Of A Pandemic, Alexandria N. Miller, Lucia A. Bolles

Thinking Matters Symposium

This research aimed to answer the question “has the coronavirus impacted the print media’s coverage of important environmental issues?” The research analyzed 2 different print newspapers - The New York Times and the Wall Street Journal - to determine if there was a change in coverage of environmental news as the coronavirus spread in the US. Data for stories published in the first four days of every month from March through September was compiled for 2019 and 2020. Our findings showed a 78.85% decrease in coverage of environmental issues between 2019 and 2020 when stories related to the coronavirus pandemic …


P14: Emerging Role Of Pharmacists In Treatment And Vaccination For Covid-19, Dwaynie Bacon Jr, Man Ha, Dr. Mandal Apr 2021

P14: Emerging Role Of Pharmacists In Treatment And Vaccination For Covid-19, Dwaynie Bacon Jr, Man Ha, Dr. Mandal

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Flattening The Curve: The Effects Of Intervention Strategies During Covid-19, Kelly A. Reagan, Rachel J. Pryor, Gonzalo M. Bearman, David M. Chan Mar 2021

Flattening The Curve: The Effects Of Intervention Strategies During Covid-19, Kelly A. Reagan, Rachel J. Pryor, Gonzalo M. Bearman, David M. Chan

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

COVID-19 has plagued countries worldwide due to its infectious nature. Social distancing and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are two main strategies employed to prevent its spread. A SIR model with a time-dependent transmission rate is implemented to examine the effect of social distancing and PPE use in hospitals. These strategies’ effect on the size and timing of the peak number of infectious individuals are examined as well as the total number of individuals infected by the epidemic. The effect on the epidemic of when social distancing is relaxed is also examined. Overall, social distancing was shown to …


Use Of Lymesim 2.0 To Assess The Potential For Single And Integrated Management Methods To Control Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes Scapularis; Acari: Ixodidae) And Transmission Of Lyme Disease Spirochetes, Shravani Chitineni, Elizabeth R. Gleim, Holly D. Gaff Jan 2021

Use Of Lymesim 2.0 To Assess The Potential For Single And Integrated Management Methods To Control Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes Scapularis; Acari: Ixodidae) And Transmission Of Lyme Disease Spirochetes, Shravani Chitineni, Elizabeth R. Gleim, Holly D. Gaff

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Annual Lyme disease cases continue to rise in the U.S. making it the most reported vector-borne illness in the country. The pathogen (Borrelia burgdorferi) and primary vector (Ixodes scapularis; blacklegged tick) dynamics of Lyme disease are complicated by the multitude of vertebrate hosts and varying environmental factors, making models an ideal tool for exploring disease dynamics in a time- and cost-effective way. In the current study, LYMESIM 2.0, a mechanistic model, was used to explore the effectiveness of three commonly used tick control methods: habitat-targeted acaricide (spraying), rodent-targeted acaricide (bait boxes), and white-tailed deer targeted acaricide (4-poster …


Modeling And Preparedness: The Transmission Dynamics Of Covid-19 Outbreak In Provinces Of Ecuador, Carlos E. Bustamante Orellana, Jordy Cevallos-Chavez, Cesar Montalvo, Jeff Sulliavan, Edwin Michael, Anuj Mubayi Nov 2020

Modeling And Preparedness: The Transmission Dynamics Of Covid-19 Outbreak In Provinces Of Ecuador, Carlos E. Bustamante Orellana, Jordy Cevallos-Chavez, Cesar Montalvo, Jeff Sulliavan, Edwin Michael, Anuj Mubayi

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan Jan 2019

Non-Invasive Analysis Of The Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes Of Asthma, Xiting Yan

Yale Day of Data

Whole transcriptome wide gene expression profiles in the sputum and circulation from 100 asthma patients were measured using the Affymetrix HuGene 1.0ST arrays. Unsupervised clustering analysis based on pathways from KEGG were used to identify TEA clusters of patients from the sputum gene expression profiles. The identified TEA clusters have significantly different pre-bronchodilator FEV1, bronchodilator responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide levels, history of hospitalization for asthma and history of intubation. Evaluation of TEA clusters in children from Asthma BRIDGE cohort confirmed the identified differences in intubation and hospitalization. Furthermore, evaluation of the TH2 gene signatures suggested a much lower prevalence of …


Modeling The Transmission Of Wolbachia In Mosquitoes For Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Zhuolin Qu Oct 2018

Modeling The Transmission Of Wolbachia In Mosquitoes For Controlling Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Zhuolin Qu

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Age-Structured And Vaccination Models Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Christopher D. Bruno, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Adjo Tameklo Nov 2017

Age-Structured And Vaccination Models Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Christopher D. Bruno, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Adjo Tameklo

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Tasmanian devil populations have been devastated by devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) since its first appearance in 1996. The average lifespan of a devil has decreased from six years to three years. We present an age-structured model to represent how the disease has affected the age and breeding structures of the population. We show that with the recent increase in the breeding of juvenile devils, the overall devil population will increase but not nearly to pre-DFTD levels. The basic reproductive number may be increased with the influx of young breeding devils. In addition, our model shows that the release of …


A Model Of Dengue Transmission With Wolbachia-Free And Wolbachia-Infected Mosquitoes, Iftikhar Ahmed Oct 2017

A Model Of Dengue Transmission With Wolbachia-Free And Wolbachia-Infected Mosquitoes, Iftikhar Ahmed

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Intermittent Preventive Treatment For Malaria In Saving Lives And Promoting Drug Resistance, Carrie Manore Oct 2017

The Role Of Intermittent Preventive Treatment For Malaria In Saving Lives And Promoting Drug Resistance, Carrie Manore

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Disease Models With Immigration, Reem Almarashi Jan 2017

Disease Models With Immigration, Reem Almarashi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In this thesis we focus first on studying the susceptible, exposed, and infected ($SEI$) disease model without immigration. We determine the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$, which can be interpreted as the expected number of new cases that can be produced by a single infection in a completely susceptible population. Further, by using the Jacobian matrix, we determine the local stability of the disease model. Then we have the result that when $\mathcal{R}_0<1$ the DFE point is locally asymptotically stable(L.A.S). In contrast, when $\mathcal{R}_0>1$ we find that the endemic equilibrium is L.A.S. After that, we analyze the $SEI$ model with immigration of infected individuals.

Furthermore, we investigate the direction that the …


Toward Adaptive Control Of Acute Inflammation, Judy D. Day, Seddik M. Djouadi, Ouassim Bara, Gregory L. Zitelli May 2016

Toward Adaptive Control Of Acute Inflammation, Judy D. Day, Seddik M. Djouadi, Ouassim Bara, Gregory L. Zitelli

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady May 2016

Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


High-Throughput Data Analysis: Application To Micronuclei Frequency And T-Cell Receptor Sequencing, Mateusz Makowski Jan 2015

High-Throughput Data Analysis: Application To Micronuclei Frequency And T-Cell Receptor Sequencing, Mateusz Makowski

Theses and Dissertations

The advent of high-throughput sequencing has brought about the creation of an unprecedented amount of research data. Analytical methodology has not been able to keep pace with the plethora of data being produced. Two assays, ImmunoSEQ and the cytokinesisblock micronucleus (CBMN), that both produce count data and have few methods available to analyze them are considered.

ImmunoSEQ is a sequencing assay that measures the beta T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. The ImmunoSEQ assay was used to describe the TCR repertoires of patients that have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several different methods for spectratype analysis were extended to the TCR …


Discretized Agent-Based Model Of Infectious Disease Spread That Uses Contact Probability, Tyrell L. Gardner Oct 2014

Discretized Agent-Based Model Of Infectious Disease Spread That Uses Contact Probability, Tyrell L. Gardner

Computational Modeling & Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This study uses contact probability in an agent-based model to simulate the spread of an infectious disease. In order to perform the study, the agent-based model must first be discretized into events. Each agent in the model is given its own infectious disease state machine taken from the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model. The agents move between squares in a grid environment where each square represents a group. Groups have a contact probability as an attribute that is used to predict whether an agent comes in close contact with another agent. The transitions between the states in the SEIR model are easily …


Understanding Recurrent Disease: A Dynamical Systems Approach, Wenjing Zhang Aug 2014

Understanding Recurrent Disease: A Dynamical Systems Approach, Wenjing Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recurrent disease, characterized by repeated alternations between acute relapse and long re- mission, can be a feature of both common diseases, like ear infections, and serious chronic diseases, such as HIV infection or multiple sclerosis. Due to their poorly understood etiology and the resultant challenge for medical treatment and patient management, recurrent diseases attract much attention in clinical research and biomathematics. Previous studies of recurrence by biomathematicians mainly focus on in-host models and generate recurrent patterns by in- corporating forcing functions or stochastic elements. In this study, we investigate deterministic in-host models through the qualitative analysis of dynamical systems, to …


Changing Climate And The Altitudinal Range Of Avian Malaria In The Hawaiian Islands – An Ongoing Conservation Crisis On The Island Of Kaua`I, Carter T. Atkonson, Ruth B. Utzurrum, Dennis A. Lapointe, Richard J. Camp, Lisa H. Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Thomas W. Giambelluca Jan 2014

Changing Climate And The Altitudinal Range Of Avian Malaria In The Hawaiian Islands – An Ongoing Conservation Crisis On The Island Of Kaua`I, Carter T. Atkonson, Ruth B. Utzurrum, Dennis A. Lapointe, Richard J. Camp, Lisa H. Crampton, Jeffrey T. Foster, Thomas W. Giambelluca

Richard J. Camp

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua’i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) …


The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman Jan 2014

The Effects That Liquid And Solid Cattle Manure Have On The Water Quality Of Drainage Ditches In Putnam County, Ohio, Janelle Horstman

Honors Projects

Lake Erie has experienced harmful algal blooms with increased frequency since the mid-1990s due to excess nutrients from Rivers, such as the Maumee River, and largely agricultural watersheds. Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture contributes to eutrophication, algal blooms, and the degradation of water quality. This creates stress on aquatic fauna, reduced aesthetic quality, odor, and limits of the water for usage of drinking, recreation, and industry. This research paper asks what the contributions of having access to manure application records, soil records, and information about antibiotics have on what is known about manure management and antibiotic resistance, which has been …


Finding Them Before They Find Us: Informatics, Parasites, And Environments In Accelerating Climate Change, Daniel R. Brooks, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Scott Lyell Gardner, Kurt E. Galbreath, David Herczeg, Hugo H. Mejía-Madrid, S. Elizabeth Rácz, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan Jan 2014

Finding Them Before They Find Us: Informatics, Parasites, And Environments In Accelerating Climate Change, Daniel R. Brooks, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Scott Lyell Gardner, Kurt E. Galbreath, David Herczeg, Hugo H. Mejía-Madrid, S. Elizabeth Rácz, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan

Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology: Faculty and Staff Publications

Parasites are agents of disease in humans, livestock, crops, and wildlife and are powerful representations of the ecological and historical context of the diseases they cause. Recognizing a nexus of professional opportunities and global public need, we gathered at the Cedar Point Biological Station of the University of Nebraska in September 2012 to formulate a cooperative and broad platform for providing essential information about the evolution, ecology, and epidemiology of parasites across host groups, parasite groups, geographical regions, and ecosystem types. A general protocol, documentation–assessment–monitoring–action (DAMA), suggests an integrated proposal to build a proactive capacity to understand, anticipate, and respond …


Avian Influenza In Migratory Birds In The United States, 2007–2009, And Effects Of September Hunting Seasons On Survival, Harvest, And Recovery Rates Of Canada Geese Banded In Southeast Nebraska, Scott R. Groepper Aug 2011

Avian Influenza In Migratory Birds In The United States, 2007–2009, And Effects Of September Hunting Seasons On Survival, Harvest, And Recovery Rates Of Canada Geese Banded In Southeast Nebraska, Scott R. Groepper

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1) poses risks to wild birds, poultry, and humans. Personnel with the United States Department of Agriculture-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service-Wildlife Services, state, and tribal wildlife agencies collected 168,940 samples from migratory birds from 2007 to 2009 to test for presence of HPAIV H5N1. No HPAIV was found, but other subtypes were discovered, including H5 and H7. I estimated prevalence of avian influenza virus by flyway and found prevalence was lowest each year in the Atlantic Flyway (6.7%–8.3%), highest in the Pacific Flyway in 2007 (13.3%) and 2008 (13.4%), and highest in the Mississippi Flyway …


Analysis And Interpretation Of Factors Leading To Increased Aids Prevalence In Sub-Saharan Africa, William Kalhorn May 2011

Analysis And Interpretation Of Factors Leading To Increased Aids Prevalence In Sub-Saharan Africa, William Kalhorn

Department of Environmental Studies: Undergraduate Student Theses

My thesis research project focuses on the major factors that are contributing to the worst disease epidemic on the planet today. I have aimed to determine what may be some of the most important factors contributing to highly variable difference in HIV/AIDS prevalence rates are among the regions of East, West, and South Africa. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been growing and expanding to new areas of the world since the first case arose in 1959 in what is now called Kinshasa, Congo (Avert, 2011). The AIDS/HIV epidemic is believed to have originated on the African continent, and this is where …


Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 2006-2008 A Summary Of The Annual Oyster Disease Monitoring Program, Ryan Carnegie, Eugene M. Burreson Dec 2009

Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 2006-2008 A Summary Of The Annual Oyster Disease Monitoring Program, Ryan Carnegie, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

Fall Survey sampling revealed P. marinus levels to be generally normal to high in Virginia tributaries. By 2007 P. marinus was present on every oyster reef sampled, and by the end of the 2006-2008 period the parasite was probably causing some mortality throughout Virginia waters. Data for H. nelsoni are still incomplete for 2006/7 because of funding limitations, but in 2008 H. nelsoni was observed at 17 of 31 sampled reefs, a marked expansion in distribution since 2003/4. A significant MSX disease outbreak occurred in the Great Wicomico River in 2008, as a mild winter and a long period of …


Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 2005 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Ryan Carnegie, Eugene M. Burreson Jul 2006

Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 2005 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Ryan Carnegie, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

More normal riverflows and salinities returned in 2005 after two very wet years. Temperatures were somewhat colder than normal during the winter, and warmer during the summer. The physical environment was generally more favorable for parasite activity, and thus brought a slight increase in prevalence and intensity of the oyster diseases caused by Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) and Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX). Among quarterly James River Survey sites, maximum annual P. marinus prevalences returned to levels typical of the mid- 1990s, before the years of drought. P. marinus prevalence reached 92% at Wreck Shoal, 56% at Point of Shoal, 68% at Horsehead …