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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Organisms

Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko Dec 2020

Chytridiomycota In Tree Bark, Paige Strasko

Honors College

Chytridiomycota is a phylum of microscopic aquatic fungi that form motile spores that typically have a single posterior flagellum, thus they require water to disperse (James et al., 2000). Chytridiomycota, collectively called chytrids, have round shapes with structures called rhizoids that absorb nutrients and anchor them to their substrate (Mueller et al., 2004). Chytrids are typically found in aquatic environments and soils since zoospores require water to germinate (James et al., 2000), but they also have been found in a number of unexpected environments. Chytrids are difficult to find because they are microscopic and have time-sensitive life cycles (Mueller et …


Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy May 2020

Discovery Of Distinct Mechanisms Underlying The Relationship Between Drug Taking And Predisposing Behaviors, Tyler A. Roy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Drug addiction is a heritable disease characterized by compulsive drug use. The biological mechanisms driving addiction remain largely unknown.1 Previous studies show shared genetic mechanisms underlying addiction risk phenotypes such as anxiety, depression, and novelty/sensation seeking.2,3 Therefore, high-throughput behavioral screening of these traits in single gene knockout mice can allow for the rapid detection of addiction risk candidate genes and mechanisms. Many of these traits are represented in the Knock-Out Mouse Program (KOMP) phenotyping pipeline. Of the initial two hundred twenty-one strains screened in this program, we tested nineteen phenodeviant knock-out mouse strains with C57BL/6NJ controls (N = …


A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson May 2020

A Biogeographical Assessment Of Arctic Marine Fungi, Bentley E. Simpson

Honors College

Marine fungi play a crucial role in recycling nutrients and channeling energy to higher trophic levels in the world oceans. Despite their critical role, their distributions and community composition, particularly in the Arctic, are largely unknown. This study reveals depth-related trends of abundance, diversity, and community composition of Arctic marine fungi through analysis of data obtained in the Tara Oceans expedition. With samples from surface (0-50 m), deep chlorophyll max (50-200 m), and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) depths, relative abundance, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, and diversity were found to increase as a function of depth. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were found …


Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows Dec 2019

Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adipose tissue can be characterized as either being a white (energy storing) depot or a brown (energy expending) depot and both have been found to contain dense networks of neural innervation. This adipose nerve supply regulates numerous metabolic functions and likely plays an important role in the function of adipose blood vessels. Recently our lab has shown in the C57BL/6 mouse model that peripheral neuropathy, or the dying back and dysfunction of the nerves in the superficial tissues such as the skin, can extend into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in conditions commonly associated with the neuropathic phenotype (i.e. diabetes, obesity, …


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga Dec 2019

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and …


Characterizing The Role Of Fungal Shape In A Zebrafish Model Of Invasive Candidiasis, Brittany Seman Jun 2018

Characterizing The Role Of Fungal Shape In A Zebrafish Model Of Invasive Candidiasis, Brittany Seman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida albicans is a common hospital-acquired fungal infection, and disseminated disease claims up to one-half of those afflicted. C. albicans has a unique ability to differentiate its shape during infection, and this differentiation is thought to be a major virulence factor during invasive infections. Each shape is proposed to have a specialized role: filaments drive tissue invasion and yeast mediate dissemination to the bloodstream. However, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses for two reasons. First, rigorous testing of shape-specific roles requires diverse strategies of shape modulation that restrict the possibility of manipulation-specific artifacts. Second, although connecting shape to …


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings May 2017

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can …


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke Aug 2016

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall …


Bulletin 2220: Best Management Practices For Small Scale Poultry Producers In Maine, Richard Brzozowski, Donna R. Coffin, Michael Darre Jan 2015

Bulletin 2220: Best Management Practices For Small Scale Poultry Producers In Maine, Richard Brzozowski, Donna R. Coffin, Michael Darre

Cooperative Extension - Agriculture

Written for small-scale poultry producers. University specialists, Extension educators, and agriculture service providers from New England and New York developed this list of Best Management Practices to assist small-scale poultry growers to provide the best of care for their birds, minimize losses due to disease and predation, as well as minimizing the impact on the environment while assuring a high quality, wholesome product for their family and customers.


Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian Oct 2014

Silence Is The Loudest Sound, Emma Christian

Honors College

Rhinoceros poaching is an act of killing a rhinoceros in order to take its horn, which is then used for human consumption or for cultural traditions. Both the Asian and the African rhinoceros are targets because of the demand from China, Vietnam, Yemen, and other countries around the world. Traditional Chinese Medicine practice is the main demand for rhinoceros horn and this demand in rhinoceros horn has caused an increase in the black market. Conservation of the rhinoceros is decreasing primarily because the price of rhinoceros horn is more than double the average household income in South Africa, thus making …


Territorial Aggression Increases Along An Urban Gradient In Resident But Not Migratory Song Sparrows, Darlene Turcotte Apr 2014

Territorial Aggression Increases Along An Urban Gradient In Resident But Not Migratory Song Sparrows, Darlene Turcotte

Honors College

During the breeding season, birds behave more aggressively toward rivals to maintain and defend territories. Resident birds are thought to be more aggressive than migratory birds because they need to maintain a territory year round. Furthermore, birds in urban environments can exhibit more aggressive behaviors than their rural counterparts because of the bolder behavioral characteristics required to colonize urban habitats. In this study, we investigated how migration strategy and landscape composition interact to affect territory defense in two subspecies of Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia). To evoke an aggressive response, we simulated invasions by broadcasting songs from within a …


A Study Of The Nutritional Effect Of Grains In The Diet Of A Dog, Kristyn M. Souliere Apr 2014

A Study Of The Nutritional Effect Of Grains In The Diet Of A Dog, Kristyn M. Souliere

Honors College

The present study was designed to address the prevalence of the lack of knowledge for what owners are feeding their dogs, and to determine if grain should be within the diet. It was hypothesized that a bag of feed containing protein at no specific level, with a low level of grain will be more beneficial for the animal, and that a diet needs to contain grains. The crude protein, crude fat, and first five ingredients listed were compared for four bags chosen, and to the nutritional requirements for a dog. “Holistic Blend Grain Free”, contained an extremely high amount of …


Improved Detection Of Streptococcus Equi Subspecies Equi In Drinking Water, Lily A. Mclaughlin Apr 2014

Improved Detection Of Streptococcus Equi Subspecies Equi In Drinking Water, Lily A. Mclaughlin

Honors College

Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a contagious respiratory disease of horses. Transmission of the bacteria can occur when animals share water sources. Detection of S. equi in water could improve strangles surveillance and move towards eradication of the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the optimal membrane pore size for bacterial retention from an aqueous suspension, to determine the likely dispersion pattern of S. equi contaminated mucus in a water bucket to develop a collection technique to be used by veterinarians, and to find the sensitive range for …


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation By Novel Bacteria Isolated From Burrow Sediments Of Marine Benthic Macrofauna, Wai Ki Chung Dec 2001

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation By Novel Bacteria Isolated From Burrow Sediments Of Marine Benthic Macrofauna, Wai Ki Chung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are significant environmental pollutants and represent a severe health threat. Many cosmopolitan areas including coastal environments are heavily impacted by PAH. This research investigates the isolation of PAH-degrading bacteria from burrow sediment of marine benthic macrofauna and their potential in bioremediation. Macrofaunal burrow sediment is biogeochemically distinct from bulk sediment and has high microbial activities. Samples were collected from a local uncontaminated cove and PAH degradation potential was measured by incubating sediment slurries with exogenous PAH. Burrow sediments from two polychaetes and a mollusc showed significantly higher PAH degradation potential than the bulk sediment. The degradation …