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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Translation Of Policy For Reducing Undernutrition From National To Sub-National Levels In Rwanda, Elyse Iruhiriye, Deanna K. Olney, Edward A. Frongillo, Emmanuel Niyongira, Simeon Nanama, Eugene Rwibasira, Paul Mbonyi, Christine E. Blake Mar 2022

Translation Of Policy For Reducing Undernutrition From National To Sub-National Levels In Rwanda, Elyse Iruhiriye, Deanna K. Olney, Edward A. Frongillo, Emmanuel Niyongira, Simeon Nanama, Eugene Rwibasira, Paul Mbonyi, Christine E. Blake

Faculty Publications

Understanding how countries improve children’s nutrition can inform policies and contribute to further improvements. We examined the relationship between improvements in nutrition in Rwanda (1992–2017) and political commitment to- and policy coherence in- nutrition. We reviewed nutrition-relevant Rwandan policies and programs (2000–2018) and conducted 90 semi-structured interviews with national (n = 32), mid-level (n = 38), and community (n = 20) nutrition stakeholders and 40 community-level focus group discussions (FGDs). FGDs and sub-national interviews were conducted in ten purposefully selected districts, five each in which stunting decreased (reduced) and increased or stagnated (non-reduced) between the 2010 and 2014/15 Rwanda ...


Evaluation Of A Community-Based Performance Arts Programme For People Who Have Experienced Stroke In The Uk: Protocol For The Shaper-Stroke Odysseys Study, Carolina Estevao, Maria Baldellou Lopez, Rachel E. Davis, Lucinda Jarret, Tayana Soukup, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Jean Harrington, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane, Fiona Jones, Carmine Pariante, Daisy Fancourt, Nick Sevdalis Mar 2022

Evaluation Of A Community-Based Performance Arts Programme For People Who Have Experienced Stroke In The Uk: Protocol For The Shaper-Stroke Odysseys Study, Carolina Estevao, Maria Baldellou Lopez, Rachel E. Davis, Lucinda Jarret, Tayana Soukup, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Jean Harrington, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane, Fiona Jones, Carmine Pariante, Daisy Fancourt, Nick Sevdalis

Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Stroke survivors, once in the community, face challenges with their long-term rehabilitation care and present higher levels of loneliness, depression and anxiety than the rest of the population. A community-based performance arts programme, Stroke Odysseys (SO), has been devised to tackle the challenges of living with stroke in the UK. In this study, we aim to evaluate the implementation, impact and experiences of SO for stroke survivors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Scaling-up Health Arts Programmes: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER)-SO aims to scale-up SO to 75 participants and 47 stakeholders, while simultaneously evaluating the effectiveness and implementation of the ...


Impacts Of Climate Change And Heat Stress On Farmworkers' Health: A Scoping Review, Moussa El Khayat, Dana A. Halwani, Layal Hneiny, Ibrahim Alameddine, Mustapha A. Haidar, Rima R. Habib Mar 2022

Impacts Of Climate Change And Heat Stress On Farmworkers' Health: A Scoping Review, Moussa El Khayat, Dana A. Halwani, Layal Hneiny, Ibrahim Alameddine, Mustapha A. Haidar, Rima R. Habib

Faculty Publications

Due to the continuous rise of global temperatures and heatwaves worldwide as a result of climate change, concerns for the health and safety of working populations have increased. Workers in the food production chain, particularly farmworkers, are especially vulnerable to heat stress due to the strenuous nature of their work, which is performed primarily outdoors under poor working conditions. At the cross-section of climate change and farmworkers' health, a scoping review was undertaken to summarize the existing knowledge regarding the health impacts associated with climate change and heat stress, guide future research toward better understanding current and future climate change ...


Specificity Matters: Unpacking Impact Pathways Of Individual Interventions Within Bundled Packages Helps Interpret The Limited Impacts Of A Maternal Nutrition Intervention In India, Shivani Kachwaha, Phuong H. Nguyen, Lan Mai Tran, Rasmi Avula, Melissa F. Young, Sebanti Ghosh, Thomas Forissier, Jessica Escobar-Alegria, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Purnima Menon Feb 2022

Specificity Matters: Unpacking Impact Pathways Of Individual Interventions Within Bundled Packages Helps Interpret The Limited Impacts Of A Maternal Nutrition Intervention In India, Shivani Kachwaha, Phuong H. Nguyen, Lan Mai Tran, Rasmi Avula, Melissa F. Young, Sebanti Ghosh, Thomas Forissier, Jessica Escobar-Alegria, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Purnima Menon

Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: To address gaps in coverage and quality of nutrition services, Alive & Thrive (A&T) strengthened the delivery of maternal nutrition interventions through government antenatal care (ANC) services in Uttar Pradesh, India. The impact evaluation of the A&T interventions compared intensive ANC (I-ANC) with standard ANC (S-ANC) areas and found modest impacts on micronutrient supplementation, dietary diversity, and weight-gain monitoring. OBJECTIVES: This study examined intervention-specific program impact pathways (PIPs) and identified reasons for limited impacts of the A&T maternal nutrition intervention package. METHODS: We used mixed methods: frontline worker (FLW) surveys (n = ∼500), counseling observations (n = 407), and ...


Study Protocol: Randomised Controlled Hybrid Type 2 Trial Evaluating The Scale-Up Of Two Arts Interventions For Postnatal Depression And Parkinson’S Disease, Tayana Soukup, Rachel Davis, Maria Baldellou Lopez, Andy Healey, Carolina Estevao, Daisy Fancourt, Paola Dazzan, Carmine Pariante, Hannah Dye, Tim Osborn, Rebecca Bind, Kristi Sawyer, Lavinia Rebecchini, Katie Hazelgrove, Alexandra Burton, Manonmani Manoharan, Rosie Perkins, Aleksandra Podlewska, Ray Chaudhuri, Fleur Derbyshire-Fox, Alison Hartley, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane Feb 2022

Study Protocol: Randomised Controlled Hybrid Type 2 Trial Evaluating The Scale-Up Of Two Arts Interventions For Postnatal Depression And Parkinson’S Disease, Tayana Soukup, Rachel Davis, Maria Baldellou Lopez, Andy Healey, Carolina Estevao, Daisy Fancourt, Paola Dazzan, Carmine Pariante, Hannah Dye, Tim Osborn, Rebecca Bind, Kristi Sawyer, Lavinia Rebecchini, Katie Hazelgrove, Alexandra Burton, Manonmani Manoharan, Rosie Perkins, Aleksandra Podlewska, Ray Chaudhuri, Fleur Derbyshire-Fox, Alison Hartley, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane

Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Research on the benefits of 'arts' interventions to improve individuals' physical, social and psychological well-being is growing, but evidence on implementation and scale-up into health and social care systems is lacking. This protocol reports the SHAPER-Implement programme (Scale-up of Health-Arts Programmes Effectiveness-Implementation Research), aimed at studying the impact, implementation and scale-up of: Melodies for Mums (M4M), a singing intervention for postnatal depression; and Dance for Parkinson's (PD-Ballet) a dance intervention for Parkinson's disease. We examine how they could be embedded in clinical pathways to ensure their longer-term sustainability. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised two-arm effectiveness-implementation hybrid type ...


Emily Lemoine Loveridge (1860-1941): Pioneer And Leader In Nursing, Pamela Wheeler Jan 2022

Emily Lemoine Loveridge (1860-1941): Pioneer And Leader In Nursing, Pamela Wheeler

Faculty Publications

The life of Emily L. Loveridge reflects the context of the times in which she practiced as a nurse and assumed leadership roles as a superintendent of nurses and subsequently a hospital superintendent. Over the course of her remarkable 40-year career, she would begin the first training program for nurses in the Northwest and shepherd a foundling hospital from a wooden structure housing 50 patients to a brick structure of over 330 beds. She would also advance the professionalization of nursing while contributing significantly to a variety of professional organizations.

As an 1889 graduate of Bellevue Hospital in New York ...


Metacognition, Social Cognition, And Mentalizing In Psychosis: Are These Distinct Constructs When It Comes To Subjective Experience Or Are We Just Splitting Hairs?, P. H. Lysaker, S. Cheli, G. Dimaggio, B. Buck, K. A. Bonfils, K. Huling, C. Wiesepape, J. T. Lysaker Dec 2021

Metacognition, Social Cognition, And Mentalizing In Psychosis: Are These Distinct Constructs When It Comes To Subjective Experience Or Are We Just Splitting Hairs?, P. H. Lysaker, S. Cheli, G. Dimaggio, B. Buck, K. A. Bonfils, K. Huling, C. Wiesepape, J. T. Lysaker

Faculty Publications

Research using the integrated model of metacognition has suggested that the construct of metacognition could quantify the spectrum of activities that, if impaired, might cause many of the subjective disturbances found in psychosis. Research on social cognition and mentalizing in psychosis, however, has also pointed to underlying deficits in how persons make sense of their experience of themselves and others. To explore the question of whether metacognitive research in psychosis offers unique insight in the midst of these other two emerging fields, we have offered a review of the constructs and research from each field. Following that summary, we discuss ...


The Validity Of Using One Force Platform To Quantify Whole-Body Forces, Velocities, And Power During A Plyometric Push-Up, Zhanxin Sha, Boyi Dai Dec 2021

The Validity Of Using One Force Platform To Quantify Whole-Body Forces, Velocities, And Power During A Plyometric Push-Up, Zhanxin Sha, Boyi Dai

Faculty Publications

Background: Previous studies have typically measured velocity and power parameters during the push-up, either using one or two force platforms. The purpose of the study was to compare the force, velocity, and power parameters between the one-force-platform method and the two-force-platform method during plyometric push-ups.

Methods: Thirty-four physically active young adults participated in the study to perform the plyometric push-up. For the two-force-platform calculation method, the forces applied to the feet and hands were both measured. For the one-force-platform calculation method, the forces applied to the feet were assumed to be constant, while the forces applied to hands were measured ...


Ultra-Conformal Skin Electrodes With Synergistically Enhanced Conductivity For Long-Time And Low-Motion Artifact Epidermal Electrophysiology, Yan Zhao, Song Zhang, Tianhao Yu, Yan Zhang, Guo Ye, Han Cui, Chengzhi He, Wenchao Jiang, Yu Zhai, Chunming Lu, Xiaodan Gu, Nan Liu Dec 2021

Ultra-Conformal Skin Electrodes With Synergistically Enhanced Conductivity For Long-Time And Low-Motion Artifact Epidermal Electrophysiology, Yan Zhao, Song Zhang, Tianhao Yu, Yan Zhang, Guo Ye, Han Cui, Chengzhi He, Wenchao Jiang, Yu Zhai, Chunming Lu, Xiaodan Gu, Nan Liu

Faculty Publications

Accurate and imperceptible monitoring of electrophysiological signals is of primary importance for wearable healthcare. Stiff and bulky pregelled electrodes are now commonly used in clinical diagnosis, causing severe discomfort to users for long-time using as well as artifact signals in motion. Here, we report a ~100 nm ultra-thin dry epidermal electrode that is able to conformably adhere to skin and accurately measure electrophysiological signals. It showed low sheet resistance (~24 Ω/sq, 4142 S/cm), high transparency, and mechano-electrical stability. The enhanced optoelectronic performance was due to the synergistic effect between graphene and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS ...


Social Determinants Of Health Related To Stay-At-Home Order Adherence And Social Distancing Attitudes Among A Diverse Deep South Population, Jennifer L. Lemacks, Tammy Greer, Sermin Aras, Laurie Abbott, Darlene Willis, June Gipson, Mohamed O. Elasri Nov 2021

Social Determinants Of Health Related To Stay-At-Home Order Adherence And Social Distancing Attitudes Among A Diverse Deep South Population, Jennifer L. Lemacks, Tammy Greer, Sermin Aras, Laurie Abbott, Darlene Willis, June Gipson, Mohamed O. Elasri

Faculty Publications

Objective: To describe COVID-19 related symptoms and medical care experienced in the first six months of the pandemic as well as stay-at-home order adherence, and attitudes related to COVID-19 risk and social distancing among a diverse sample of adults in the Deep South.

Methods: Survey data were collected from 411 Louisiana and Mississippi residents for three weeks in June 2020 through social media.

Results: Over half (52.5%) of participants who experienced COVID-19 related symptoms (with 41.5% experiencing at least one symptom) did not feel the severity of symptoms warranted seeking medical care. 91.6% of the Deep South ...


Challenges For Estimating The Global Prevalence Of Micronutrient Deficiencies And Related Disease Burden: A Case Study Of The Global Burden Of Disease Study, Sonja Y. Hess, Alexander C. Mclain, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Ashkan Afshin, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Saskia J. Osendarp, Reed Atkin, Rahul Rawat, Kenneth H. Brown Nov 2021

Challenges For Estimating The Global Prevalence Of Micronutrient Deficiencies And Related Disease Burden: A Case Study Of The Global Burden Of Disease Study, Sonja Y. Hess, Alexander C. Mclain, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Ashkan Afshin, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Saskia J. Osendarp, Reed Atkin, Rahul Rawat, Kenneth H. Brown

Faculty Publications

Information on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is needed to determine related disease burden; underpin evidence-based advocacy; and design, deliver, and monitor safe, effective interventions. Assessing the global prevalence of deficiency requires a valid micronutrient status biomarker with an appropriate cutoff to define deficiency and relevant data from representative surveys across multiple locations and years. The Global Burden of Disease Study includes prevalence estimates for iodine, iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies, for which recommended biomarkers and appropriate deficiency cutoffs exist. Because representative survey data are lacking, only retinol concentration is used to model vitamin A deficiency, and proxy indicators ...


Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer Nov 2021

Deletion Of The Stress Response Gene Ddr48 From Histoplasma Capsulatum Increases Sensitivity To Oxidative Stress, Increases Susceptibility To Antifungals, And Decreases Fitness In Macrophages, Logan T. Blancett, Kauri A. Runge, Gabriella M. Reyes, Lauren A. Kennedy, Sydney C. Jackson, Sarah E. Scheuermann, Mallory B. Harmon, Jamease C. Williams, Glenmore Shearer

Faculty Publications

The stress response gene DDR48 has been characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans to be involved in combating various cellular stressors, from oxidative agents to antifungal compounds. Surprisingly, the biological function of DDR48 has yet to be identified, though it is likely an important part of the stress response. To gain insight into its function, we characterized DDR48 in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. Transcriptional analyses showed preferential expression of DDR48 in the mycelial phase. Induction of DDR48 in Histoplasma yeasts developed after treatment with various cellular stress compounds. We generated a ddr48∆ deletion mutant to further characterize ...


Shaper-Pnd Trial: Clinical Effectiveness Protocol Of A Community Singing Intervention For Postnatal Depression, Carolina Estevao, Rebecca Bind, Daisy Fancourt, Kristi Sawyer, Paola Dazzan, Nick Sevdalis, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane, Lavinia Rebecchini, Katie Hazelgrove, Manonmani Manoharan, Alexandra Burton, Hannah Dye, Tim Osborn, Rachel E. Davis, Tayana Soukup, Jorge Arias De La Torre, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Rosie Perkins, Carmine Pariante Nov 2021

Shaper-Pnd Trial: Clinical Effectiveness Protocol Of A Community Singing Intervention For Postnatal Depression, Carolina Estevao, Rebecca Bind, Daisy Fancourt, Kristi Sawyer, Paola Dazzan, Nick Sevdalis, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane, Lavinia Rebecchini, Katie Hazelgrove, Manonmani Manoharan, Alexandra Burton, Hannah Dye, Tim Osborn, Rachel E. Davis, Tayana Soukup, Jorge Arias De La Torre, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Rosie Perkins, Carmine Pariante

Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Postnatal depression (PND) affects approximately 13% of new mothers. Community-based activities are sought after by many mothers, especially mothers that prefer not to access pharmacological or psychological interventions. Singing has shown positive effects in maternal mood and mother-child bonding. The Scaling-Up Health-Arts Programmes: Implementation and Effectiveness Research-Postnatal Depression study will analyse the clinical and implementation effectiveness of 10-week singing sessions for PND in new mothers. This protocol paper will focus on the clinical effectiveness of this trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 400 mothers with PND (with a score of at least 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression ...


A Novel Method For Ecg Signal Classification Via One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network, Xuan Hua, Jungang Han, Chen Zhao, Haipeng Tang, Zhuo He, Qinghui Chen, Shaojie Tang, Jinshan Tang, Weihua Zhou Nov 2021

A Novel Method For Ecg Signal Classification Via One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network, Xuan Hua, Jungang Han, Chen Zhao, Haipeng Tang, Zhuo He, Qinghui Chen, Shaojie Tang, Jinshan Tang, Weihua Zhou

Faculty Publications

This paper develops an end-to-end ECG signal classification algorithm based on a novel segmentation strategy and 1D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to aid the classification of ECG signals and alleviate the workload of physicians. The ECG segmentation strategy named R-R-R strategy (i.e., retaining ECG data between the R peaks just before and after the current R peak) is used for segmenting the original ECG data into segments to train and test the 1D CNN models. The novel strategy mimics physicians in scanning ECG to a greater extent, and maximizes the inherent information of ECG segments for diagnosis. The performance ...


Dissociable Roles Of The Nucleus Accumbens Core And Shell Subregions In The Expression And Extinction Of Conditioned Fear, Sohini Dutta, Jasmin Beaver, Carly J. Halcomb, Aaron M. Jasnow Nov 2021

Dissociable Roles Of The Nucleus Accumbens Core And Shell Subregions In The Expression And Extinction Of Conditioned Fear, Sohini Dutta, Jasmin Beaver, Carly J. Halcomb, Aaron M. Jasnow

Faculty Publications

The nucleus accumbens (NAc), consisting of core (NAcC) and shell (NAcS) sub-regions, has primarily been studied as a locus mediating the effects of drug reward and addiction. However, there is ample evidence that this region is also involved in regulating aversive responses, but the exact role of the NAc and its subregions in regulating associative fear processing remains unclear. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of the NAcC and NAcS in regulating both fear expression and fear extinction in C57BL/6J mice. Using Arc expression as an indicator of neuronal activity, we first show that the NAcC is specifically active ...


Reporting Of Concussion Symptoms By A Nationwide Survey Of United States Parents Of Middle School Children, Zachary Y. Kerr, Brittany M. Ingram, Christine E. Callahan, Aliza K. Nedimyer, Avinash Chandran, Melissa K. Kossman, Julia Hoang, Paula Gildner, Johna K. Register-Mihalik Nov 2021

Reporting Of Concussion Symptoms By A Nationwide Survey Of United States Parents Of Middle School Children, Zachary Y. Kerr, Brittany M. Ingram, Christine E. Callahan, Aliza K. Nedimyer, Avinash Chandran, Melissa K. Kossman, Julia Hoang, Paula Gildner, Johna K. Register-Mihalik

Faculty Publications

This cross-sectional study assessed concussion symptom knowledge of parents of middle school (MS) children (aged 10–15 years) through a free-response item that solicited concussion symptoms and compared findings to a pre-validated scale-based measure. A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to a panel of randomly selected United States residents who were recruited by a third-party company, aged ≥ 18 years, and identified as parents of MS children. Via a free-response item, parents listed what they believed were concussion symptoms. Multiple sections later, parents identified potential concussion symptoms via a scale measure, which featured 25 items (22 actual symptoms, three distractor symptoms ...


The Individual Water Insecurity Experiences (Iwise) Scale: Reliability, Equivalence And Validity Of An Individual-Level Measure Of Water Security, Sera L. Young, Hilary J. Bethancourt, Zacchary R. Ritter, Edward A. Frongillo Jr. Oct 2021

The Individual Water Insecurity Experiences (Iwise) Scale: Reliability, Equivalence And Validity Of An Individual-Level Measure Of Water Security, Sera L. Young, Hilary J. Bethancourt, Zacchary R. Ritter, Edward A. Frongillo Jr.

Faculty Publications

Objective: The lack of a validated and cross-culturally equivalent scale for measuring individual-level water insecurity has prevented identification of those most vulnerable to it. Therefore, we developed the 12-item Individual Water InSecurity Experiences (IWISE) Scale to comparably measure individual experiences with access, use, and stability (reliability) of water. Here, we examine the reliability, cross-country equivalence, and cross-country and within-country validity of the scale in a cross-sectional sample.

Methods: IWISE items were implemented by the Gallup World Poll among nationally representative samples of 43 970 adults (15 y) in 31 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach ...


How Analogizing Socio-Legal Responses To Organ Transplantation Can Further The Legalization Of Reproductive Genetic Innovation, Myrisha S. Lewis Oct 2021

How Analogizing Socio-Legal Responses To Organ Transplantation Can Further The Legalization Of Reproductive Genetic Innovation, Myrisha S. Lewis

Faculty Publications

The Nobel Foundation emphasized the significance of genetic innovation to society, science, and medicine by awarding the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to “the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors.” This Article focuses on “reproductive genetic innovation,” a term that includes cytoplasmic transfer, mitochondrial transfer, and germline or heritable gene editing techniques that are all categorized as “experimental” in the United States. These techniques all use in vitro fertilization, a legal and widely available practice. Yet reproductive genetic innovation has resulted in controversy and numerous barriers including a recurring federal budget rider, threats of federal enforcement action, and the unavailability of federal ...


Prolonged Time From Diagnosis To Breast-Conserving Surgery Is Associated With Upstaging In Hormone Receptor-Positive Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma, Natalie Hills, Macall Leslie, Rachel Davis, Marielle Crowell, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Hallgeir Rui, Inna Chervoneva, William Dooley, Takemi Tanaka Oct 2021

Prolonged Time From Diagnosis To Breast-Conserving Surgery Is Associated With Upstaging In Hormone Receptor-Positive Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma, Natalie Hills, Macall Leslie, Rachel Davis, Marielle Crowell, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Hallgeir Rui, Inna Chervoneva, William Dooley, Takemi Tanaka

Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Time to surgery (TTS) has been suggested to have an association with mortality in early-stage breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between TTS and preoperative disease progression in tumor size or nodal status among women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer. METHODS: Women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery as their first definitive treatment between 2010 and 2016 (n = 90,405) were analyzed using the National Cancer Database. Separate multivariable logistic regression models for hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HR-negative patients, adjusted for clinical and demographic variables, were used ...


The Assessment Of An Extended Set Of Socio-Economic Determinants To Explain Anxiety And Uncertainty, Insufficient Quality And Food Intake Of Afghan Refugees, Mohammad Reza Pakravan-Charvadeh, Hassan Vatanparast, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Mahasti Khakpour, Cornelia Flora Sep 2021

The Assessment Of An Extended Set Of Socio-Economic Determinants To Explain Anxiety And Uncertainty, Insufficient Quality And Food Intake Of Afghan Refugees, Mohammad Reza Pakravan-Charvadeh, Hassan Vatanparast, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Mahasti Khakpour, Cornelia Flora

Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES:

In this study, socio-economic factors associated with Afghan refugee households' food insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and food intake were determined.

DESIGN:

Household Food Insecurity Assess Scale measurement was applied to assess food insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and insufficient food intake. Descriptive analysis and multivariable regression models were used to determine the associated factors.

SETTING:

The study was carried out in urban areas of Tehran province in Iran. PARTICIPANTS: To collect data, interviews were conducted among 317 Afghan households. The questionnaire was administered via face-to-face interviews to either the breadwinner of the selected households or a ...


Advancing Use Of Nutrition Knowledge To Improve Practice By Policy And Program Communities In India During A Political Transition, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Jessica L. Escobar-Alegria Sep 2021

Advancing Use Of Nutrition Knowledge To Improve Practice By Policy And Program Communities In India During A Political Transition, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Jessica L. Escobar-Alegria

Faculty Publications

Models are needed for how to advance use of knowledge by programs and policy officials to make evidence-based decisions about nutrition. How to advance use of nutrition knowledge in India from 2011 to 2015 during a political transition was investigated through studying a knowledge initiative led by the International Food Policy Research Institute. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 37 diverse participants, and 1091 news articles, 318 Twitter and 175 Facebook posts, 12 YouTube events, 65 knowledge products, and 130 engaging events were assessed. Open-axial coding, content and themes analysis, triangulation, and process tracing were used. The knowledge initiative analyzed the ...


A Structural Study Of The Cytoplasmic Chaperone Effect Of 14-3-3 Proteins On Ataxin-1, Seppe Leysen, Rebecca Jane Burnley, Elizabeth Rodriguez, Lech-Gustav Milroy, Lorenzo Soini, Carolyn J. Adamski, Larissa Nitschke, Rachel Davis, Tomas Obsil, Lucas Brunsveld, Tom Crabbe, Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Christian Ottmann, Jeremy Martin Davis Sep 2021

A Structural Study Of The Cytoplasmic Chaperone Effect Of 14-3-3 Proteins On Ataxin-1, Seppe Leysen, Rebecca Jane Burnley, Elizabeth Rodriguez, Lech-Gustav Milroy, Lorenzo Soini, Carolyn J. Adamski, Larissa Nitschke, Rachel Davis, Tomas Obsil, Lucas Brunsveld, Tom Crabbe, Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Christian Ottmann, Jeremy Martin Davis

Faculty Publications

Expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the N terminus of Ataxin-1 is the main cause of the neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). However, the C-terminal part of the protein - including its AXH domain and a phosphorylation on residue serine 776 - also plays a crucial role in disease development. This phosphorylation event is known to be crucial for the interaction of Ataxin-1 with the 14-3-3 adaptor proteins and has been shown to indirectly contribute to Ataxin-1 stability. Here we show that 14-3-3 also has a direct anti-aggregation or "chaperone" effect on Ataxin-1. Furthermore, we provide structural and biophysical information ...


Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes In The Middle East And North Africa: Challenges And Call For Action, Imad El-Kebbi, Nayda Bidikian, Layal Hneiny, Mona Nasrallah Sep 2021

Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes In The Middle East And North Africa: Challenges And Call For Action, Imad El-Kebbi, Nayda Bidikian, Layal Hneiny, Mona Nasrallah

Faculty Publications

Type 2 diabetes continues to be a serious and highly prevalent public health problem worldwide. In 2019, the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world at 12.2%, with its associated morbidity and mortality, was found in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition to a genetic predisposition in its population, evidence suggests that obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, and poor nutritional habits have contributed to the high prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in the region. These risk factors have also led to an earlier onset of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents, negatively affecting the productive years ...


Functions Of Social Networks In Maternal Food Choice For Children In Mexico, Ligia I. Reyes, Edward A. Frongillo, Spencer Moore, Christine E. Blake, Wendy Gonzalez, Anabelle Bonvecchio Sep 2021

Functions Of Social Networks In Maternal Food Choice For Children In Mexico, Ligia I. Reyes, Edward A. Frongillo, Spencer Moore, Christine E. Blake, Wendy Gonzalez, Anabelle Bonvecchio

Faculty Publications

Food choice for children has important implications in establishing early-life dietary habits and preferences. Food choice for children has been studied as parent–child dyad dynamics, but little is known about the extended system of relationships in maternal food choice for children. The objective of this study was to understand the functions of mothers' social networks in the food choices that mothers make for their children ages 1 to 5 years old in rural Mexico. In-depth interviews were conducted with 46 participants in three rural communities. The interviews inquired about participants' child-feeding practices, personal and local beliefs about child feeding ...


Maternal Resources For Care Are Associated With Child Growth And Early Childhood Development In Bangladesh And Vietnam, Sulochana Basnet, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Phuong Hong Nguyen, Spencer Moore, Mandana Arabi Sep 2021

Maternal Resources For Care Are Associated With Child Growth And Early Childhood Development In Bangladesh And Vietnam, Sulochana Basnet, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Phuong Hong Nguyen, Spencer Moore, Mandana Arabi

Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Suboptimal child growth and development are significant problems in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal resources for care may help to improve growth and development. This study examined the association of maternal resources for care on child length, motor development and language development of children 12-23.9 months old.

METHODS:

We used baseline data from the Alive & Thrive household surveys collected in Bangladesh (n = 803) and Vietnam (n = 635). Resources for care were represented by maternal education, knowledge, height, well-nourishment, mental well-being, decision-making, employment, support in chores and perceived support. The regression analyses were adjusted for household wealth and other ...


Relationship Between Food Insecurity And Smoking Status Among Women Living With And At Risk For Hiv In The Usa: A Cohort Study, Lila A. Sheira, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Judith Hahn, Kartika Palar, Elise D. Riley, Tracey E. Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Daniel Merenstein, Mardge Cohen, Eryka L. Wentz, Adaora A. Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Janet M. Turan, Phyllis C. Tien, Sheri D. Weiser Sep 2021

Relationship Between Food Insecurity And Smoking Status Among Women Living With And At Risk For Hiv In The Usa: A Cohort Study, Lila A. Sheira, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Judith Hahn, Kartika Palar, Elise D. Riley, Tracey E. Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Daniel Merenstein, Mardge Cohen, Eryka L. Wentz, Adaora A. Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Janet M. Turan, Phyllis C. Tien, Sheri D. Weiser

Faculty Publications

Objectives People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6–13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA.

Design Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015.

Setting Nine participating sites across the USA.

Participants ...


Prevalence And Subgroup Comparisons Of Obesity And Severe Obesity Among Mississippi Public School Students, Lei Zhang, Xiaoshan Z. Gordy, Jerome Kolbo, Jacquelynn Johnson Sep 2021

Prevalence And Subgroup Comparisons Of Obesity And Severe Obesity Among Mississippi Public School Students, Lei Zhang, Xiaoshan Z. Gordy, Jerome Kolbo, Jacquelynn Johnson

Faculty Publications

This study examined the prevalence of obesity and severe obesity among Mississippi K-12 public school students and the obesity rate differences within subgroups categorized by sex, race, and grade level. Anthropometric data from a weighted, representative sample of Mississippi public school students were collected through the biennial Child and Youth Prevalence of Obesity Survey (CAYPOS). Overall prevalence rates and those of the subgroups were calculated and compared. The 2017 data indicated that overall 23.7% of Mississippi public schools students met the criterion of class I obesity, 9.1% met the criterion of class II obesity, and 3.2% met ...


Adaptation Of The Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality’S ‘Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture’ To The Bosnia And Herzegovina Context, Šehad Draganović, Guido Offermanns, Rachel E. Davis Aug 2021

Adaptation Of The Agency For Healthcare Research And Quality’S ‘Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture’ To The Bosnia And Herzegovina Context, Šehad Draganović, Guido Offermanns, Rachel E. Davis

Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Measuring staff perspectives on patient safety culture (PSC) can identify areas of concern that, if addressed, could lead to improvements in healthcare. To date, there is no validated measure to assess PSC that has been tested and adapted for use in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). This research addresses the gap in the evidence through the psychometric assessment of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's: 'Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture' (HSOPSC), to determine its suitability for the health system in BiH. SETTING: Nine hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare professionals (n=1429); nurse (n=823), doctors (n=328), other clinical ...


Water Insecurity Is Associated With Lack Of Viral Suppression And Greater Odds Of Aids-Defining Illnesses Among Adults With Hiv In Western Kenya, Jason M. Nagata, Joshua D. Miller, Craig R. Cohen, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Elly Weke, Rachel Burger, Pauline Wekesa, Lila A. Sheira, A Rain Mocello, Phelgona Otieno, Lisa M. Butler, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Sheri D. Weiser, Sera L. Young Aug 2021

Water Insecurity Is Associated With Lack Of Viral Suppression And Greater Odds Of Aids-Defining Illnesses Among Adults With Hiv In Western Kenya, Jason M. Nagata, Joshua D. Miller, Craig R. Cohen, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Elly Weke, Rachel Burger, Pauline Wekesa, Lila A. Sheira, A Rain Mocello, Phelgona Otieno, Lisa M. Butler, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Sheri D. Weiser, Sera L. Young

Faculty Publications

Reliable access to safe and acceptable water in sufficient quantities (i.e., water security) is important for medication adherence and limiting pathogen exposure, yet prior studies have only considered the role of food security as a social determinant of HIV-related health. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to assess the relationships between household water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes among adults living with HIV in western Kenya (N = 716). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Shamba Maisha (NCT02815579), a cluster randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. Baseline data were collected from June ...


Covid-19 Disrupted Provision And Utilization Of Health And Nutrition Services In Uttar Pradesh, India: Insights From Service Providers, Household Phone Surveys, And Administrative Data, Phuong H. Nguyen, Shivani Kachwaha, Anjali Pant, Lan M. Tran, Monika Walia, Sebanti Ghosh, Praveen K. Sharma, Jessica Escobar-Alegria, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Purnima Menon, Rasmi Avula Aug 2021

Covid-19 Disrupted Provision And Utilization Of Health And Nutrition Services In Uttar Pradesh, India: Insights From Service Providers, Household Phone Surveys, And Administrative Data, Phuong H. Nguyen, Shivani Kachwaha, Anjali Pant, Lan M. Tran, Monika Walia, Sebanti Ghosh, Praveen K. Sharma, Jessica Escobar-Alegria, Edward A. Frongillo Jr., Purnima Menon, Rasmi Avula

Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic may substantially affect health systems, but little primary evidence is available on disruption of health and nutrition services. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to 1) determine the extent of disruption in provision and utilization of health and nutrition services induced by the pandemic in Uttar Pradesh, India; and 2) identify how adaptations were made to restore service provision in response to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal surveys with frontline workers (FLWs, n = 313) and mothers of children < 2 y old (n = 659) in December 2019 (in-person) and July 2020 (by phone). We also interviewed block-level managers and obtained administrative data. We examined changes in service provision and utilization using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. RESULTS: Compared with prepandemic, service provision reduced substantially during lockdown (83-98 percentage points, pp), except for home visits and take-home rations (∼ 30%). Most FLWs (68%-90%) restored service provision in July 2020, except for immunization and hot cooked meals (< 10%). Administrative data showed similar patterns of disruption and restoration. FLW fears, increased workload, inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE), and manpower shortages challenged service provision. Key adaptations made to provide services were delivering services to beneficiary homes (∼ 40%-90%), social distancing (80%), and using PPE (40%-50%) and telephones for communication (∼ 20%). On the demand side, service utilization reduced substantially (40-80 pp) during the lockdown, but about half of mothers received home visits and food supplementation. Utilization for most services did not improve after the lockdown, bearing the challenges of limited travel (30%), nonavailability of services (26%), and fear of catching the virus when leaving the house (22%) or meeting service providers (14%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 disrupted the provision and use of health and nutrition services in Uttar Pradesh, India, despite adaptations to restore services. Strengthening logistical support, capacity enhancement, performance management, and demand creation are needed to improve service provision and utilization during and post-COVID-19.