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2003

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Mental Health Of Incarcerated Juveniles In Nevada: Final Report, Nevada Institute For Children's Rerearch And Policy, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas, Jennifer Petsonius, Denise Tanata, Michelle Chino Dr Dec 2003

Mental Health Of Incarcerated Juveniles In Nevada: Final Report, Nevada Institute For Children's Rerearch And Policy, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas, Jennifer Petsonius, Denise Tanata, Michelle Chino Dr

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy Reports

The prevalence of mental health problems in the juvenile offender population is substantially higher than that of the general population (Cocozza & Skowyra, 2000). Studies estimate that one in five juvenile offenders has serious mental health problems, which is nearly twice the rate of occurrence of mental illness in children and adults in the general population (NMHA Fact Sheet #l). However, there have been several methodological problems encountered in previous research. These include the use of inconsistent definitions and measurements of mental illness; the use of biased, nonrandom samples, a reliance on retrospective case report data, and the use of …


Molecular Functionalization Of Carbon Nanotubes And Use As Substrates For Neuronal Growth, Mark P. Mattson, Robert C. Haddon, Apparao M. Rao Dec 2003

Molecular Functionalization Of Carbon Nanotubes And Use As Substrates For Neuronal Growth, Mark P. Mattson, Robert C. Haddon, Apparao M. Rao

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Patents

A cell and substrate system and nerve regeneration implant are disclosed including a carbon nanotube and a neuron growing on the carbon nanotube. Both unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes functionalized with a neuronal growth promoting agent may be utilized in the invention. A method is also disclosed for promoting neuronal growth.


Barriers To Community Mental Health Services For Latinos: Treatment Considerations, Haig Kouyoumdjian, Byron L. Zamboanga, David J. Hansen Dec 2003

Barriers To Community Mental Health Services For Latinos: Treatment Considerations, Haig Kouyoumdjian, Byron L. Zamboanga, David J. Hansen

Department of Psychology: Faculty Publications

The underutilization of mental health services by Latinos has been a growing concern in research and clinical practice. This has become increasingly important as the population of Latinos in the United States rapidly rises and the evidence that many are not receiving needed mental health services accumulates. To provide an understanding of the issues, this article provides an overview of risk factors that may influence the mental health of Latinos and examines prevalence rates of psychopathology and service utilization trends. This article then presents a comprehensive review of the socioeconomic, cultural, and psychotherapeutic barriers that prevent Latinos from receiving community …


Uncertainty And The Value Of Diagnostic Information With Application To Axillary Lymph Node Dissection In Breast Cancer, Giovanni Parmigiani Dec 2003

Uncertainty And The Value Of Diagnostic Information With Application To Axillary Lymph Node Dissection In Breast Cancer, Giovanni Parmigiani

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

In clinical decision making, it is common to ask whether, and how much, a diagnostic procedure is contributing to subsequent treatment decisions. Statistically, quantification of the value of the information provided by a diagnostic procedure can be carried out using decision trees with multiple decision points, representing both the diagnostic test and the subsequent treatments that may depend on the test's results. This article investigates probabilistic sensitivity analysis approaches for exploring and communicating parameter uncertainty in such decision trees. Complexities arise because uncertainty about a model's inputs determines uncertainty about optimal decisions at all decision nodes of a tree. We …


Survival Model Predictive Accuracy And Roc Curves, Patrick Heagerty, Yingye Zheng Dec 2003

Survival Model Predictive Accuracy And Roc Curves, Patrick Heagerty, Yingye Zheng

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

The predictive accuracy of a survival model can be summarized using extensions of the proportion of variation explained by the model, or R^2, commonly used for continuous response models, or using extensions of sensitivity and specificity which are commonly used for binary response models.

In this manuscript we propose new time-dependent accuracy summaries based on time-specific versions of sensitivity and specificity calculated over risk sets. We connect the accuracy summaries to a previously proposed global concordance measure which is a variant of Kendall's tau. In addition, we show how standard Cox regression output can be used to obtain estimates of …


Semiparametric Estimation Of Time-Dependent: Roc Curves For Longitudinal Marker Data, Yingye Zheng, Patrick Heagerty Dec 2003

Semiparametric Estimation Of Time-Dependent: Roc Curves For Longitudinal Marker Data, Yingye Zheng, Patrick Heagerty

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

One approach to evaluating the strength of association between a longitudinal marker process and a key clinical event time is through predictive regression methods such as a time-dependent covariate hazard model. For example, a time-varying covariate Cox model specifies the instantaneous risk of the event as a function of the time-varying marker and additional covariates. In this manuscript we explore a second complementary approach which characterizes the distribution of the marker as a function of both the measurement time and the ultimate event time. Our goal is to flexibly extend the standard diagnostic accuracy concepts of sensitivity and specificity to …


Analysis Of End-Of-Life Content In Critical Care Nursing Textbooks, Karin T. Kirchhoff, Renea L. Beckstrand, Prashanth Reddy Anumandla Dec 2003

Analysis Of End-Of-Life Content In Critical Care Nursing Textbooks, Karin T. Kirchhoff, Renea L. Beckstrand, Prashanth Reddy Anumandla

Faculty Publications

Nurses have identified a need for improving their knowledge and skills in providing end-of-life care. Critical care nursing textbooks can serve as an important source of information on end-of-life care for critical care nurses. Hence, an analysis of end-of-life content in 14 critical care nursing textbooks was conducted. Critical care nursing textbooks used for review were published in 1995 or later and identified from the libraries at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Brigham Young University. The end-of-life content areas identified by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), under which the AACN end-of-life competencies for undergraduate nursing students can …


A Lived Experience Of Being A Mother Of A Child With Depression: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry, Maralou R. Brose Dec 2003

A Lived Experience Of Being A Mother Of A Child With Depression: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry, Maralou R. Brose

Theses and Graduate Projects

There have been few studies that have attempted to understand the world of parents raising a child with depression. This study introduces the magnitude of the problem of childhood depression and explores what it means to be the mother of an adolescent with depression. For this study, three mothers of adolescents wit.h depression were questioned interviews were in unstructured interviews. The taped transcribed, and the resulting texts were Four core themes were analyzed using a six-stage process. extracted-maternal role, support, and grief-and reveal_ed what it was family disequilibrium, like for mothers raising a child with depression. Hermeneutic phenomenology provided the …


Sexual Risk Taking In Adolescence: The Role Of Self-Regulation And Attraction To Risk, Marcela Raffaelli, Lisa J. Crockett Dec 2003

Sexual Risk Taking In Adolescence: The Role Of Self-Regulation And Attraction To Risk, Marcela Raffaelli, Lisa J. Crockett

Department of Psychology: Faculty Publications

Precursors of adolescent sexual risk taking were examined in a multiethnic sample consisting of 443 children (51% girls) of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth participants. Respondents were 12–13 years old in 1994 and 16–17 in 1998. Controlling for demographic and contextual factors, self-regulation—but not risk proneness—was significantly (modestly) associated with overall sexual risk taking 4 years later, Analyses of individual sexual behaviors indicated that self-regulation may affect choices made after becoming sexually active (e.g. number of partners) rather than the initiation of sexual activity. Measures of parent and peer influence had independent effects on sexual risk taking but did not …


Research News: 2003, No. 4, University Of Mississippi. School Of Pharmacy Dec 2003

Research News: 2003, No. 4, University Of Mississippi. School Of Pharmacy

Research News: Grants and Publications (2000-2014)

Grants, publications, technology transfer, special announcements


Ada News - 12/15/2003, American Dental Association, Publishing Division Dec 2003

Ada News - 12/15/2003, American Dental Association, Publishing Division

ADA News

Established in 1970 as the official newspaper of the American Dental Association, the ADA News serves practicing dentists and others allied to the dental profession in the U.S. and internationally. It is the No. 1 source of news and information about the many benefits and services the ADA delivers to members daily as well as timely information on scientific, social, political and economic developments affecting dentistry and health care.


The Role Of Erp57 In Hras Intracellular Trafficking And Function., Jaime Lyn Parman Dec 2003

The Role Of Erp57 In Hras Intracellular Trafficking And Function., Jaime Lyn Parman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is a central player in signal transduction that mediates cellular proliferation and differentiation. Recent evidence has shown that lipid and non-lipid modified domains participate in Ras traffic and that plasma membrane association is mediated by vectorial vesicular transport from the endomembrane system. ERp57, an ER chaperone, has been shown to specifically bind farnesylated Hras but not non-farnesylated Hras. The objective of this study was to determine if ERp57 participates in Ras trafficking and function. First, the effect of ERp57 knock down by siRNA technology on Hras function was studied; there was a reduction in ERp57 cellular levels that led …


Flavone: The Molecular And Mechanistic Study Of How A Simple Flavonoid Protects Dna From Oxidative Damage., Jennifer Dawn Dean Dec 2003

Flavone: The Molecular And Mechanistic Study Of How A Simple Flavonoid Protects Dna From Oxidative Damage., Jennifer Dawn Dean

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dietary flavonoids are ubiquitous and are marketed as supplements. Characterized as antioxidants, they offer protection against a number of degenerative diseases. Flavonoid mechanics involve free radical scavenging, metal chelation, and substrate association. The skeletal structure of flavonoids is a fused ring system modified by hydroxyl, sugar, and carbohydrate additions. Flavone is a structurally simple flavonoid. Quercetin and its glycosidic analog rutin are complex structures. Using a DNA oxidation/cleavage assay, flavone reduces DNA nicking by 91%. Depending on the solvent system used, quercetin can either increase or decrease DNA oxidation. Rutin exhibits neither pro- nor antioxidant activity. The molecular interactions responsible …


Barriers To Domestic Violence Screening In The Emergency Department, Lisa Yonaka Dec 2003

Barriers To Domestic Violence Screening In The Emergency Department, Lisa Yonaka

Master's Projects

Are you in a relationship in which you're being abused? That is not an easy question to answer or ask. Identification of those who are victims of domestic violence is important to prevent further abuse and injury. The purpose of this non-experimental study was to determine barriers of Emergency Department Registered Nurses screening patients for domestic violence. 33 ED RNs completed a short anonymous questionnaire that was developed by Dr. Mary Lou Moore, Wake Forrest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The most significant barriers to screening identified, were the lack of education on how to ask questions about abuse, language barriers, …


Tolerance Of The Fetus By The Maternal Immune System: Role Of Inflammatory Mediators At The Feto-Maternal Interface, Colette Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Stephane M. Caucheteux, Philippe Verbeke, David M. Ojcius Dec 2003

Tolerance Of The Fetus By The Maternal Immune System: Role Of Inflammatory Mediators At The Feto-Maternal Interface, Colette Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Stephane M. Caucheteux, Philippe Verbeke, David M. Ojcius

All Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

The adaptive immune system of placental mammals has evolved to tolerate the fetus. Rejection of the fetus by adaptive immune responses is therefore a rare event, with abortion being caused more frequently by inflammation in the placenta. This review will cover recent aspects of immune privilege and the innate immune system at the feto-maternal interface, citing examples of the role played by microbial infections in fetal demise.


Heavy Equipment Owner/Operators Dying On The Job, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center Dec 2003

Heavy Equipment Owner/Operators Dying On The Job, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center

Kentucky Haz Alerts--Other

To prevent heavy equipment injuries:

  • Owner/operators should become familiar with and adhere to Kentucky Occupational Safety and Health guidelines.
  • Manufacturers’ procedures for operation and maintenance of heavy equipment should be followed.
  • Avoid potentially hazardous situations. Operators should perform a thorough hazard assessment before work is initiated.


Comparison Of 3 Methods To Assess Urine Specific Gravity In Collegiate Wrestlers, Kristin J. Stuempfle, Daniel G. Drury Dec 2003

Comparison Of 3 Methods To Assess Urine Specific Gravity In Collegiate Wrestlers, Kristin J. Stuempfle, Daniel G. Drury

Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers.

Design and Setting: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity.

Subjects: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples.

Measurements: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips.

Results: …


Effect Of Background Synaptic Activity On Excitatory-Postsynaptic Potential-Spike Coupling, Veronika Zsiros Dec 2003

Effect Of Background Synaptic Activity On Excitatory-Postsynaptic Potential-Spike Coupling, Veronika Zsiros

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Neurons receive large amount of synaptic inputs in vivo, which may impact the coupling between EPSPs and spikes. We mimicked the in vivo synaptic activity of the cell with the dynamic clamp system. We recorded from pyramidal cells in neocortical slices in vitro to investigate how timing and probability of spike generation in response to an EPSP is affected by background synaptic conductance under these conditions. We found that near threshold, background synaptic conductance improved the precision of spike timing by reducing the depolarization-related prolongation of the EPSP. In cells with ongoing spike activity and background synaptic conductances, an …


Cd43 Modulates Severity And Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis., Thandi M. Onami, M. L. Ford, A. Sperling, R. Ahmed, B. D. Evavold Dec 2003

Cd43 Modulates Severity And Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis., Thandi M. Onami, M. L. Ford, A. Sperling, R. Ahmed, B. D. Evavold

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model of multiple sclerosis characterized by infiltration of activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes into tissues of the CNS. This study investigated the role of CD43 in the induction and progression of EAE. Results demonstrate that CD43-deficient mice have reduced and delayed clinical and histological disease severity relative to CD43(+/+) mice. This reduction was characterized by decreased CD4(+) T cell infiltration of the CNS of CD43(-/-) mice but similar numbers of Ag-specific T cells in the periphery, suggesting a defect in T cell trafficking to the CNS. The absence of CD43 also affected cytokine production, …


Propietarios/Operadores De Equipo Pesado Mueren En Su Trabajo, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center Dec 2003

Propietarios/Operadores De Equipo Pesado Mueren En Su Trabajo, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center

Kentucky Haz Alerts--Motor Vehicle

Para prevenir lesiones al trabajar con equipo pesado:

  1. Propietarios/operadores deberán familiarizarse y aplicar las normas de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional de Kentucky.
  2. Deberán ser seguidos los procedimientos indicados por el fabricante para la operación y mantenimiento de equipo pesado.
  3. Evite situaciones que impliquen un riesgo potencial. Los operadores deberán llevar a cabo una valoración cuidadosa de los riesgos potenciales antes de iniciar el trabajo.


Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell Dec 2003

Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell

Experimentation Collection

Rationale: The ethical debate concerning the use of animals in biomedical and pharmacological research continues to be replete with misunderstandings about whether animals have moral standing. Objectives: This article briefly reviews the central ethical positions and their relationship to the basic parameters of research regulation from an international perspective. The issues associated with the validation of animal models will then be discussed. Finally, suggestions for empirical ethics research will be presented. Methods: Recent literature reviews were accessed and analyzed. Results: This review summarizes the pertinent ethical and research literature. Conclusions: In summary, regardless of the ethical perspective one favors, there …


The Relation Of Dietary Patterns To Future Survival, Health, And Cardiovascular Events In Older Adults, Paula Diehr Dec 2003

The Relation Of Dietary Patterns To Future Survival, Health, And Cardiovascular Events In Older Adults, Paula Diehr

Paula Diehr

BACKGROUND: There have been few long-term follow-up studies of older adults who follow different dietary patterns. METHODS: We cluster-analyzed data on dietary fat, fiber, protein, carbohydrate, and calorie consumption from the U.S. Cardiovascular Health Study (mean age=73), and examined the relationship of the dietary clusters to outcomes 10 years later. RESULTS: The five clusters were named "Healthy diet" (relatively high in fiber and carbohydrate and low in fat), "Unhealthy diet" (relatively high in protein and fat, relatively low in carbohydrates and fiber); "High Calorie," "Low Calorie," and "Low 4," which was distinguished by higher alcohol consumption. The clusters were strongly …


Optimization Of Breast Cancer Screening Modalities, Yu Shen, Giovanni Parmigiani Dec 2003

Optimization Of Breast Cancer Screening Modalities, Yu Shen, Giovanni Parmigiani

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Mathematical models and decision analyses based on microsimulations have been shown to be useful in evaluating relative merits of various screening strategies in terms of cost and mortality reduction. Most investigations regarding the balance between mortality reduction and costs have focused on a single modality, mammography. A systematic evaluation of the relative expenses and projected benefit of combining clinical breast examination and mammography is not at present available. The purpose of this report is to provide methodologic details including assumptions and data used in the process of modeling for complex decision analyses, when searching for optimal breast cancer screening strategies …


Modeling The Incubation Period Of Anthrax, Ron Brookmeyer, Elizabeth Johnson, Sarah Barry Dec 2003

Modeling The Incubation Period Of Anthrax, Ron Brookmeyer, Elizabeth Johnson, Sarah Barry

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Models of the incubation period of anthrax are important to public health planners because they can be used to predict the delay before outbreaks are detected, the size of an outbreak and the duration of time that persons should remain on antibiotics to prevent disease. The difficulty is that there is little direct data about the incubation period in humans. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply models for the incubation period of anthrax. Mechanistic models that account for the biology of spore clearance and germination are developed based on a competing risks formulation. The models predict …


Cd43 Modulates Severity And Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis., Thandi M. Onami, M. L. Ford, A. Sperling, R. Ahmed, B. D. Evavold Dec 2003

Cd43 Modulates Severity And Onset Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis., Thandi M. Onami, M. L. Ford, A. Sperling, R. Ahmed, B. D. Evavold

Thandi M. Onami

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model of multiple sclerosis characterized by infiltration of activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes into tissues of the CNS. This study investigated the role of CD43 in the induction and progression of EAE. Results demonstrate that CD43-deficient mice have reduced and delayed clinical and histological disease severity relative to CD43(+/+) mice. This reduction was characterized by decreased CD4(+) T cell infiltration of the CNS of CD43(-/-) mice but similar numbers of Ag-specific T cells in the periphery, suggesting a defect in T cell trafficking to the CNS. The absence of CD43 also affected cytokine production, …


Development Of Dose Conversion Coefficients For Radionuclides Produced In Spallation Neutron Sources: Quarterly Progress Report 8/20/03 – 12/01/03, Phillip W. Patton, Mark Rudin Dec 2003

Development Of Dose Conversion Coefficients For Radionuclides Produced In Spallation Neutron Sources: Quarterly Progress Report 8/20/03 – 12/01/03, Phillip W. Patton, Mark Rudin

Transmutation Sciences Physics (TRP)

A research consortium comprised of representatives from several universities and national laboratories has been established as part of this project to generate internal and external dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides produced in spallation neutron sources. Information obtained from this multi-year study will be used to support the siting and licensing of future accelerator-driven nuclear initiatives within the U.S. Department of Energy complex, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Projects. Determination of these coefficients will also fill data gaps for several hundred radionuclides that exist in Federal Guide Report No. 11 and in Publications 68 …


Interleukin-10 And Pathogenesis Of Murine Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Fangli Lu, Shiguang Huang, Lloyd H. Kasper Dec 2003

Interleukin-10 And Pathogenesis Of Murine Ocular Toxoplasmosis, Fangli Lu, Shiguang Huang, Lloyd H. Kasper

Dartmouth Scholarship

To understand the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in ocular toxoplasmosis, we compared C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c background mice lacking a functional IL-10 gene (IL-10(-/-)) and B6 transgenic mice expressing IL-10 under the control of the IL-2 promoter. Increased cellular infiltration and necrosis were observed in the eye tissue of IL-10(-/-) mice of both the B6 and BALB/c backgrounds with associated changes in the levels of cytokines in serum. In contrast, there was no evidence of necrosis in the eye tissue from IL-10 transgenic mice following parasite exposure. Our results demonstrate that IL-10 is important in the regulation of inflammation during …


Determinants Of Satisfaction With An Automated Alcohol Evaluation Program., Daniel Z Lieberman Dec 2003

Determinants Of Satisfaction With An Automated Alcohol Evaluation Program., Daniel Z Lieberman

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Faculty Publications

High rates of untreated mental illness cause serious health problems in the United States and worldwide. The use of computer-administered therapy has the potential to increase access to mental health care for certain patient populations. An online version of an alcohol check-up was developed that guided subjects through a series of standardized questionnaires, and provided them with feedback designed to enhance their appreciation of the negative aspects of their alcohol use. Ratings of the helpfulness of the questionnaires were evaluated in order to determine the characteristics of individuals who would potentially benefit from an automated substance abuse intervention, and to …


Linda Lê : Schizo-Positive?, Isabelle Favre Dec 2003

Linda Lê : Schizo-Positive?, Isabelle Favre

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

In her novel entitled "Calomnies", Linda Lê depicts a "mad uncle" and a young female writer fascinated with her uncle’s marginality. In this book, Lê presents a complex view of schizophrenia. Sometimes, the actions and thoughts of the uncle are reminiscent of Deleuze and Guattari’s concepts such as le corps sans organe and la machine célibataire. Some other times however, Lê pays attention to the past of the uncle and shows how, in Vietnam, he witnessed the hypocrisy of his family during the war. These passages are then closer to Laing’s theories, since the environment and conditions in which he …


Serotonergic Agents And Alcoholism Treatment: A Simulation, Scott F. Stoltenberg Dec 2003

Serotonergic Agents And Alcoholism Treatment: A Simulation, Scott F. Stoltenberg

Department of Psychology: Faculty Publications

Background: Those with early-onset alcoholism may better respond to ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) than to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, whereas those with late-onset alcoholism may present the reverse response pattern. Johnson and colleagues proposed a model that attempts to explain the observed treatment response patterns of those with early and late alcoholism onset by focusing on the influence of a common genetic variant in the serotonin transporter regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) on serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) system function.
Methods: The present study formalizes and extends Johnson’s descriptive model into a computer simulation consisting of differential equations. For …