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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Assessing Procedural Pain In Infants: A Feasibility Study Evaluating A Point-Of-Care Mobile Solution Based On Automated Facial Analysis, Kreshnik Hoti, Paola Teresa Chivers, Jeffery David Hughes Oct 2021

Assessing Procedural Pain In Infants: A Feasibility Study Evaluating A Point-Of-Care Mobile Solution Based On Automated Facial Analysis, Kreshnik Hoti, Paola Teresa Chivers, Jeffery David Hughes

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: The management of procedural pain in infants is suboptimal, in part, compounded by the scarcity of a simple, accurate, and reliable method of assessing such pain. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PainChek Infant, a point-of-care mobile application that uses automated facial evaluation and analysis in the assessment of procedural pain in infants. METHODS: Video recordings of 40 infants were randomly chosen from a purposely assembled digital library of 410 children undergoing immunisation as part of their standard care in Prishtina, Kosovo, between April 4, 2017, and July 11, 2018. For each infant …


Summary Of Sexual Health Links With Chronic Disease In Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Males, Australian Indigenous Healthinfonet Jan 2021

Summary Of Sexual Health Links With Chronic Disease In Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Males, Australian Indigenous Healthinfonet

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

This Summary is based on the Review of sexual health issues linked with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males (the ‘Review’) [1] published by the Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin in 2021. It provides information about the male sexual health conditions of erectile dysfunction (ED) and low testosterone, and their links to chronic disease, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It outlines:

  • the causes and symptoms of ED and low testosterone
  • how common ED and low testosterone are among the Australian male population (there are limited data available about Aboriginal …


Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela Feb 2020

Effects Of Caffeine On Neuromuscular Function In A Non-Fatigued State And During Fatiguing Exercise, Ricardo N. O. Mesquita, Neil J. Cronin, Heikki Kyröläinen, Jukka Hintikka, Janne Avela

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

New Findings:

What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state, caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitory mechanisms in the central nervous system before exercise was associated with an increased performance. Individuals who benefit from caffeine ingestion may experience lower perception of effort during exercise and an accelerated recovery of M-wave amplitude postfatigue. This study elucidates the mechanisms of action of …


Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic Jan 2020

Ador2a C Allele Carriers Exhibit Ergogenic Responses To Caffeine Supplementation, Jozo Grgic, Craig Pickering, David J. Bishop, Juan Del Coso, Brad Schoenfeld, Grant M. Tinsley, Zeljko Pedisic

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Caffeine’s ergogenic effects on exercise performance are generally explained by its ability to bind to adenosine receptors. ADORA2A is the gene that encodes A2A subtypes of adenosine receptors. It has been suggested that ADORA2A gene polymorphisms may be responsible for the inter-individual variations in the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. In the only study that explored the influence of variation in ADORA2A—in this case, a common polymorphism (rs5751876)—on the ergogenic effects of caffeine on exercise performance, C allele carriers were identified as “non-responders” to caffeine. To explore if C allele carriers are true “non-responders” to the ergogenic effects of …


Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group Jan 2020

Elecsys Csf Biomarker Immunoassays Demonstrate Concordance With Amyloid-Pet Imaging, James A. Doecke, Larry Ward, Samantha C. Burnham, Victor L. Villemagne, Qiao-Xin Li, Steven Collins, Christopher J. Fowler, Ekaterina Manuilova, Monika Widmann, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Aibl Research Group

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved method to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, numerous research studies support the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as a cost-efficient, quick and equally valid method to define AD pathology. Methods: Using automated Elecsys® assays (Roche Diagnostics) for Aβ (1-42) (Aβ42), Aβ (1-40) (Aβ40), total tau (tTau) and phosphorylated tau (181P) (pTau), we examined CSF samples from 202 participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing cohort, to demonstrate the concordance with pathological AD via PET imaging. …


The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett Jan 2020

The Effect Of Sleep Restriction, With Or Without High-Intensity Interval Exercise, On Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis In Healthy Young Men, Nicholas J. Saner, Matthew J. -C. Lee, Nathan W. Pitchford, Jujiao Kuang, Gregory D. Roach, Andrew Garnham, Tanner Stokes, Stuart M. Phillips, David J. Bishop, Jonathan D. Bartlett

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Key points: Sleep restriction has previously been associated with the loss of muscle mass in both human and animal models. The rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) is a key variable in regulating skeletal muscle mass and can be increased by performing high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), although the effect of sleep restriction on MyoPS is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that participants undergoing a sleep restriction protocol (five nights, with 4 h in bed each night) had lower rates of skeletal muscle MyoPS; however, rates of MyoPS were maintained at control levels by performing HIIE during this period. …


Predictors Of Ceasing Or Reducing Statin Medication Following A Large Increase In The Consumer Copayment For Medications: A Retrospective Observational Study, Karla Seamon, Frank Sanfilippo, Max Bulsara, Libby Roughead, Anna Kemp-Casey, Caroline Bulsara, Gerald F. Watts, David Preen Jan 2020

Predictors Of Ceasing Or Reducing Statin Medication Following A Large Increase In The Consumer Copayment For Medications: A Retrospective Observational Study, Karla Seamon, Frank Sanfilippo, Max Bulsara, Libby Roughead, Anna Kemp-Casey, Caroline Bulsara, Gerald F. Watts, David Preen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVES:

Previous Australian research has shown that following the 21% increase in patient copayments for medications on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2005, the use of lipid-lowering therapy declined by 5%. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who continued, reduced or ceased their use of statin medication in 2005.

STUDY TYPE:

Retrospective observational study using routinely collected administrative data.

METHOD:

We used pharmaceutical claims, hospital separations and mortality records from 2000 to 2005 for the Western Australian population. The cohort comprised stable users of statin medication in 2004. Based on changes in statin …


Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault Jan 2020

Static Stretch And Dynamic Muscle Activity Induce Acute Similar Increase In Corticospinal Excitability, Jules Opplertid, Christos Paizis, Athina Papitsa, Anthony J. Blazevich, Carole Cometti, Nicolas Babault

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Even though the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching and dynamic muscle activity on muscular and functional performance have been largely investigated, their effects on the corticospinal pathway are still unclear. For that reason, this study examined the acute effects of 5×20 s of static stretching, dynamic muscle activity and a control condition on spinal excitability, corticospinal excitability and plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Fifteen volunteers were randomly tested on separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to investigate corticospinal excitability by recording the amplitude of the motorevoked potential (MEP) and the duration of the cortical silent period (cSP). Peripheral nerve …


Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström Jan 2020

Should The Pbl Tutor Be Present? A Cross-Sectional Study Of Group Effectiveness In Synchronous And Asynchronous Settings, Samuel Edelbring, Siw Alehagen, Evalotte Mörelius, Annakarin Johansson, Patrik Rytterström

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: The tutorial group and its dynamics are a cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL). The tutor's support varies according to the setting, and it is pertinent to explore group effectiveness in relation to different settings, for example online or campus-based. The PBL groups' effectiveness can partly be assessed in terms of cognitive and motivational aspects, using a self-report tool to measure PBL group effectiveness, the Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI). This study's aim was to explore tutor participation in variations of online and campus-based tutorial groups in relation to group effectiveness. A secondary aim was to validate a tool for …


First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang Jan 2020

First Age- And Gender-Matched Case-Control Study In Australia Examining The Possible Association Between Toxoplasma Gondii Infection And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Busselton Health Study, Aus Molan, Kazunori Nosaka, Michael Hunter, Jinxia Zhang, Xiaoni Meng, Manshu Song, Wei Wang

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

An emerging field of research is starting to examine the association of infectious pathogens with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An understudied parasite of interest is Toxoplasma gondii. Globally, very few studies have been conducted to investigate this association. Additionally, very little data exists on the prevalence of T. gondii in the general Australian population. Our group sought to determine the prevalence, association, and risk factors between T. gondii infection and T2DM from a representative Australian human population. Through a cross-sectional, age-A nd gender-matched case-control study, 150 subjects with T2DM together with 150 control subjects from the Busselton Health Study …


Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Definitions, Sources And Self-Reported Consumption Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables In Two Regions Of Australia, Katherine Kent, Stephanie Godrich, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Regional food systems are complex networks, with numerous retail sources that underpin a local economy. However, evidence is limited regarding how consumers define, identify, and source regionally grown fresh fruits and vegetables (RGFFV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA) to compare how RGFFV are defined, identified and sourced by consumers, including self-reported consumption of selected RGFFV. Survey data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and t-tests. Results (TAS n = 120, SWA n = 123) identified that consumers had mixed perceptions of how RGFFV are defined, including produce sold at farmers markets, or …


Australian Consumer Perceptions Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables: Importance, Enablers, And Barriers, Stephanie Godrich, Katherine Kent, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Johnny Lo, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Amanda Devine Jan 2020

Australian Consumer Perceptions Of Regionally Grown Fruits And Vegetables: Importance, Enablers, And Barriers, Stephanie Godrich, Katherine Kent, Sandra Murray, Stuart Auckland, Johnny Lo, Lauren Blekkenhorst, Beth Penrose, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Fresh fruits and vegetables are a cornerstone of a balanced diet; their consumption has health, environmental, ethical, and economic implications. This pilot study aimed to: (i) measure fruit and vegetable consumption; (ii) understand consumer perceptions of the perceived importance of regionally grown fresh fruit and vegetables (RGFFV); and (iii) identify the barriers and enablers of access and consumption of RGFFV. The study took place in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA). A 54-item survey included questions relating to purchasing and consumption patterns; barriers and enablers related to access and consumption of RGFFV; and sociodemographic information. Survey data were analyzed …


Reducing Aerodynamic Drag By Adopting A Novel Road-Cycling Sprint Position, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspa, Chris R. Abbiss Jul 2019

Reducing Aerodynamic Drag By Adopting A Novel Road-Cycling Sprint Position, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspa, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose: To assess the influence of seated, standing, and forward-standing cycling sprint positions on aerodynamic drag (CdA) and the reproducibility of a field test of CdA calculated in these different positions. Methods: A total of 11 recreational male road cyclists rode 250 m in 2 directions at around 25, 32, and 40 km·h. Results: A main effect of position showed that the average CdA of the 2 d was lower for the forward-standing position (0.295 [0.059]) compared with both the seated (0.363 [0.071], P = .018) and standing positions (0.372 [0.077], P = .037). Seated and standing positions did …


Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine Jun 2019

Local Challenges And Successes Associated With Transitioning To Sustainable Food System Practices For A West Australian Context: Multi-Sector Stakeholder Perceptions, Ros Sambell, Lesley Andrew, Stephanie Godrich, Justin Wolfgang, Dieter Vandenbroeck, Katie Stubley, Nick Rose, Lenore Newman, Pierre Horwitz, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Large-scale food system practices have diminished soil and water quality and negatively impacted climate change. Yet, numerous opportunities exist to harness food system practices that will ensure better outcomes for human health and ecosystems. The objective of this study was to consider food Production, Processing, Access and Consumption domains, and for each determine the challenges and successes associated with progressing towards a sustainable food system. A workshop engaging 122 participants including producers, consultants, consumers, educators, funders, scientists, media, government and industry representatives, was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. A thematic analysis of statements (Successes (n = 170) or Challenges (n …


The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine Apr 2019

The Food Literacy Action Logic Model: A Tertiary Education Sector Innovative Strategy To Support The Charitable Food Sectors Need For Food Literacy Training, Tanya Lawlis, Rosalind Sambell, Amanda Douglas-Watson, Sarah Belton, Amanda Devine

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Food literacy is seen as a key component in improving the increasing levels of food insecurity. While responsibility for providing training falls on the charitable service organizations, they may not have the capacity to adequately reach those in need. This paper proposes a tertiary education - (university or higher education) led model to support the food literacy training needs of the food charity sector. A cross-sectional study comprised of online surveys and discussions investigated food services offered by Western Australia (WA) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) agencies, food literacy training needs for staff, volunteers and clients, and challenges to delivering …


Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook Apr 2019

Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

OBJECTIVE: Exercise-training programmes have reduced lower limb injuries in trials, but their population-level effectiveness has not been reported in implementation trials. This study aimed to demonstrate that routinely collected hospital data can be used to evaluate population-level programme effectiveness.

METHOD: A controlled ecological design was used to evaluate the effect of FootyFirst, an exercise-training programme, on the number of hospital-treated lower limb injuries sustained by males aged 16-50 years while participating in community-level Australian Football. FootyFirst was implemented with 'support' (FootyFirst+S) or 'without support' (FootyFirst+NS) in different geographic regions of Victoria, Australia: 22 clubs in region 1: FootyFirst+S in 2012/2013; …


Canadian Children From Food Insecure Households Experience Low Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy For Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stephanie L. Godrich, Olivia K. Loewen, Rosanne Blanchet, Noreen Willows, Paul Veugelers Mar 2019

Canadian Children From Food Insecure Households Experience Low Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy For Healthy Lifestyle Choices, Stephanie L. Godrich, Olivia K. Loewen, Rosanne Blanchet, Noreen Willows, Paul Veugelers

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to: (i) determine whether there are differences in self-esteem and self-efficacy for healthy lifestyle choices between children living in food secure and food insecure households; and (ii) determine whether the association between household food insecurity (HFI), self-esteem and self-efficacy differs by gender. Survey responses of 5281 fifth-grade students (10 and 11 years of age) participating in the Canadian Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study II were analyzed using logistic and linear regression. HFI status was determined by the six-item short-form Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Students from food insecure households had significantly …


Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo Jan 2019

Elbow Angle Modulates Corticospinal Excitability To The Resting Biceps Brachii At Both Spinal And Supraspinal Levels, Siobhan C. Dongés, Janet L. Taylor, James L. Nuzzo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

NEW FINDINGS:

What is the central question of this study?

Corticospinal excitability to biceps brachii is known to modulate according to upper-limb posture. Here, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to investigate potential spinal contributions to elbow angle-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability at rest.

What is the main finding and its importance?

At more extended elbow angles, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation were decreased, whereas cortically evoked responses (normalized to cervicomedullary-evoked responses) were increased. Results suggest decreased spinal excitability but increased cortical excitability as the elbow is placed in a more extended position, an effect that is unlikely to be attributable to …


A Multi-Center Comparison Of Vo2 Peak Trainability Between Interval Training And Moderate Intensity Continuous Training, Camilla J. Williams, Brendon J. Gurd, Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Sarah Voisin, Zhixiu Li, Nicholas Harvey, Ilaria Croci, Jenna L. Taylor, Trishan Gajanand, Joyce S. Ramos, Robert G. Fassett, Jonathan P. Little, Monique E. Francois, Christopher M. Hearon, Satyam Sarma, Sylvan L. J. E. Janssen, Emeline M. Van Craenenbroeck, Paul Beckers, Véronique A. Cornelissen, Nele Pattyn, Erin J. Howden, Shelley E. Keating, Anja Bye, Dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisloff, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Xu Yan, David J. Bishop, Nir Eynon, Jeff S. Coombes Jan 2019

A Multi-Center Comparison Of Vo2 Peak Trainability Between Interval Training And Moderate Intensity Continuous Training, Camilla J. Williams, Brendon J. Gurd, Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Sarah Voisin, Zhixiu Li, Nicholas Harvey, Ilaria Croci, Jenna L. Taylor, Trishan Gajanand, Joyce S. Ramos, Robert G. Fassett, Jonathan P. Little, Monique E. Francois, Christopher M. Hearon, Satyam Sarma, Sylvan L. J. E. Janssen, Emeline M. Van Craenenbroeck, Paul Beckers, Véronique A. Cornelissen, Nele Pattyn, Erin J. Howden, Shelley E. Keating, Anja Bye, Dorthe Stensvold, Ulrik Wisloff, Ioannis Papadimitriou, Xu Yan, David J. Bishop, Nir Eynon, Jeff S. Coombes

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

There is heterogeneity in the observed VO2peak response to similar exercise training, and different exercise approaches produce variable degrees of exercise response (trainability). The aim of this study was to combine data from different laboratories to compare VO2peak trainability between various volumes of interval training and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT). For interval training, volumes were classified by the duration of total interval time. High-volume High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) included studies that had participants complete more than 15 min of high intensity efforts per session. Low-volume HIIT/Sprint Interval Training (SIT) included studies using less than 15 min …


Associations Between Habitual Flavonoid Intake And Hospital Admissions For Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study, Frederik Dalgaard, Nicola P. Bondonno, Kevin Murray, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Kevin D. Croft, Cecilie Kyrø, Gunnar Gislason, Augustin Scalbert, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson Jan 2019

Associations Between Habitual Flavonoid Intake And Hospital Admissions For Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study, Frederik Dalgaard, Nicola P. Bondonno, Kevin Murray, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Kevin D. Croft, Cecilie Kyrø, Gunnar Gislason, Augustin Scalbert, Aedin Cassidy, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Flavonoids, compounds found in plant-based foods and beverages, might ameliorate vascular damage and atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association between flavonoid intake and hospital admissions due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study were cross-linked with Danish nationwide registries. Eligible participants were aged 50–65 years, had no previous history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. We examined associations between flavonoid intake (calculated from food-frequency questionnaires with use of the Phenol-Explorer database) and hospital admissions for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, …


Renal Abnormalities Among Children With Sickle Cell Conditions In Highly Resource-Limited Setting In Ghana, Enoch Odame Anto, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Eric Adua, Sampson Donkor, Bright Oppong Afranie, Matthew Ofori, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah, Evans Asamoah Adu Jan 2019

Renal Abnormalities Among Children With Sickle Cell Conditions In Highly Resource-Limited Setting In Ghana, Enoch Odame Anto, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Eric Adua, Sampson Donkor, Bright Oppong Afranie, Matthew Ofori, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah, Evans Asamoah Adu

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with progressive multi-organ failure especially, the brain and kidney and leads to high morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal abnormalities among children with SCD. This cross-sectional study recruited 212 sickling positive patients comprising of 96 Hb AS, 48 Hb SC, and 68 Hb SS phenotypes from the Pediatric Unit of Wassa Akropong Government Hospital, Wassa Akropong, Ghana. Early morning urine and venous blood samples were collected from each participant. Urinalysis was conducted and serum urea and creatinine levels were estimated. Estimate glomerular filtration rate …


Barriers To Vaccination Service Delivery Within General Practice: Opportunity To Make A Sustainable Difference In Aboriginal Child Health?, Rebecca Carman, Lesley Andrew, Amanda Devine, Jacques Oosthuizen Jan 2019

Barriers To Vaccination Service Delivery Within General Practice: Opportunity To Make A Sustainable Difference In Aboriginal Child Health?, Rebecca Carman, Lesley Andrew, Amanda Devine, Jacques Oosthuizen

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Objective: To identify behavioural barriers of service provision within general practice that may be impacting the vaccination coverage rates of Aboriginal children in Perth, Western Australia (WA). Methods: A purposive developed survey was distributed to 316 general practices across Perth and three key informant interviews were conducted using a mixed-methods approach. Results: Of the surveyed participants (n=101), 67.4% were unaware of the low vaccination coverage in Aboriginal children; 64.8% had not received cultural sensitivity training in their workplace and 46.8% reported having inadequate time to follow up overdue child vaccinations. Opportunistic vaccination was not routinely performed by 30.8% of participants. …


Does Caffeine Ingestion Before A Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Promote Body Fat Loss?, G. A. Ferreira, L. C. Felippe, R. Bertuzzi, David J. Bishop, I. S. Ramos, F. R. De-Oliveira, A. E. Lima-Silva Jan 2019

Does Caffeine Ingestion Before A Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Promote Body Fat Loss?, G. A. Ferreira, L. C. Felippe, R. Bertuzzi, David J. Bishop, I. S. Ramos, F. R. De-Oliveira, A. E. Lima-Silva

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

We investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion combined with a 2-wk sprint interval training (SIT) on training-induced reductions in body adiposity. Twenty physically-active men ingested either 5 mg/kg of cellulose as a placebo (PLA, n=10) or 5 mg/kg of caffeine (CAF, n=10) 60 min before each SIT session (13×30 s sprint/15 s of rest). Body mass and skinfold thickness were measured pre- and post-training. Energy expenditure was measured at rest, during exercise, and 45 min after exercise in the first SIT session. Body fat was similar between PLA and CAF groups at pre-training (P>0.05). However, there was a significant …


Disability Transitions And Health Expectancies Among Elderly People Aged 65 Years And Over In China: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study, Chengbei Hou, Yuan Ma, Xinghua Yang, Lixin Tao, Deqiang Zheng, Xiangtong Liu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Xianghua Fang, Xiuhua Guo Jan 2019

Disability Transitions And Health Expectancies Among Elderly People Aged 65 Years And Over In China: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study, Chengbei Hou, Yuan Ma, Xinghua Yang, Lixin Tao, Deqiang Zheng, Xiangtong Liu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Xianghua Fang, Xiuhua Guo

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Disability has become a critical issue among elderly populations, yet limited large-scale research related to this issue has been conducted in China, an aging society. This study explored sex and urban-rural differences in disability transitions and life expectancies among older adults in China. Data were collected from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS), which enrolled people aged 65 and older and was conducted in randomly selected counties and cities across 22 provinces in China. Disability was diagnosed based on basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Several individual characteristics were assessed, including sociodemographic …


It's Not Raining Men: A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating Methods Of Improving Male Recruitment To Health Behaviour Research, Jillian Ryan, Luke Lopian, Brian Le, Sarah Edney, Gisela Van Kessel, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Tim Olds, Carol Maher Jan 2019

It's Not Raining Men: A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating Methods Of Improving Male Recruitment To Health Behaviour Research, Jillian Ryan, Luke Lopian, Brian Le, Sarah Edney, Gisela Van Kessel, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Tim Olds, Carol Maher

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background Although gender is an important determinant of health behaviour with males less likely to perform health-protective behaviours, samples in health behaviour research are heavily biased towards females. This study investigated the use of online social network, Facebook, to reach and recruit inactive males to a team-based, social, and gamified physical activity randomised controlled trial. Methods Methodological techniques included a narrative literature review, survey of inactive males (n = 34) who rated advertisement images and text captions on scales of 1–10, and trial Facebook-delivered recruitment campaigns. Advertisement effectiveness was measured by cost-per-click to the study website, number of expressions of …


The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie Jan 2019

The Chest Australia Trial: A Randomised Controlled Trial Of An Intervention To Increase Consultation Rates In Smokers At Risk Of Lung Cancer, Jon D. Emery, Sonya R. Murray, Fiona M. Walter, Andrew Martin, Stephen Goodall, Danielle Mazza, Emily Habgood, Yvonne Kutzer, David John Barnes, Peter Murchie

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: International research has focused on screening and mass media campaigns to promote earlier patient presentation and detect lung cancer earlier. This trial tested the effect of a behavioural intervention in people at increased risk of lung cancer on help-seeking for respiratory symptoms.

Methods: Parallel, individually randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were long-term smokers with at least 20 pack-years, aged 55 and above. The CHEST intervention entailed a consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to encourage help-seeking for respiratory symptoms. The control group received a brief discussion about lung health. Both groups had baseline …


Chemical Profile And In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation Of Unripe Citrus Aurantifolia Essential Oil, Christian K. Adokoh, Du-Bois Asante, Desmond O. Acheampong, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Francis A. Armah, Ignatius H. Sirikyi, Keisuke Kimura, Edward Gmakame, Sey Abdul-Rauf Jan 2019

Chemical Profile And In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation Of Unripe Citrus Aurantifolia Essential Oil, Christian K. Adokoh, Du-Bois Asante, Desmond O. Acheampong, Yohei Kotsuchibashi, Francis A. Armah, Ignatius H. Sirikyi, Keisuke Kimura, Edward Gmakame, Sey Abdul-Rauf

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (syn. C. MEDICA var. ACIDA Brandis) (family: Rutaceae) essential oil is one of the cheapest oils found in local markets. Although, it is generally accepted as non-toxic to vital organs and cells, majority of people are cynical about it usage. Herein, the present study reports the chemical composition and in vivo oral toxicity study of unripe C. aurantifolia essential oil found in Ghana. The toxicity of C. aurantifolia essential oil extract was investigated via oral administration using two methods: The acute toxicity single dose study (SDS) and the repeated dose method. The oil exhibited no acute …


Cross-Sectional Changes In Weight Status And Weight Related Behaviors Among Australian Children And Australian Indigenous Children Between 2010 And 2015, Louise L. Hardy, Rona Macniven, Tuguy Esgin, Seema Mihrshahi Jan 2019

Cross-Sectional Changes In Weight Status And Weight Related Behaviors Among Australian Children And Australian Indigenous Children Between 2010 And 2015, Louise L. Hardy, Rona Macniven, Tuguy Esgin, Seema Mihrshahi

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

BACKGROUND: Since 2006 there has been substantial long-term investment in school-based child obesity prevention programs in New South Wales (Australia). Whether these programs have led to population level improvements in children's weight status and weight-related behaviors are yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in children's weight status and weight-related behaviors, including Indigenous children, who are at greater risk of poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous children.

METHODS: Representative cross-sectional population surveys conducted in 2010 and 2015 among children age 5-16 years (n = 15,613). Objective measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and …


The Acute Neuromuscular Responses To Cluster Set Resistance Training: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Christopher Latella, Wei‑Peng Teo, Eric J. Drinkwater, Kristina Kendall, G. Gregory Haff Jan 2019

The Acute Neuromuscular Responses To Cluster Set Resistance Training: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Christopher Latella, Wei‑Peng Teo, Eric J. Drinkwater, Kristina Kendall, G. Gregory Haff

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Background: Cluster sets (CSs) are a popular resistance training (RT) strategy categorised by short rest periods implemented between single or groups of repetitions. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of CSs on acute intra-session neuromuscular performance is still equivocal.

Objective: The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a single session of CSs to attenuate losses in force, velocity and power compared to traditional set (TS) training.

Methods: Screening consisted of a systematic search of EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria were (1) measured one or more of mean/peak force, velocity or power; (2) …


Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss Jan 2019

Validity Of The Velocomp Powerpod Compared With The Verve Cycling Infocrank Power Meter, Paul F. J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà, Chris R. Abbiss

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

Purpose: To determine the validity of the Velocomp PowerPod power meter in comparison with the Verve Cycling InfoCrank power meter. Methods: This research involved 2 separate studies. In study 1, 12 recreational male road cyclists completed 7 maximal cycling efforts of a known duration (2 times 5 s and 15, 30, 60, 240, and 600 s). In study 2, 4 elite male road cyclists completed 13 outdoor cycling sessions. In both studies, power output of cyclists was continuously measured using both the PowerPod and InfoCrank power meters. Maximal mean power output was calculated for durations of 1, 5, …