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Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Analysis Of Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns In Pasteurellaceae Family Isolates: A Microbial And Molecular Investigation, Jillian Barron May 2024

Analysis Of Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns In Pasteurellaceae Family Isolates: A Microbial And Molecular Investigation, Jillian Barron

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteria in the Pasteurellaceae family are known to cause disease in both human and animal species. Like all species of bacteria, the pathogens in the Pasteurellaceae family evolve and acquire antimicrobial-resistant traits. Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a significant public health concern, as treatment of resistant pathogens becomes more difficult, if not impossible, with current medical capabilities. In this project, phenotypic and genotypic analyses were performed on Pasteurellaceae family isolates sourced from the Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory. Phenotypic antibiotic sensitivity patterns of each isolate were assessed against a panel of antibiotics through a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Disk diffusion …


Comprehensive Guidance For The Prevention Of Periprosthetic Joint Infection After Total Joint Arthroplasty And Pitfalls In The Prevention, Javad Parvizi, Yonghan Cha, Emanuele Chisari, Kangbaek Kim, Kyung-Hoi Koo Apr 2024

Comprehensive Guidance For The Prevention Of Periprosthetic Joint Infection After Total Joint Arthroplasty And Pitfalls In The Prevention, Javad Parvizi, Yonghan Cha, Emanuele Chisari, Kangbaek Kim, Kyung-Hoi Koo

Rothman Institute Faculty Papers

Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a surgical procedure, in which parts of damaged joints are removed and replaced with a prosthesis. The main indication of TJA is osteoarthritis, and the volume of TJA is rising annually along with the increase of aged population. Hip and knee are the most common joints, in which TJAs are performed. The TJA prosthesis is composed of metal, plastic, or ceramic device. Even though TJA is the most successful treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis, it is associated with various complications, and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most serious complication after TJA. With the increasing volume …


Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova Jan 2024

Tail-Tape-Fused Virion And Non-Virion Rna Polymerases Of A Thermophilic Virus With An Extremely Long Tail, Anastasiia Chaban, Leonid Minakhin, Ekaterina Goldobina, Brain Bae, Yue Hao, Sergei Borukhov, Leena Putzeys, Maarten Boon, Florian Kabinger, Rob Lavigne, Kira S Makarova, Eugene V Koonin, Satish K Nair, Shunsuke Tagami, Konstantin Severinov, Maria L Sokolova

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Thermus thermophilus bacteriophage P23-45 encodes a giant 5,002-residue tail tape measure protein (TMP) that defines the length of its extraordinarily long tail. Here, we show that the N-terminal portion of P23-45 TMP is an unusual RNA polymerase (RNAP) homologous to cellular RNAPs. The TMP-fused virion RNAP transcribes pre-early phage genes, including a gene that encodes another, non-virion RNAP, that transcribes early and some middle phage genes. We report the crystal structures of both P23-45 RNAPs. The non-virion RNAP has a crab-claw-like architecture. By contrast, the virion RNAP adopts a unique flat structure without a clamp. Structure and sequence comparisons of …


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori Jan 2024

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Increase Antibiotic Susceptibility In Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Alexandra E. Chittams-Miles, Areej Malik, Erin B. Purcell, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs caused by bacteria resistant to antimicrobials, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are increasing in incidence and have led to higher rates of hospitalization. In this study, we measured MRSA inactivation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), a promising new cell ablation technology. Our results show that treatment with 120 pulses of 600 ns duration (28 kV/cm, 1 Hz), caused modest inactivation, indicating cellular damage. We anticipated that the perturbation created by nsPEF could increase antibiotic efficacy if nsPEF were applied as a co-treatment. To test this …


Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman Aug 2023

Additive Effects Of Cyclic Peptide [R4w4] When Added Alongside Azithromycin And Rifampicin Against Mycobacterium Avium Infection, Melissa Kelley, Kayvan Sasaninia, Arbi Abnousian, Ali Badaoui, James Owens, Abrianna Beever, Nala Kachour, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Vishwanath Venketaraman

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), a type of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), poses a risk for pulmonary infections and disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Conventional treatment consists of a 12-month regimen of the first-line antibiotics rifampicin and azithromycin. However, the treatment duration and low antibiotic tolerability present challenges in the treatment of M. avium infection. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium strains prompts a need for novel treatments against M. avium infection. This study aims to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial peptide, cyclic [R4W4], alongside the first-line antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in reducing M. avium survival. Colony-forming unit (CFU) …


Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen Aug 2023

Impacts Of A Duf2207 Family Protein On Streptococcus Mutans Stress Tolerance Responses And Biofilm Formation, Xiaochang Huang, Camile G. Laird, Paul P. Riley, Zezhang Tom Wen

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

Locus SMU.243 in Streptococcus mutans was annotated as a member of the DUF2207 family proteins highly conserved in all bacteria but with unknown function. To investigate its role in S. mutans physiology, a SMU.243-deficient mutant was constructed using allelic exchange mutagenesis, and the impacts of SMU.243 deletion on bacterial growth, stress tolerance response, and biofilm formation were analyzed. Compared to the wild-type UA159, S. mutans lacking SMU.243 displayed a reduced growth rate and a reduced overnight culture density (p < 0.01) when grown at low pH and in the presence of methyl viologen. Relative to the parent strain, the deficient mutant also had a reduced survival rate following incubation in a buffer of pH 2.8 (p < 0.01) and in a buffer containing hydrogen peroxide at 58 mM after 60 min (p < 0.001) and had a reduced capacity in biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose (p < 0.01). To study any ensuing functional/phenotypical links between SMU.243 and uppP, which is located immediately downstream of SMU.243 and encodes an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in recycling of carrier lipid undecaprenyl phosphate, a uppP deficient mutant was generated using allelic exchange mutagenesis. Unlike the SMU.243 mutant, deletion of uppP affected cell envelope biogenesis and caused major increases in susceptibility to bacitracin. In addition, two variant morphological mutants, one forming rough colonies and the other forming mucoid, smooth colonies, also emerged following the deletion of uppP. The results suggest that the SMU.243-encoded protein of the DUF2207 family in S. mutans plays an important role in stress tolerance response and biofilm formation, but unlike the downstream uppP, does not seem to be involved in cell envelope biogenesis, although the exact roles in S. mutans’ physiology awaits further investigation.


Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor Jul 2023

Outpatient Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing And Treatment Patterns In The United States: A Real-World Database Study, Rebecca Lillis, Louis Kuritzky, Zune Huynh, Rodney Arcenas, Avneet Hansra, Roma Shah, Baiyu Yang, Stephanie N. Taylor

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. Because symptoms of these infections often overlap with other urogenital infections, misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment can occur unless appropriate STI diagnostic testing is performed in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to describe STI diagnostic testing and antimicrobial treatment patterns and trends among adolescent and adult men and women with lower genitourinary tract symptoms (LGUTS). Methods: We analyzed insurance claims data from the IBM® MarketScan® Research Databases. Patients included were between 14 and 64 years old with …


Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron May 2023

Species Delineation And Comparative Genomics Within The Campylobacter Ureolyticus Complex, Joel J Maki, Mondraya Howard, Sara Connelly, Matthew Pettengill, Dwight J Hardy, Andrew Cameron

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Campylobacter ureolyticus is an emerging pathogen increasingly appreciated as a common cause of gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Outside the setting of gastroenteritis, little work has been done to describe the genomic content and relatedness of the species, especially regarding clinical isolates. We reviewed the epidemiology of clinical C. ureolyticus cultured by our institution over the past 10 years. Fifty-one unique C. ureolyticus isolates were identified between January 2010 and August 2022, mostly originating from abscesses and blood cultures. To clarify the taxonomic relationships between isolates and to attribute specific genes with different clinical manifestations, we sequenced 19 available …


Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield May 2023

Elucidating The Impact Of Sos-Response Timing In On Escherichia Coli Survival Following Treatment With Fluoroquinolone Topoisomerase Inhibitors, Stephanie Schofield

Honors Scholar Theses

Antibiotic treatment failure is a public health crisis, with a 2019 report stating that roughly 35,000 deaths occur in the United States yearly due to bacterial infections that are unresponsive to antibiotics (1). One complication in the treatment of bacterial infection is antibiotic persistence which further compromises our battle to effectively treat infection. Bacterial persisters can exist in clonal bacterial cultures and can tolerate antibiotic treatment by undergoing reversible phenotypic changes. They can survive drug concentrations that their genetically identical kin cannot. Some persisters remain in a slow growing state and are difficult to target with current antibiotics. A specific …


A Dna-Peptide Crosslink (Dpc) Increases Mutagenicity In Sos-Induced Escherichia Coli, Alessandra Bassani May 2023

A Dna-Peptide Crosslink (Dpc) Increases Mutagenicity In Sos-Induced Escherichia Coli, Alessandra Bassani

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, have an inducible system in response to DNA damage termed the SOS response. This system is activated when the replicative DNA polymerase (Pol) III encounters a lesion, uncouples from DNA helicase, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulates at the replication fork. In this study, we investigated DNA-peptide crosslink (DpC), a common lesion that results from cross-linking of proteins or peptides, UV irradiation, and alkylating agents. To increase survival following formation of a lesion, the SOS response can utilize homologous recombination, translesion synthesis (TLS), or excision repair. With TLS, the levels of DNA Pol II, IV, …


Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel Apr 2023

Independent Effects Of Hiv And Antiretroviral Therapy On The Oral Microbiome Identified By Multivariate Analyses, Clifford J. Beall, Elizabeth A. Lilly, Carolina Granada, Kelly Treas, Kenneth R. Dubois, Shahr B. Hashmi, Jose A. Vazquez, Michael E. Hagensee, Ann L. Griffen, Eugene J. Leys, Paul L. Fidel

School of Dentistry Faculty Publications

The oral microbiome is an important predictor of health and disease. We recently reported significant yet modest effects of HIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral microbiome (bacterial and fungal) in a large cohort of HIV-positive (HIV+) and matched HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals. As it was unclear whether ART added to or masked further effects of HIV on the oral microbiome, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of HIV and ART independently, which also included HIV- subjects on preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy. Cross-sectional analyses of the effect of HIV devoid of ART (HIV+ ART- versus matched …


Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd Mar 2023

Topical Anesthetic Gel Interferes With Antibacterial Efficacy Of Povidone-Iodine Both In Vitro And In Vivo, Cecilly Kelleher Bs, Jacob Im Md, Linda Kang Bs, Aleksey Mishulin Md, Sukhvinder Singh Phd, Ashok Kumar Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of viscous lidocaine gel on the antimicrobial efficacy of povidone-iodine (PI) and their order of application in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methods: In vitro antibacterial effects were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with disc diffusion methods for application of lidocaine alone, PI alone, PI before lidocaine, and lidocaine before PI. Zones of inhibition were measured after incubation at 37°C overnight. Mouse eyes were colonized with S. aureus for in vivo study to which PI and/or lidocaine were applied in various combinations. Eyes were then rinsed with saline, and …


Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal Jan 2023

Implementation Of Mrsa Nasal Swabs As An Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention To Decrease Anti-Mrsa Therapy In Covid-19 Infection, Alaina Dekerlegand, Emily Johnston, Britney Mellor, Melanie Rae Schrack, Catherine O’Neal

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

In the early stages of treating patients with SARS-CoV-2, limited information was available to guide antimicrobial stewardship interventions. The COVID-19 Task Force and Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee, at a 988-bed academic medical center, implemented the use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to assist with the de-escalation of anti-MRSA therapy in patients with suspected superimposed bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of MRSA nasal swab PCR testing on the rate of anti-MRSA therapy between 13 April 2020 and 26 July 2020. A total of 122 patients were included …


Population Genomics Of Australian Indigenous Mesorhizobium Reveals Diverse Nonsymbiotic Genospecies Capable Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses Following Horizontal Gene Transfer, Elena Colombi, Yvette Hill, Rose Lines, John T. Sullivan, Maclean G. Kohlmeier, Claus T. Christophersen, Clive W. Ronson, Jason J. Terpolilli, Joshua P. Ramsay Jan 2023

Population Genomics Of Australian Indigenous Mesorhizobium Reveals Diverse Nonsymbiotic Genospecies Capable Of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses Following Horizontal Gene Transfer, Elena Colombi, Yvette Hill, Rose Lines, John T. Sullivan, Maclean G. Kohlmeier, Claus T. Christophersen, Clive W. Ronson, Jason J. Terpolilli, Joshua P. Ramsay

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Mesorhizobia are soil bacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with various legumes. Novel symbiotic mesorhizobia frequently evolve following horizontal transfer of symbiosis-gene-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICESyms) to indigenous mesorhizobia in soils. Evolved symbionts exhibit a wide range in symbiotic effectiveness, with some fixing nitrogen poorly or not at all. Little is known about the genetic diversity and symbiotic potential of indigenous soil mesorhizobia prior to ICESym acquisition. Here we sequenced genomes of 144 Mesorhizobium spp. strains cultured directly from cultivated and uncultivated Australian soils. Of these, 126 lacked symbiosis genes. The only isolated symbiotic strains were either exotic strains used …


Examining The Effect Of Varying Dilutions Of Octopamine On The Gut Microbiome Of Lab-Raised And Wild Acheta Domesticus By Brandon Nelson University Of Puget Sound Biology, Brandon Nelson Jan 2023

Examining The Effect Of Varying Dilutions Of Octopamine On The Gut Microbiome Of Lab-Raised And Wild Acheta Domesticus By Brandon Nelson University Of Puget Sound Biology, Brandon Nelson

Summer Research

For my research I am comparing the gut microbiome of lab raised A. Domesticus that are given various levels of Octopamine, a stress hormone, and comparing that to the gut microbiome of wild cricket types. Crickets are a widely used organism across the world for various experiments as both subject and feed. Knowing how the gut microbiome of these crickets is affected by various levels of stress will allow us to better take care of these crickets. This could also help us determine if there are any diseases that lab raised crickets may be susceptible to. A large part of …


Extracting High-Molecular Weight Dna From Cyanobacteria Using Promega's Wizard® Hmw Dna Extraction Kit With A Modified Protocol, Metis, Megan A. Hept, Lesley H. Greene Jan 2023

Extracting High-Molecular Weight Dna From Cyanobacteria Using Promega's Wizard® Hmw Dna Extraction Kit With A Modified Protocol, Metis, Megan A. Hept, Lesley H. Greene

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA for long read sequencing with little to no fragmentation and high purity is difficult to acquire from cyanobacterial species. Here we describe a modified method of extraction using Promega's Wizard® HMW DNA Extraction Kit to acquire high molecular weight DNA from cyanobacterial species. The protocol used in the kit is the “3.D. Isolating HMW DNA from Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria” protocol. During a key step in the protocol, the lingering remnants of the mucilage layer of the cyanobacterial species is removed, preventing it from sticking to the DNA pellet produced. This customized modification …


A Global Comparison Of Marine Chlorophyll Variability Observed In Eulerian And Lagrangian Perspectives, Angela M. Kuhn, Matthew Mazloff, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Oliver Jahn, Sophie Clayton, Tatiana Rynearson, Andrew D. Barton Jan 2023

A Global Comparison Of Marine Chlorophyll Variability Observed In Eulerian And Lagrangian Perspectives, Angela M. Kuhn, Matthew Mazloff, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Oliver Jahn, Sophie Clayton, Tatiana Rynearson, Andrew D. Barton

OES Faculty Publications

The California Current System is a diatom‐dominated region characterized by seasonal coastal upwelling and additional elevated mesoscale activity. Cyclonic mesoscale eddies in the region trap productive coastal waters with their planktonic communities and transport them offshore with limited interaction with surrounding waters, effectively acting as natural mesocosms, where phytoplankton populations undergo ecological succession as eddies age. This study examines diatom community composition within two mesoscale cyclonic eddies that formed in the same region of the California Current System 2 months apart and in the California Current waters surrounding them. The diatom communities were analyzed in the context of shifting environmental …


Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz Nov 2022

Oxidative Stress Strongly Restricts The Effect Of Codon Choice On The Efficiency Of Protein Synthesis In Escherichia Coli, Lorenzo Eugenio Leiva, Sara Elgamal, Sebastian A. Leidel, Omar Orellana, Michael Ibba, Assaf Katz

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction

The response of enterobacteria to oxidative stress is usually considered to be regulated by transcription factors such as OxyR and SoxR. Nevertheless, several reports have shown that under oxidative stress the levels, modification and aminoacylation of tRNAs may be altered suggesting a role of codon bias in regulation of gene expression under this condition.

Methods

In order to characterize the effects of oxidative stress on translation elongation we constructed a library of 61 plasmids, each coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) translationally fused to a different set of four identical codons.

Results

Using these reporters, we observed that …


Emergence Of A Multidrug-Resistant And Virulent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Mediates Serotype Replacement After Pcv13: An International Whole-Genome Sequencing Study, Stephanie W. Lo, Kate Mellor, Robert Cohen, Alba Redin Alonso, Sophie Belman, Narender Kumar, Paulina A. Hawkins, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Sadia Shakoor, Muhammad Imran Nisar Oct 2022

Emergence Of A Multidrug-Resistant And Virulent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Mediates Serotype Replacement After Pcv13: An International Whole-Genome Sequencing Study, Stephanie W. Lo, Kate Mellor, Robert Cohen, Alba Redin Alonso, Sophie Belman, Narender Kumar, Paulina A. Hawkins, Rebecca A. Gladstone, Sadia Shakoor, Muhammad Imran Nisar

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Serotype 24F is one of the emerging pneumococcal serotypes after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aimed to identify lineages driving the increase of serotype 24F in France and place these findings into a global context.
Methods: Whole-genome sequencing was performed on a collection of serotype 24F pneumococci from asymptomatic colonisation (n=229) and invasive disease (n=190) isolates among individuals younger than 18 years in France, from 2003 to 2018. To provide a global context, we included an additional collection of 24F isolates in the Global Pneumococcal Sequencing (GPS) project database for analysis. A Global Pneumococcal Sequence Cluster …


Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang Sep 2022

Frequency Of Bystander Exposure To Antibiotics For Enteropathogenic Bacteria Among Young Children In Low-Resource Settings, Elizabeth T. Rogawski Mcquade, Stephanie A. Brennhofer, Sarah E. Elwood, Timothy L. Mcmurry, Joseph A. Lewnard, Estomih R. Mduma, Sanjaya Shrestha, Najeeha Talat Iqbal, Pascal O. Bessong, Gagandeep Kang

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Children in low-resource settings carry enteric pathogens asymptomatically and are frequently treated with antibiotics, resulting in opportunities for pathogens to be exposed to antibiotics when not the target of treatment (i.e., bystander exposure). We quantified the frequency of bystander antibiotic exposures for enteric pathogens and estimated associations with resistance among children in eight low-resource settings. We analyzed 15,697 antibiotic courses from 1,715 children aged 0 to 2 y from the MAL-ED birth cohort. We calculated the incidence of bystander exposures and attributed exposures to respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. We associated bystander exposure with phenotypic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in …


Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi Aug 2022

Cmv And Ebv Co-Infection In Hiv-Infected Children: Infection Rates And Analysis Of Differential Expression Of Cytokines In Hiv Mono- And Hiv-Cmv-Ebv Co-Infected Groups, Fizza Nazim, Hammad Afzal Kayani, Aspara Ali Nathwani, Fatima Mir, Syed Hani Abidi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: CMV and EBV co-infections can affect the HIV disease progression by modulating the immune system. The disease dynamics can differ in HIV-positive adults and children. In Pakistan, HIV is rapidly expanding, especially in children; however, the prevalence of CMV and EBV co-infection and the effect on immune modulation in HIV-positive children are not known. This study aimed to bridge this gap by estimating the rate of active CMV and EBV co-infection in HIV-positive children, followed by the analysis of differential expression of cytokines in HIV mono- and HIV/CMV/EBV co-infected children.
Methods: DNA samples from 319 HIV-positive children, previously recruited …


Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai Jul 2022

Incidence Of Typhoid And Paratyphoid Fever In Bangladesh, Nepal, And Pakistan: Results Of The Surveillance For Enteric Fever In Asia Project, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sadia Shakoor, Irum Fatima Dehraj, Junaid Mehmood, Rozina Thobani, Aneeta Hotwani, Najeeb Rehman, Seema Irfan, Abdul Momin Kazi, Mohammed J. Hunzai

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Precise enteric fever disease burden data are needed to inform prevention and control measures, including the use of newly available typhoid vaccines. We established the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to inform these strategies.
Methods: From September, 2016, to September, 2019, we conducted prospective clinical surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and Paratyphi (S Paratyphi) A, B, and C at health facilities in predetermined catchment areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal; and Karachi, Pakistan. Patients eligible for inclusion were outpatients with 3 or more consecutive days of fever in the last 7 …


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty Jun 2022

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial cells. The proteins encoded …


Effect Of Bovine Lactoferrin On Seroconversion Following Polio Vaccine Administration In Children: Protocol For A Double-Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial, Atif Habib, Sidrah Nausheen, Shanila Nooruddin, Tooba Javed, Tariq Samejo, Amjad Hussain, Suneeta Namdave, Sehrish Amirali, Muhammad Umer, Lumaan Sheikh May 2022

Effect Of Bovine Lactoferrin On Seroconversion Following Polio Vaccine Administration In Children: Protocol For A Double-Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial, Atif Habib, Sidrah Nausheen, Shanila Nooruddin, Tooba Javed, Tariq Samejo, Amjad Hussain, Suneeta Namdave, Sehrish Amirali, Muhammad Umer, Lumaan Sheikh

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: The oral polio vaccine (OPV) has substantial results in eliminating wild poliovirus and the vaccine of choice in polio eradication. However, the mucosal immunity induced by the OPV is still uncertain. Literature has shown that bovine lactoferrin (BLF) is a safe and useful protein found in cow's milk with extraordinary antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory and immune-modulatory functions that help children's gut to fight against micro-organisms like poliovirus. However, limited data exist regarding the effect of BLF on polio vaccine immune response. The primary objective is to evaluate the effect of BLF in enhancing mucosal and humoral immunity in children following …


Identification Of Ciprofloxacin Resistance Factors Via In Vivo Evolution Of Aeromonas Veronii In The Medicinal Leech, Lauren Daddi May 2022

Identification Of Ciprofloxacin Resistance Factors Via In Vivo Evolution Of Aeromonas Veronii In The Medicinal Leech, Lauren Daddi

Honors Scholar Theses

Infections from ciprofloxacin (Cp) resistant (CpR) Aeromonas veronii have been reported in increasing numbers among patients receiving leech therapy in recent years. Mutations in DNA gyrase, gyrA S83I, and DNA topoisomerase IV, parC E91K, along with acquisition of the qnrS2 gene located on the pAv42 plasmid, have been identified as genetic factors contributing to CpR in A. veronii. A strain of A. veronii harboring all known resistance factors was previously constructed and has a Cp minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3 µg/ml, which remains below the resistance threshold of 4 µg/ml and well below the high …


The Discovery And Analysis Of Mycobacteriophage “Rita”, Anna Fakhri Apr 2022

The Discovery And Analysis Of Mycobacteriophage “Rita”, Anna Fakhri

Chemistry & Biochemistry Student Scholarship

Anna Fakhri ’24
Major: Biochemistry
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Kathleen Cornely, Chemistry and Biochemistry

Mycobacteriophage “Rita” was isolated on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 from an enriched soil sample from North Easton, Massachusetts. As Rita infects Mycobacterium smegmatis, further study of the phage was completed in order to determine its ability to be utilized in phage therapy for infections caused by pathogenic Mycobacterium, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium abscessus. Once isolated, the phage DNA was analyzed through PCR to determine the phage belonged to cluster F and subcluster F1. The phage DNA was sequenced, and a genome annotation was completed. The annotation …


Predominantly Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bacteria Found In Csp Students’ S. Aureus Strains, Roma Ambo Apr 2022

Predominantly Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bacteria Found In Csp Students’ S. Aureus Strains, Roma Ambo

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from CSP students were tested for methicillin resistance (MRSA) using the Kirby-bauer assay. Kirby-bauer assay technique was used to determine the sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus bacteria against oxacillin. MRSA infection is the result of a bacteria that has built resistance against the antibiotics used to treat staph infections. The results of this experiment concludes that majority of the strains tested are methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).


Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino Apr 2022

Characterisation Of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Mutations And Transmission In Pakistan, Gary Napier, Anwar Sheed Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Sajid Ali, Muhammad Qasim, Noor Mohammad, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Susana Campino

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = …


Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider Apr 2022

Urinary Incontinence: Understanding The Silent Plight Of Women, Yasmin Nadeem Parpio, Anmol Minaz, Sonia Ijaz Haider

School of Nursing & Midwifery

Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the complaint of involuntary loss of urine. UI affects both men and women but is more common in women. It has been identified as a World Health Organization priority. The burden related to UI at local, national, and global levels is huge and its impact in terms of physical, social, mental, and financial aspects makes it a concerning issue. However, there exist several barriers in terms of knowledge and attitude in seeking healthcare among women experiencing UI. This calls upon a multi-disciplinary approach involving professionals from different disciplines and tackling it with collaborative and …


A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor Apr 2022

A Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lineage Usually Associated With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Pcv) Serotypes Is The Most Common Cause Of Serotype 35b Invasive Disease In South Africa, Following Routine Use Of Pcv, Kedibone M. Ndlangisa, Mignon Du Plessis, Stephani Lo, Linda De Gouveia, Chrispin Chaguza, Martin Antonio, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Jennifer Cornick, Dean B. Everett, Sadia Shakoor

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in …