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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Mentored Experience To Enhance Opportunities In Research (Meteor) Program., Lisa Schwartz, Naomi Luban, Alison Hall, Diane Mcquail, Yolanda Haywood Dec 2022

The Mentored Experience To Enhance Opportunities In Research (Meteor) Program., Lisa Schwartz, Naomi Luban, Alison Hall, Diane Mcquail, Yolanda Haywood

Health Sciences Education Research

PROBLEM: Medical students from groups that are underrepresented in medicine are less likely to pursue careers that incorporate research as compared to their white peers. Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA)-funded institutions encouraged centers to establish short-term, mentored summer research opportunities to motivate students underrepresented in medicine to enroll in medical school and ideally choose a career that incorporates research into their clinical practice.

APPROACH: The Mentored Experience To Enhance Opportunities in Research (METEOR) Program was established in 2012 in partnership with the Clinical and Translational Science Institute at Children's National (CTSI-CN) and The George Washington University (GW ...


Combining Genomic And Epidemiological Data To Compare The Transmissibility Of Sars-Cov-2 Variants Alpha And Iota., Mary E Petrone, Jessica E Rothman, Mallery I Breban, Isabel M Ott, Alexis Russell, Erica Lasek-Nesselquist, Hamada Badr, Kevin Kelly, Gregory Omerza, Nicholas Renzette, Anne E Watkins, Chaney C Kalinich, Tara Alpert, Anderson F Brito, Rebecca Earnest, Irina R Tikhonova, Christopher Castaldi, John P Kelly, Matthew Shudt, Jonathan Plitnick, Erasmus Schneider, Steven Murphy, Caleb Neal, Eva Laszlo, Ahmad Altajar, Claire Pearson, Anthony Muyombwe, Randy Downing, Jafar Razeq, Linda Niccolai, Madeline S Wilson, Margaret L Anderson, Jianhui Wang, Chen Liu, Pei Hui, Shrikant Mane, Bradford P Taylor, William P Hanage, Marie L Landry, David R Peaper, Kaya Bilguvar, Joseph R Fauver, Chantal B F Vogels, Lauren M Gardner, Virginia E Pitzer, Kirsten St George, Mark D Adams, Nathan D Grubaugh May 2022

Combining Genomic And Epidemiological Data To Compare The Transmissibility Of Sars-Cov-2 Variants Alpha And Iota., Mary E Petrone, Jessica E Rothman, Mallery I Breban, Isabel M Ott, Alexis Russell, Erica Lasek-Nesselquist, Hamada Badr, Kevin Kelly, Gregory Omerza, Nicholas Renzette, Anne E Watkins, Chaney C Kalinich, Tara Alpert, Anderson F Brito, Rebecca Earnest, Irina R Tikhonova, Christopher Castaldi, John P Kelly, Matthew Shudt, Jonathan Plitnick, Erasmus Schneider, Steven Murphy, Caleb Neal, Eva Laszlo, Ahmad Altajar, Claire Pearson, Anthony Muyombwe, Randy Downing, Jafar Razeq, Linda Niccolai, Madeline S Wilson, Margaret L Anderson, Jianhui Wang, Chen Liu, Pei Hui, Shrikant Mane, Bradford P Taylor, William P Hanage, Marie L Landry, David R Peaper, Kaya Bilguvar, Joseph R Fauver, Chantal B F Vogels, Lauren M Gardner, Virginia E Pitzer, Kirsten St George, Mark D Adams, Nathan D Grubaugh

Faculty Research 2022

SARS-CoV-2 variants shaped the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic and the discourse around effective control measures. Evaluating the threat posed by a new variant is essential for adapting response efforts when community transmission is detected. In this study, we compare the dynamics of two variants, Alpha and Iota, by integrating genomic surveillance data to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) of the variants. We use Connecticut, United States, in which Alpha and Iota co-circulated in 2021. We find that the Rt of these variants were up to 50% larger than that of other variants. We then use ...


A State-Wide Education Program On Opioid Use Disorder: Influential Community Members' Knowledge, Beliefs, And Opportunities For Coalition Development, Lindsey Hohmann, Haley Phillippe, Karen Marlowe, Ruth Jeminiwa, Natalie Hohmann, Salisa Westrick, Amanda Fowler, Brent Fox May 2022

A State-Wide Education Program On Opioid Use Disorder: Influential Community Members' Knowledge, Beliefs, And Opportunities For Coalition Development, Lindsey Hohmann, Haley Phillippe, Karen Marlowe, Ruth Jeminiwa, Natalie Hohmann, Salisa Westrick, Amanda Fowler, Brent Fox

College of Pharmacy Faculty Papers

Background: Deep South states, particularly Alabama, experience disproportionately higher opioid prescribing rates versus national rates. Considering limited opioid use disorder (OUD) providers in this region, collaborative efforts between non-healthcare professionals is critical in mitigating overdose mortality. The Alabama Opioid Training Institute (OTI) was created in 2019 to empower community members to take action in combatting OUD in local regions. The OTI included: 1) eight full-day in-person conferences; and 2) an interactive mobile-enabled website ( https://alabamaoti.org ). This study assessed the impact of the OTI on influential community members' knowledge, abilities, concerns, readiness, and intended actions regarding OUD and opioid overdose ...


Iv Sotalol Use In Pediatric And Congenital Heart Patients: A Multicenter Registry Study., Lindsey Malloy-Walton, Nicholas H. Von Bergen, Seshadri Balaji, Peter S. Fischbach, Jason M. Garnreiter, S Yukiko Asaki, Jeffrey P. Moak, Luis A. Ochoa, Philip M. Chang, Hoang H. Nguyen, Akash R. Patel, Christa Kirk, Ashley K. Sherman, Jennifer N. Avari Silva, J Philip Saul May 2022

Iv Sotalol Use In Pediatric And Congenital Heart Patients: A Multicenter Registry Study., Lindsey Malloy-Walton, Nicholas H. Von Bergen, Seshadri Balaji, Peter S. Fischbach, Jason M. Garnreiter, S Yukiko Asaki, Jeffrey P. Moak, Luis A. Ochoa, Philip M. Chang, Hoang H. Nguyen, Akash R. Patel, Christa Kirk, Ashley K. Sherman, Jennifer N. Avari Silva, J Philip Saul

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Background There is limited information regarding the clinical use and effectiveness of IV sotalol in pediatric patients and patients with congenital heart disease, including those with severe myocardial dysfunction. A multicenter registry study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and dosing of IV sotalol. Methods and Results A total of 85 patients (age 1 day-36 years) received IV sotalol, of whom 45 (53%) had additional congenital cardiac diagnoses and 4 (5%) were greater than 18 years of age. In 79 patients (93%), IV sotalol was used to treat supraventricular tachycardia and 4 (5%) received it to treat ventricular arrhythmias ...


Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Reprograms Human Neonatal Lipid Metabolism In Vivo And In Vitro, Joann Diray-Arce, Asimenia Angelidou, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Maria Giulia Conti, Rachel S Kelly, Matthew Pettengill, Mark Liu, Simon D Van Haren, Scott D Mcculloch, Greg Michelloti, Olubukola Idoko, Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Hanno Steen, Al Ozonoff, Jessica Lasky-Su, Christine S Benn, Ofer Levy May 2022

Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Reprograms Human Neonatal Lipid Metabolism In Vivo And In Vitro, Joann Diray-Arce, Asimenia Angelidou, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Maria Giulia Conti, Rachel S Kelly, Matthew Pettengill, Mark Liu, Simon D Van Haren, Scott D Mcculloch, Greg Michelloti, Olubukola Idoko, Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Hanno Steen, Al Ozonoff, Jessica Lasky-Su, Christine S Benn, Ofer Levy

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Vaccines have generally been developed with limited insight into their molecular impact. While systems vaccinology enables characterization of mechanisms of action, these tools have yet to be applied to infants, who are at high risk of infection and receive the most vaccines. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) protects infants against disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and TB-unrelated infections via incompletely understood mechanisms. We employ mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics of blood plasma to profile BCG-induced infant responses in Guinea-Bissau in vivo and the US in vitro. BCG-induced lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) correlate with both TLR-agonist- and purified protein derivative (PPD, mycobacterial antigen)-induced blood cytokine production in vitro, raising ...


Peripheral Neuropathy Evaluations Of Patients With Prolonged Long Covid., Anne Louise Oaklander, Alexander J Mills, Mary Kelley, Lisa S Toran, Bryan Smith, Marinos Dalakas, Avindra Nath May 2022

Peripheral Neuropathy Evaluations Of Patients With Prolonged Long Covid., Anne Louise Oaklander, Alexander J Mills, Mary Kelley, Lisa S Toran, Bryan Smith, Marinos Dalakas, Avindra Nath

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Background and objectives: Recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection appears exponential, leaving a tail of patients reporting various long COVID symptoms including unexplained fatigue/exertional intolerance and dysautonomic and sensory concerns. Indirect evidence links long COVID to incident polyneuropathy affecting the small-fiber (sensory/autonomic) axons.

Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional and longitudinal data from patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined long COVID without prior neuropathy history or risks who were referred for peripheral neuropathy evaluations. We captured standardized symptoms, examinations, objective neurodiagnostic test results, and outcomes, tracking participants for 1.4 years on average.

Results: Among ...


Translational Approaches To Understanding Resilience To Alzheimer's Disease., Sarah M Neuner, Maria Telpoukhovskaia, Vilas Menon, Kristen M S O'Connell, Timothy J Hohman, Catherine Kaczorowski May 2022

Translational Approaches To Understanding Resilience To Alzheimer's Disease., Sarah M Neuner, Maria Telpoukhovskaia, Vilas Menon, Kristen M S O'Connell, Timothy J Hohman, Catherine Kaczorowski

Faculty Research 2022

Individuals who maintain cognitive function despite high levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated pathology are said to be 'resilient' to AD. Identifying mechanisms underlying resilience represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity. Human studies have identified a number of molecular and genetic factors associated with resilience, but the complexity of these cohorts prohibits a complete understanding of which factors are causal or simply correlated with resilience. Genetically and phenotypically diverse mouse models of AD provide new and translationally relevant opportunities to identify and prioritize new resilience mechanisms for further cross-species investigation. This review will discuss insights into resilience gained from both ...


Recommendations For Effective Documentation In Regional Anesthesia: An Expert Panel Delphi Consensus Project, Hassan M Ahmed, Benjamin P Atterton, Gillian G Crowe, Jaime L Barratta, Mark Johnson, Eugene R. Viscusi, Sanjib Adhikary, Eric Albrecht, Karen Boretsky, Jan Boublik, Dara S Breslin, Kelly Byrne, Alan Ch'ng, Alwin Chuan, Patrick Conroy, Craig Daniel, Andrzej Daszkiewicz, Alain Delbos, Dan Sebastian Dirzu, Dmytro Dmytriiev, Paul Fennessy, H Barrie J Fischer, Henry Frizelle, Jeff Gadsden, Philippe Gautier, Rajnish K Gupta, Yavuz Gürkan, Harold David Hardman, William Harrop-Griffiths, Peter Hebbard, Nadia Hernandez, Jakub Hlasny, Gabriella Iohom, Vivian H Y Ip, Christina L Jeng, Rebecca L Johnson, Hari Kalagara, Brian Kinirons, Andrew Kenneth Lansdown, Jody C Leng, Yean Chin Lim, Clara Lobo, Danielle B Ludwin, Alan James Robert Macfarlane, Anthony T Machi, Padraig Mahon, Stephen Mannion, David H Mcleod, Peter Merjavy, Aleksejs Miscuks, Christopher H Mitchell, Eleni Moka, Peter Moran, Ann Ngui, Olga C Nin, Brian D O'Donnell, Amit Pawa, Anahi Perlas, Steven Porter, John-Paul Pozek, Humberto C Rebelo, Vicente Roqués, Kristopher M Schroeder, Gary Schwartz, Eric S. Schwenk, Luc Sermeus, George Shorten, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Markus F Stevens, Kassiani Theodoraki, Lloyd R Turbitt, Luis Fernando Valdés-Vilches, Thomas Volk, Katrina Webster, T Wiesmann, Sylvia H Wilson, Morné Wolmarans, Glenn Woodworth, Andrew K Worek, E M Louise Moran May 2022

Recommendations For Effective Documentation In Regional Anesthesia: An Expert Panel Delphi Consensus Project, Hassan M Ahmed, Benjamin P Atterton, Gillian G Crowe, Jaime L Barratta, Mark Johnson, Eugene R. Viscusi, Sanjib Adhikary, Eric Albrecht, Karen Boretsky, Jan Boublik, Dara S Breslin, Kelly Byrne, Alan Ch'ng, Alwin Chuan, Patrick Conroy, Craig Daniel, Andrzej Daszkiewicz, Alain Delbos, Dan Sebastian Dirzu, Dmytro Dmytriiev, Paul Fennessy, H Barrie J Fischer, Henry Frizelle, Jeff Gadsden, Philippe Gautier, Rajnish K Gupta, Yavuz Gürkan, Harold David Hardman, William Harrop-Griffiths, Peter Hebbard, Nadia Hernandez, Jakub Hlasny, Gabriella Iohom, Vivian H Y Ip, Christina L Jeng, Rebecca L Johnson, Hari Kalagara, Brian Kinirons, Andrew Kenneth Lansdown, Jody C Leng, Yean Chin Lim, Clara Lobo, Danielle B Ludwin, Alan James Robert Macfarlane, Anthony T Machi, Padraig Mahon, Stephen Mannion, David H Mcleod, Peter Merjavy, Aleksejs Miscuks, Christopher H Mitchell, Eleni Moka, Peter Moran, Ann Ngui, Olga C Nin, Brian D O'Donnell, Amit Pawa, Anahi Perlas, Steven Porter, John-Paul Pozek, Humberto C Rebelo, Vicente Roqués, Kristopher M Schroeder, Gary Schwartz, Eric S. Schwenk, Luc Sermeus, George Shorten, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Markus F Stevens, Kassiani Theodoraki, Lloyd R Turbitt, Luis Fernando Valdés-Vilches, Thomas Volk, Katrina Webster, T Wiesmann, Sylvia H Wilson, Morné Wolmarans, Glenn Woodworth, Andrew K Worek, E M Louise Moran

Department of Anesthesiology Faculty Papers

Background and objectives: Documentation is important for quality improvement, education, and research. There is currently a lack of recommendations regarding key aspects of documentation in regional anesthesia. The aim of this study was to establish recommendations for documentation in regional anesthesia.

Methods: Following the formation of the executive committee and a directed literature review, a long list of potential documentation components was created. A modified Delphi process was then employed to achieve consensus amongst a group of international experts in regional anesthesia. This consisted of 2 rounds of anonymous electronic voting and a final virtual round table discussion with live ...


Outstanding Outcomes In Infants With Kmt2a-Germline Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated With Chemotherapy Alone: Results Of The Children's Oncology Group Aall0631 Trial, Erin M. Guest, John A. Kairalla, Joanne M. Hilden, Zoann E. Dreyer, Andrew J. Carroll, Nyla A. Heerema, Cindy Y. Wang, Meenakshi Devidas, Lia Gore, Wanda L. Salzer, Naomi J. Winick, William L. Carroll, Elizabeth A. Raetz, Michael Borowitz, Mignon L. Loh, Stephen P. Hunger, Patrick A. Brown May 2022

Outstanding Outcomes In Infants With Kmt2a-Germline Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated With Chemotherapy Alone: Results Of The Children's Oncology Group Aall0631 Trial, Erin M. Guest, John A. Kairalla, Joanne M. Hilden, Zoann E. Dreyer, Andrew J. Carroll, Nyla A. Heerema, Cindy Y. Wang, Meenakshi Devidas, Lia Gore, Wanda L. Salzer, Naomi J. Winick, William L. Carroll, Elizabeth A. Raetz, Michael Borowitz, Mignon L. Loh, Stephen P. Hunger, Patrick A. Brown

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

No abstract provided.


Heterozygous Frameshift Variants In Hnrnpa2b1 Cause Early-Onset Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy, Hong Joo Kim, Payam Mohassel, Sandra Donkervoort, Lin Guo, Kevin O'Donovan, Maura Coughlin, Xaviere Lornage, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, A Reghan Foley, Charlotte M Fare, Alice F Ford, Masashi Ogasawara, Aki Sato, Aritoshi Iida, Pinki Munot, Gautam Ambegaonkar, Rahul Phadke, Dominic G O'Donovan, Rebecca Buchert, Mona Grimmel, Ana Töpf, Irina T Zaharieva, Lauren Brady, Ying Hu, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea Klein, Maja Steinlin, Alice Kuster, Sandra Mercier, Pascale Marcorelles, Yann Péréon, Emmanuelle Fleurence, Adnan Manzur, Sarah Ennis, Rosanna Upstill-Goddard, Luca Bello, Cinzia Bertolin, Elena Pegoraro, Leonardo Salviati, Courtney E French, Andriy Shatillo, F Lucy Raymond, Tobias B Haack, Susana Quijano-Roy, Johann Böhm, Isabelle Nelson, Tanya Stojkovic, Teresinha Evangelista, Volker Straub, Norma B Romero, Jocelyn Laporte, Francesco Muntoni, Ichizo Nishino, Mark A Tarnopolsky, James Shorter, Carsten G Bönnemann, J Paul Taylor Apr 2022

Heterozygous Frameshift Variants In Hnrnpa2b1 Cause Early-Onset Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy, Hong Joo Kim, Payam Mohassel, Sandra Donkervoort, Lin Guo, Kevin O'Donovan, Maura Coughlin, Xaviere Lornage, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, A Reghan Foley, Charlotte M Fare, Alice F Ford, Masashi Ogasawara, Aki Sato, Aritoshi Iida, Pinki Munot, Gautam Ambegaonkar, Rahul Phadke, Dominic G O'Donovan, Rebecca Buchert, Mona Grimmel, Ana Töpf, Irina T Zaharieva, Lauren Brady, Ying Hu, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea Klein, Maja Steinlin, Alice Kuster, Sandra Mercier, Pascale Marcorelles, Yann Péréon, Emmanuelle Fleurence, Adnan Manzur, Sarah Ennis, Rosanna Upstill-Goddard, Luca Bello, Cinzia Bertolin, Elena Pegoraro, Leonardo Salviati, Courtney E French, Andriy Shatillo, F Lucy Raymond, Tobias B Haack, Susana Quijano-Roy, Johann Böhm, Isabelle Nelson, Tanya Stojkovic, Teresinha Evangelista, Volker Straub, Norma B Romero, Jocelyn Laporte, Francesco Muntoni, Ichizo Nishino, Mark A Tarnopolsky, James Shorter, Carsten G Bönnemann, J Paul Taylor

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Missense variants in RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) underlie a spectrum of disease phenotypes, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, and inclusion body myopathy. Here, we present ten independent families with a severe, progressive muscular dystrophy, reminiscent of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) but of much earlier onset, caused by heterozygous frameshift variants in the RBP hnRNPA2/B1. All disease-causing frameshift mutations abolish the native stop codon and extend the reading frame, creating novel transcripts that escape nonsense-mediated decay and are translated to produce hnRNPA2/B1 protein with the same neomorphic C-terminal sequence. In contrast to previously reported disease-causing missense variants in HNRNPA2B1 ...


Svanna: Efficient And Accurate Pathogenicity Prediction Of Coding And Regulatory Structural Variants In Long-Read Genome Sequencing., Daniel Danis, Julius O B Jacobsen, Parithi Balachandran, Qihui Zhu, Feyza Yilmaz, Justin Reese, Matthias Haimel, Gholson J Lyon, Ingo Helbig, Christopher J Mungall, Christine R Beck, Charles Lee, Damian Smedley, Peter N Robinson Apr 2022

Svanna: Efficient And Accurate Pathogenicity Prediction Of Coding And Regulatory Structural Variants In Long-Read Genome Sequencing., Daniel Danis, Julius O B Jacobsen, Parithi Balachandran, Qihui Zhu, Feyza Yilmaz, Justin Reese, Matthias Haimel, Gholson J Lyon, Ingo Helbig, Christopher J Mungall, Christine R Beck, Charles Lee, Damian Smedley, Peter N Robinson

Faculty Research 2022

Structural variants (SVs) are implicated in the etiology of Mendelian diseases but have been systematically underascertained owing to sequencing technology limitations. Long-read sequencing enables comprehensive detection of SVs, but approaches for prioritization of candidate SVs are needed. Structural variant Annotation and analysis (SvAnna) assesses all classes of SVs and their intersection with transcripts and regulatory sequences, relating predicted effects on gene function with clinical phenotype data. SvAnna places 87% of deleterious SVs in the top ten ranks. The interpretable prioritizations offered by SvAnna will facilitate the widespread adoption of long-read sequencing in diagnostic genomics. SvAnna is available at https://github ...


Bilateral, Full-Thickness Macular Holes While Undergoing Chemotherapy, Sarah Dieter Od, Brett Garee Od Ms, Susan Zacatelco Od, Julie Henry Od Apr 2022

Bilateral, Full-Thickness Macular Holes While Undergoing Chemotherapy, Sarah Dieter Od, Brett Garee Od Ms, Susan Zacatelco Od, Julie Henry Od

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background: Bilateral, full-thickness macular holes are a rare condition that can substantially affect quality of life. Macular hole diagnosis and treatment is key for these patients.

Case Report: A 71 year old Caucasian male presented with a chief complaint of distance blur in both eyes, worsening over the past 1-2 weeks. He had no diagnosis of diabetes. He added that his prostate cancer had spread and that his last treatment ended 9 days ago. He was ultimately diagnosed with bilateral, full-thickness macular holes. Referral to a retinal specialist for surgical management yielded good results.

Conclusion: This is the first case ...


Cefuroxime-Induced Toxic Maculopathy: A Cataract Co-Management Conundrum, Leonid Skorin Jr., Do, Od, Ms Apr 2022

Cefuroxime-Induced Toxic Maculopathy: A Cataract Co-Management Conundrum, Leonid Skorin Jr., Do, Od, Ms

Optometric Clinical Practice

Background: Cefuroxime-induced toxic maculopathy can occur when an incorrect dilution is injected intracamerally after cataract surgery. This results in a guarded visual prognosis. Cefuroxime-induced toxic maculopathy can also occur sporadically even when the medication dilution is the standard correct dosage. These patients usually recover their vision by the first postoperative week.

Case Report: A 72-year-old Caucasian female developed cefuroxime-induced toxic maculopathy after uneventful cataract surgery. Investigation of the case confirmed that she had a sporadic response to the cefuroxime. It was verified that she received the standard correct dilution of cefuroxime intracamerally. The patient showed a significant improvement in her ...


Analyzing The Effect Of Interview Time And Day On Emergency Medicine Residency Interview Scores, Alanna O'Connell, Sean Greco, Tingting Zhan, Tracy Brader, Megan Crossman, Robin Naples, Anthony Sielicki, Megan Stobart Gallagher, Peter Tomaselli, Dimitrios Papanagnou Apr 2022

Analyzing The Effect Of Interview Time And Day On Emergency Medicine Residency Interview Scores, Alanna O'Connell, Sean Greco, Tingting Zhan, Tracy Brader, Megan Crossman, Robin Naples, Anthony Sielicki, Megan Stobart Gallagher, Peter Tomaselli, Dimitrios Papanagnou

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: When it comes to scheduling interviews, medical students may wonder if they need a strategy to increase their likelihood of matching. Previous studies examined the temporal effects of the residency interview on overall match rate; however, there are additional factors that affect the match process, including board examination scores and letters of recommendation. Only few studies have examined the effect interview time of day has on match success. The current study examines the impact date and time of interview during the interview season have on candidates' respective interview scores.

Methods: Interview data over a three-year period (i.e., three ...


Effect Of Lipid-Lowering Medications In Patients With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery Outcomes, Chunxia Shi, Zugui Zhang, Jordan E Goldhammer, David Li, Bob Kiaii, Victor Rudriguez, Douglas Boyd, David Lubarsky, Richard Applegate, Hong Liu Apr 2022

Effect Of Lipid-Lowering Medications In Patients With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery Outcomes, Chunxia Shi, Zugui Zhang, Jordan E Goldhammer, David Li, Bob Kiaii, Victor Rudriguez, Douglas Boyd, David Lubarsky, Richard Applegate, Hong Liu

Department of Anesthesiology Faculty Papers

Background: Increased life expectancy and improved medical technology allow increasing numbers of elderly patients to undergo cardiac surgery. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Complications can lead to worsened quality of life, shortened life expectancy and higher healthcare costs. Reducing perioperative complications, especially severe adverse events, is key to improving outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of this study is to determine whether perioperative lipid-lowering medication use is associated with a reduced risk of complications and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Methods: After IRB approval, we ...


Promotion Of Covid-19 Va(X)Ccination In The Emergency Department-Procovaxed: Study Protocol For A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial., Robert M Rodriguez, Kelli O'Laughlin, Stephanie A Eucker, Anna Marie Chang, Kristin L. Rising, Graham Nichol, Alena Pauley, Hemal Kanzaria, Alexzandra Gentsch, Cindy Li, Herbie Duber, Jonathan Butler, Vidya Eswaran, Dave Glidden Apr 2022

Promotion Of Covid-19 Va(X)Ccination In The Emergency Department-Procovaxed: Study Protocol For A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial., Robert M Rodriguez, Kelli O'Laughlin, Stephanie A Eucker, Anna Marie Chang, Kristin L. Rising, Graham Nichol, Alena Pauley, Hemal Kanzaria, Alexzandra Gentsch, Cindy Li, Herbie Duber, Jonathan Butler, Vidya Eswaran, Dave Glidden

Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: We conducted in-depth interviews to characterize reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in emergency department (ED) patients and developed messaging platforms that may address their concerns. In this trial, we seek to determine whether provision of these COVID-19 vaccine messaging platforms in EDs will be associated with greater COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and uptake in unvaccinated ED patients.

Methods: This is a cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating our COVID-19 vaccine messaging platforms in seven hospital EDs (mix of academic, community, and safety-net EDs) in four US cities. Within each study site, we randomized 30 1-week periods to the intervention and 30 ...


Targeted Therapy In The Management Of Modern Craniopharyngiomas, Maikerly Reyes, Mohammad Taghvaei, Siyuan Yu, Anish Sathe, Sarah Collopy, Giyarpuram Prashant, James J. Evans, Michael Karsy Apr 2022

Targeted Therapy In The Management Of Modern Craniopharyngiomas, Maikerly Reyes, Mohammad Taghvaei, Siyuan Yu, Anish Sathe, Sarah Collopy, Giyarpuram Prashant, James J. Evans, Michael Karsy

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Background: The proximity of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) to critical neurovascular structures can lead to a host of neurologic and endocrine complications that lead to difficulty with surgical management. In this review, we examine the molecular and genetic markers implicated in CP, their involvement in tumorigenic pathways, and their impact on CP prognosis and treatment.

Methods: We undertook a focused review of relevant articles, clinical trials, and molecular summaries regarding CP.

Results: Genetic and immunological markers show variable expression in different types of CP. BRAF is implicated in tumorigenesis in papillary CP (pCP), whereas CTNNB1 and EGFR are often overexpressed in adamantinomatous ...


Comparative Transmissibility Of Sars-Cov-2 Variants Delta And Alpha In New England, Usa., Rebecca Earnest, Rockib Uddin, Nicholas Matluk, Nicholas Renzette, Sarah E Turbett, Katherine J Siddle, Christine Loreth, Gordon Adams, Christopher H Tomkins-Tinch, Mary E Petrone, Jessica E Rothman, Mallery I Breban, Robert Tobias Koch, Kendall Billig, Joseph R Fauver, Chantal B F Vogels, Kaya Bilguvar, Bony De Kumar, Marie L Landry, David R Peaper, Kevin Kelly, Greg Omerza, Heather Grieser, Sim Meak, John Martha, Hannah B Dewey, Susan Kales, Daniel Berenzy, Kristin Carpenter-Azevedo, Ewa King, Richard C Huard, Vlad Novitsky, Mark Howison, Josephine Darpolor, Akarsh Manne, Rami Kantor, Sandra C Smole, Catherine M Brown, Timelia Fink, Andrew S Lang, Glen R Gallagher, Virginia E Pitzer, Pardis C Sabeti, Stacey Gabriel, Bronwyn L Macinnis, New England Variant Investigation Team, Ryan Tewhey, Mark D Adams, Daniel J Park, Jacob E Lemieux, Nathan D Grubaugh Apr 2022

Comparative Transmissibility Of Sars-Cov-2 Variants Delta And Alpha In New England, Usa., Rebecca Earnest, Rockib Uddin, Nicholas Matluk, Nicholas Renzette, Sarah E Turbett, Katherine J Siddle, Christine Loreth, Gordon Adams, Christopher H Tomkins-Tinch, Mary E Petrone, Jessica E Rothman, Mallery I Breban, Robert Tobias Koch, Kendall Billig, Joseph R Fauver, Chantal B F Vogels, Kaya Bilguvar, Bony De Kumar, Marie L Landry, David R Peaper, Kevin Kelly, Greg Omerza, Heather Grieser, Sim Meak, John Martha, Hannah B Dewey, Susan Kales, Daniel Berenzy, Kristin Carpenter-Azevedo, Ewa King, Richard C Huard, Vlad Novitsky, Mark Howison, Josephine Darpolor, Akarsh Manne, Rami Kantor, Sandra C Smole, Catherine M Brown, Timelia Fink, Andrew S Lang, Glen R Gallagher, Virginia E Pitzer, Pardis C Sabeti, Stacey Gabriel, Bronwyn L Macinnis, New England Variant Investigation Team, Ryan Tewhey, Mark D Adams, Daniel J Park, Jacob E Lemieux, Nathan D Grubaugh

Faculty Research 2022

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant rose to dominance in mid-2021, likely propelled by an estimated 40%-80% increased transmissibility over Alpha. To investigate if this ostensible difference in transmissibility is uniform across populations, we partner with public health programs from all six states in New England in the United States. We compare logistic growth rates during each variant's respective emergence period, finding that Delta emerged 1.37-2.63 times faster than Alpha (range across states). We compute variant-specific effective reproductive numbers, estimating that Delta is 63%-167% more transmissible than Alpha (range across states). Finally, we estimate that Delta infections ...


Comprehensive Analysis Of Opioid Use After Common Elective Outpatient Orthopaedic Surgeries, Michael U Okoli, Alexander J. Rondon, Clay B Townsend, Matthew Sherman, Asif M. Ilyas, Rothman Opioid Foundation Apr 2022

Comprehensive Analysis Of Opioid Use After Common Elective Outpatient Orthopaedic Surgeries, Michael U Okoli, Alexander J. Rondon, Clay B Townsend, Matthew Sherman, Asif M. Ilyas, Rothman Opioid Foundation

Rothman Institute Faculty Papers

Background: Prescription opioid abuse remains an ongoing public health crisis, especially in orthopaedic surgery. The purpose of the present study is to analyze opioid-prescribing patterns and investigate risk factors for prolonged opioid use after common outpatient orthopaedic surgical procedures.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a review of 1,384 patients undergoing common elective outpatient orthopaedic procedures from January 2018 to June 2019 was conducted. Data on controlled substance prescriptions were obtained from the prescription drug monitoring program website. Statistical analysis was done to identify predictors for a second opioid prescription and prolonged opioid use (>6 months).

Results: Over 10 ...


The Efficacy Of Low-Dose Aspirin In Pregnancy Among Women In Malaria-Endemic Countries, Melissa Bauserman, Sequoia I Leuba, Jennifer Hemingway-Foday, Tracy L Nolen, Janet Moore, Elizabeth M Mcclure, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tsehfu, Jackie Patterson, Edward A Liechty, Fabian Esamai, Waldemar A Carlo, Elwyn Chomba, Robert L Goldenberg, Sarah Saleem, Saleem Jessani, Marion Koso-Thomas, Matthew Hoffman, Richard Derman, Steven R Meshnick, Carl L Bose Apr 2022

The Efficacy Of Low-Dose Aspirin In Pregnancy Among Women In Malaria-Endemic Countries, Melissa Bauserman, Sequoia I Leuba, Jennifer Hemingway-Foday, Tracy L Nolen, Janet Moore, Elizabeth M Mcclure, Adrien Lokangaka, Antoinette Tsehfu, Jackie Patterson, Edward A Liechty, Fabian Esamai, Waldemar A Carlo, Elwyn Chomba, Robert L Goldenberg, Sarah Saleem, Saleem Jessani, Marion Koso-Thomas, Matthew Hoffman, Richard Derman, Steven R Meshnick, Carl L Bose

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: Low dose aspirin (LDA) is an effective strategy to reduce preterm birth. However, LDA might have differential effects globally, based on the etiology of preterm birth. In some regions, malaria in pregnancy could be an important modifier of LDA on birth outcomes and anemia.

Methods: This is a sub-study of the ASPIRIN trial, a multi-national, randomized, placebo controlled trial evaluating LDA effect on preterm birth. We enrolled a convenience sample of women in the ASPIRIN trial from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Kenya and Zambia. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect malaria. We calculated crude prevalence ...


Alpha-Fetoprotein (Afp) And Afp-L3 Is Most Useful In Detection Of Recurrence Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Patients After Tumor Ablation And With Low Afp Level, Madison Force, Grace Park, Divya Chalikonda, Christopher G. Roth, Micah Cohen, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Hie-Won Hann Apr 2022

Alpha-Fetoprotein (Afp) And Afp-L3 Is Most Useful In Detection Of Recurrence Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Patients After Tumor Ablation And With Low Afp Level, Madison Force, Grace Park, Divya Chalikonda, Christopher G. Roth, Micah Cohen, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Hie-Won Hann

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver and is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. While there are many risk factors for HCC including alcohol, obesity, and diabetes, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still account for the majority of HCC worldwide. Globally, HBV is the leading risk factor for HCC. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and advanced liver disease are at high risk for HCC. Screening for HCC is done routinely with ultrasound with or without alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at six-month intervals. The combination of ultrasound and AFP has been ...


Overcrowded Housing Increases Risk For Covid-19 Mortality: An Ecological Study, Karan Varshney, Talia Glodjo, Jenna R Adalbert Apr 2022

Overcrowded Housing Increases Risk For Covid-19 Mortality: An Ecological Study, Karan Varshney, Talia Glodjo, Jenna R Adalbert

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

Objectives: Overcrowded housing is a sociodemographic variable associated with increased infection and mortality rates from communicable diseases. It is not well understood if this association exists for COVID-19. Our objective was hence to determine the association between household overcrowding and risk of mortality from COVID-19, and this was done by performing bivariable and multivariable analyses using COVID-19 data from cities in Los Angeles County.

Results: Bivariate regression revealed that overcrowded households were positively associated with COVID-19 deaths (standardized β = 0.863, p < 0.001). COVID-19 case totals, people aged 60+, and the number of overcrowded households met conditions for inclusion in the backwards stepwise linear regression model. Analysis revealed all independent variables were positively associated with mortality rates, primarily for individuals 60 + (standardized β1 = 0.375, p = 0.001), followed by overcrowded households (standardized β2 = 0.346, p = 0.014), and total COVID-19 cases (standardized β3 = 0.311, p < 0.001). Our findings highlight that residing in overcrowded households may be an important risk factor for COVID-19 mortality. Public health entities should consider this population when allocating resources for prevention and control of COVID-19 mortality and future disease outbreaks.


Overcrowded Housing Increases Risk For Covid-19 Mortality: An Ecological Study., Karan Varshney, Talia Glodjo, Jenna Adalbert Apr 2022

Overcrowded Housing Increases Risk For Covid-19 Mortality: An Ecological Study., Karan Varshney, Talia Glodjo, Jenna Adalbert

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

OBJECTIVES: Overcrowded housing is a sociodemographic variable associated with increased infection and mortality rates from communicable diseases. It is not well understood if this association exists for COVID-19. Our objective was hence to determine the association between household overcrowding and risk of mortality from COVID-19, and this was done by performing bivariable and multivariable analyses using COVID-19 data from cities in Los Angeles County.

RESULTS: Bivariate regression revealed that overcrowded households were positively associated with COVID-19 deaths (standardized β = 0.863, p < 0.001). COVID-19 case totals, people aged 60+, and the number of overcrowded households met conditions for inclusion in the backwards stepwise linear regression model. Analysis revealed all independent variables were positively associated with mortality rates, primarily for individuals 60 + (standardized β


Genetic Evaluation For Hereditary Cancer Syndromes Among African Americans: A Critical Review, Ambreen Khan, Charles R Rogers, Carson D Kennedy, Ana Maria Lopez, Joanne Jeter Apr 2022

Genetic Evaluation For Hereditary Cancer Syndromes Among African Americans: A Critical Review, Ambreen Khan, Charles R Rogers, Carson D Kennedy, Ana Maria Lopez, Joanne Jeter

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

While hereditary cancer syndromes have been described and studied for centuries, the completion of the human genome project fueled accelerated progress in precision medicine due to the introduction of genetic testing in the 1990s, creating avenues for tailored treatments and medical management options. However, genetic testing has not benefited everyone equitably, with nearly all of the published work based on individuals of non-Hispanic White/European ancestry. There remains a gap in knowledge regarding the prevalence, penetrance, and manifestations of common hereditary cancer syndromes in the African-American population due to significant disparities in access and uptake of genetic testing. This review ...


Safety And Efficacy Of Colchicine In Covid-19 Patients: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Control Trials, Farah Yasmin, Hala Najeeb, Abdul Moeed, Wardah Hassan, Mahima Khatri, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Ahmed Kunwer Naveed, Waqas Ullah, Salim Surani Apr 2022

Safety And Efficacy Of Colchicine In Covid-19 Patients: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Control Trials, Farah Yasmin, Hala Najeeb, Abdul Moeed, Wardah Hassan, Mahima Khatri, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Ahmed Kunwer Naveed, Waqas Ullah, Salim Surani

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Background: Colchicine has been used an effective anti-inflammatory drug to treat gout diseases. Owing to its pharmacodynamic of inhibiting interleukins, it has been repurposed to target the cytokine storm post-SARS-CoV-2 invasion. The goal of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients using the gold-standard randomised-control trials.

Methods: Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) were systematically searched until June 2021 and RCTs were extracted. Outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality, COVID-19 severity, mechanical ventilation, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels. Using a random-effects model, dichotomous outcomes were pooled using odds ratios (OR) through the generic ...


The Effect Of Scan And Patient Parameters On The Diagnostic Performance Of Ai For Detecting Coronary Stenosis On Coronary Ct Angiography, Rebecca Jonas, Emil Barkovich, Andrew D Choi, William F Griffin, Joanna Riess, Hugo Marques, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jung Hyun Choi, Joon-Hyung Doh, Ae-Young Her, Bon-Kwon Koo, Chang-Wook Nam, Hyung-Bok Park, Sang-Hoon Shin, Jason Cole, Alessia Gimelli, Muhammad Akram Khan, Bin Lu, Yang Gao, Faisal Nabi, Ryo Nakazato, U Joseph Schoepf, Roel S Driessen, Michiel J Bom, Randall C Thompson, James J Jang, Michael Ridner, Chris Rowan, Erick Avelar, Philippe Généreux, Paul Knaapen, Guus A De Waard, Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Marco Guglielmo, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Robert S Jennings, Tami R Crabtree, James P Earls Apr 2022

The Effect Of Scan And Patient Parameters On The Diagnostic Performance Of Ai For Detecting Coronary Stenosis On Coronary Ct Angiography, Rebecca Jonas, Emil Barkovich, Andrew D Choi, William F Griffin, Joanna Riess, Hugo Marques, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jung Hyun Choi, Joon-Hyung Doh, Ae-Young Her, Bon-Kwon Koo, Chang-Wook Nam, Hyung-Bok Park, Sang-Hoon Shin, Jason Cole, Alessia Gimelli, Muhammad Akram Khan, Bin Lu, Yang Gao, Faisal Nabi, Ryo Nakazato, U Joseph Schoepf, Roel S Driessen, Michiel J Bom, Randall C Thompson, James J Jang, Michael Ridner, Chris Rowan, Erick Avelar, Philippe Généreux, Paul Knaapen, Guus A De Waard, Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Marco Guglielmo, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Robert S Jennings, Tami R Crabtree, James P Earls

Division of Internal Medicine Faculty Papers & Presentations

Objectives: To determine whether coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) scanning, scan preparation, contrast, and patient based parameters influence the diagnostic performance of an artificial intelligence (AI) based analysis software for identifying coronary lesions with ≥50% stenosis.

Background: CCTA is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides diagnostic and prognostic benefit to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The use of AI enabled quantitative CCTA (AI-QCT) analysis software enhances our diagnostic and prognostic ability, however, it is currently unclear whether software performance is influenced by CCTA scanning parameters.

Methods: CCTA and quantitative coronary CT (QCT) data from 303 stable patients (64 ± 10 ...


A Case Series Of Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphomas With Atypical Presentations: Diagnostic And Therapeutic Challenges, Emily Correia, Jisun Cha, Shalini Krishnasamy, Megan O'Donnell, Wenyin Shi, Pierluigi Porcu, Neda Nikbakht Apr 2022

A Case Series Of Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphomas With Atypical Presentations: Diagnostic And Therapeutic Challenges, Emily Correia, Jisun Cha, Shalini Krishnasamy, Megan O'Donnell, Wenyin Shi, Pierluigi Porcu, Neda Nikbakht

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Implementation Of Clinical Practice Guidelines For Hospitalized Patients With Covid-19 In Academic Medical Centers, Amy Chang Berger, Noa Simchoni, Andrew Auerbach, W Michael Brode, Ethan Kuperman, Katie Raffel, Alan Kubey Apr 2022

Implementation Of Clinical Practice Guidelines For Hospitalized Patients With Covid-19 In Academic Medical Centers, Amy Chang Berger, Noa Simchoni, Andrew Auerbach, W Michael Brode, Ethan Kuperman, Katie Raffel, Alan Kubey

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma And Chronic Stress, Nicholas Noverati, Rukaiya Bashir, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Hie-Won Hann Apr 2022

Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma And Chronic Stress, Nicholas Noverati, Rukaiya Bashir, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Hie-Won Hann

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

The Hepatitis B virus is one of the most significant hepatocarcinogens globally. The carcinogenic mechanisms of this virus are complex, and may include interactions with the host's immune system. Certain factors, such as stress on the body, can also potentiate these mechanisms. Stress, although adaptive in an acute form, is deleterious to health when chronic and can both suppress and activate the host's defense system. In hepatocellular carcinoma, this can lead to tumor initiation and progression. Those that are more prone to stress, or exposed to situations that incite stress, may be at higher risk of developing cancer ...


Baroreflex Sensitivity In Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Miguel Anselmo, Shandon Coffman, Mia Larson, Kathryn Vera, Emma Lee, Mary Mcconville, Michael Kyba, Manda L Keller-Ross Apr 2022

Baroreflex Sensitivity In Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Miguel Anselmo, Shandon Coffman, Mia Larson, Kathryn Vera, Emma Lee, Mary Mcconville, Michael Kyba, Manda L Keller-Ross

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a common form of muscular dystrophy, is caused by a genetic mutation that alters DUX4 gene expression. This mutation contributes to significant skeletal muscle loss. Although it is suggested that cardiac muscle may be spared, people with FSHD have demonstrated autonomic dysregulation. It is unknown if baroreflex function, an important regulator of blood pressure (BP), is impaired in people with FSHD. We examined if baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is blunted in patients with FSHD. Thirty minutes of resting BP, heart rate, and cardiovagal BRS were measured in 13 patients with FSHD (age: 50 ± 13 years, avg ± SD ...