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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Direct Material Property Determination: One‐Dimensional Formulation Utilising Full‐Field Deformation Measurements, Sreehair Rajan-Kattil, Michael A. Sutton, Subramani Sockalingam, Frank Thomas, Tusit Weerasooriya, Stephen Alexander Oct 2022

Direct Material Property Determination: One‐Dimensional Formulation Utilising Full‐Field Deformation Measurements, Sreehair Rajan-Kattil, Michael A. Sutton, Subramani Sockalingam, Frank Thomas, Tusit Weerasooriya, Stephen Alexander

Faculty Publications

A direct approach is described to determine the elastic modulus distribution in a nominally heterogeneous material subject to tensile/compression loading and primarily experiencing deformations in the axial direction. The formulation is developed for uniaxial applications using basic theoretical constructs, resulting in a computational framework that has a matrix form [A] {E} = {R}, where the [A] matrix components are known functions of measured axial strains and axial positions, {R} components are known functions of axial body forces, applied loads and reactions and {E} components are the unknown elastic moduli at discrete locations along the length of the specimen. For a …


Transmission Roles Of Symptomatic And Asymptomatic Covid-19 Cases: A Modelling Study, Jianbin Tan, Yang Ge, Leonardo Martinez, Jimin Sun, Changwei Li, Adrianna Westbrook, Enfu Chen, Jinren Pan, Yang Li, Wei Cheng, Feng Ling, Zhinping Chen, Ye Shen, Hui Huang Sep 2022

Transmission Roles Of Symptomatic And Asymptomatic Covid-19 Cases: A Modelling Study, Jianbin Tan, Yang Ge, Leonardo Martinez, Jimin Sun, Changwei Li, Adrianna Westbrook, Enfu Chen, Jinren Pan, Yang Li, Wei Cheng, Feng Ling, Zhinping Chen, Ye Shen, Hui Huang

Faculty Publications

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) asymptomatic cases are hard to identify, impeding transmissibility estimation. The value of COVID-19 transmissibility is worth further elucidation for key assumptions in further modelling studies. Through a population-based surveillance network, we collected data on 1342 confirmed cases with a 90-days follow-up for all asymptomatic cases. An age-stratified compartmental model containing contact information was built to estimate the transmissibility of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. The difference in transmissibility of a symptomatic and asymptomatic case depended on age and was most distinct for the middle-age groups. The asymptomatic cases had a 66.7% lower transmissibility rate than symptomatic …


Examining The Association Between Rurality And Positive Childhood Experiences Among A National Sample, Elizabeth L. Crouch Ph.D., Janice C. Probst Ph.D., Sylvia Shi, Alexander C. Mclain Ph.D., Jan M. Eberth Ph.D., Monique J. Brown Ph.D., Melinda A. Merrell, Kevin J. Bennett Aug 2022

Examining The Association Between Rurality And Positive Childhood Experiences Among A National Sample, Elizabeth L. Crouch Ph.D., Janice C. Probst Ph.D., Sylvia Shi, Alexander C. Mclain Ph.D., Jan M. Eberth Ph.D., Monique J. Brown Ph.D., Melinda A. Merrell, Kevin J. Bennett

Faculty Publications

Purpose

The present study examines the association between rurality and positive childhood experiences (PCEs) among children and adolescents across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Recent work has quantified the prevalence of PCEs at the national level, but these studies have been based on public use data files, which lack rurality information for 19 states.

Methods

Data for this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from 2016 to 2018 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), using the full data set with restricted geographic data (n = 63,000). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to calculate proportions and unadjusted associations. …


The Impact Of Dieting Culture Is Different Between Sexes In Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Austin J. Graybeal, Andreas Kreutzer, Jada L. Willis, Robyn Braun-Trocchio, Kamiah Moss, Meena Shah Aug 2022

The Impact Of Dieting Culture Is Different Between Sexes In Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Austin J. Graybeal, Andreas Kreutzer, Jada L. Willis, Robyn Braun-Trocchio, Kamiah Moss, Meena Shah

Faculty Publications

Background: Frequent dieting is common in athletes attempting to achieve a body composition perceived to improve performance. Excessive dieting may indicate disordered eating (DE) behaviors and can result in clinical eating disorders. However, the current nutrition patterns that underly dieting culture are underexplored in endurance athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the sex differences in nutrition patterns among a group of endurance athletes.

Methods: Two-hundred and thirty-one endurance athletes (females = 124) completed a questionnaire regarding their dieting patterns and associated variables.

Results: The majority of athletes did not follow a planned diet …


Quantile Differences In The Age-Related Decline In Cardiorespiratory Fitness Between Sexes In Adults Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In The United States, Andrew Ortaglia, Melissa Stansbury, Michael David Wirth, Xuemei Sui, Matteo Bottai Aug 2022

Quantile Differences In The Age-Related Decline In Cardiorespiratory Fitness Between Sexes In Adults Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In The United States, Andrew Ortaglia, Melissa Stansbury, Michael David Wirth, Xuemei Sui, Matteo Bottai

Faculty Publications

Objective: To comprehensively assess the extent to which the decline in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with age differs between sexes. Participants and Methods: This study used data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, conducted between September 1974 and August 2006, consisting primarily of White adults from middle-to-upper socioeconomic strata restricted to adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus (33,742 men and 9,415 women). Quantile regression models were used to estimate the differences in age-associated changes in CRF between the sexes, estimated using a maximal treadmill test. Results: For adults aged up to 45 years, significant differences in slopes relating to age and …


Mindfulness, Psychological Distress, And Somatic Symptoms Among Women Engaged In Sex Work In China, Cheuk Chi Tam, Yuejiao Zhao, Shan Qiao, Xiaoming Li, Zhiyong Shen Aug 2022

Mindfulness, Psychological Distress, And Somatic Symptoms Among Women Engaged In Sex Work In China, Cheuk Chi Tam, Yuejiao Zhao, Shan Qiao, Xiaoming Li, Zhiyong Shen

Faculty Publications

Women engaged in sex work (WSW) in China encounter numerous disadvantages (e.g., exposure to violence) and have substantial risk for psychological distress and somatic symptoms. Intervention literature has attended to mindfulness, which is a protective factor for psychological outcomes, and its influences can further improve physical health. However, mindfulness has not been well studied in WSW. We aimed to examine the association among mindfulness, psychological distress, and somatic symptoms among Chinese WSW. Data were collected from 410 WSW in Guangxi, China, using an anonymous, self-administered survey evaluating demographics, mindfulness, psychological distress (i.e., depression, loneliness, and perceived stress), and somatic symptoms …


Perceived Stress And Salivary Biomarkers In Educators: Comparison Among Three Stress Reduction Activities, Doreen Wagner, Sharon M. Pearcey Jul 2022

Perceived Stress And Salivary Biomarkers In Educators: Comparison Among Three Stress Reduction Activities, Doreen Wagner, Sharon M. Pearcey

Faculty Publications

Background: The teaching profession is a potentially stressful occupation with up to 30% of all novice teachers leaving the profession and annual teacher turnover is higher when compared with turnover of all other occupations. This study investigated the effects of a one-time stress reduction activity (meditation, yoga, or aerobic exercise) in university and K-12 educators who were part of one-day seminar on Stress Reduction.

Methods: Participants (N = 26) self-selected their stress reduction activity, completed a demographic questionnaire, educator stress self-assessment tool, and visual analogue scales indicating current stress levels. Salivary cortisol and amylase levels were measured before, immediately after, …


The Effect Of Social Exclusion On Trust Among Youth Orphaned By Hiv/Aids: Evidence From An Event-Related Potentials Study, Jiaojiao Wan, Qi Zhao, Yafei Zhang, Lili Ji, Junfeng Zhao, Shan Qiao Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D. Jul 2022

The Effect Of Social Exclusion On Trust Among Youth Orphaned By Hiv/Aids: Evidence From An Event-Related Potentials Study, Jiaojiao Wan, Qi Zhao, Yafei Zhang, Lili Ji, Junfeng Zhao, Shan Qiao Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Grounded in a follow-up study among children who lost one or both parents to HIV in central China in the early 2000s, we conducted an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment to explore the effect of social exclusion on trust and the corresponding neurophysiological mechanism among youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS (“AIDS orphans”). A sample of 31 AIDS orphans (26.16 ± 3.34 years old; 15 female) and 32 age and development status matched controls (25.02 ± 3.45 years old; 14 female) participated in the study. They were all assigned to play Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game that reliably induced social exclusion (15 orphans, …


Three Dimensions Of Covid-19 Risk Perceptions And Their Socioeconomic Correlates In The United States: A Social Media Analysis, Shan Qiao Ph.D., Zhenlong Li Ph.D., Chen Liang Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Caroline Rudisill Ph.D. Jul 2022

Three Dimensions Of Covid-19 Risk Perceptions And Their Socioeconomic Correlates In The United States: A Social Media Analysis, Shan Qiao Ph.D., Zhenlong Li Ph.D., Chen Liang Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Caroline Rudisill Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Social media analysis provides an alternate approach to monitoring and understanding risk perceptions regarding COVID-19 over time. Our current understandings of risk perceptions regarding COVID-19 do not disentangle the three dimensions of risk perceptions (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and negative emotion) as the pandemic has evolved. Data are also limited regarding the impact of social determinants of health (SDOH) on COVID-19-related risk perceptions over time. To address these knowledge gaps, we extracted tweets regarding COVID-19-related risk perceptions and developed indicators for the three dimensions of risk perceptions based on over502 million geotagged tweets posted by over 4.9 million Twitter users …


Effect Of Behavioural Practice Targeted At The Motor Action Selection Network After Stroke, Jill C. Stewart, Jessica F. Baird, Stacy L. Fritz, Julius Fridriksson Ph.D. Jul 2022

Effect Of Behavioural Practice Targeted At The Motor Action Selection Network After Stroke, Jill C. Stewart, Jessica F. Baird, Stacy L. Fritz, Julius Fridriksson Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Motor action selection engages a network of frontal and parietal brain regions. After stroke, individuals activate a similar network, however, activation is higher, especially in the contralesional hemisphere. The current study examined the effect of practice on action selection performance and brain activation after stroke. Sixteen individuals with chronic stroke (Upper Extremity Fugl–Meyer motor score range: 18–61) moved a joystick with the more-impaired hand in two conditions: Select (externally cued choice; move right or left based on an abstract rule) and Execute (simple response; move same direction every trial). On Day 1, reaction time (RT) was longer in Select compared …


Perspectives Of African American Women About Barriers To Breast Cancer Prevention And Screening Practices: A Qualitative Study, Abosede F. Obikunle, Jochebed Bosede Ade-Oshifogun Jul 2022

Perspectives Of African American Women About Barriers To Breast Cancer Prevention And Screening Practices: A Qualitative Study, Abosede F. Obikunle, Jochebed Bosede Ade-Oshifogun

Faculty Publications

Breast cancer is a severe illness that often has fatal consequences. Adherence to the recommendations for breast cancer surveillance is poorly practiced among African American women. The study aimed to identify barriers to preventative screening for breast cancer among African American women (AAW) using a qualitative research design. We explored the influence of personal barriers, stereotypes, socioeconomic status, culture, attitudes, and beliefs on African American women's behavior regarding breast cancer screening. Fourteen African American women were interviewed. Data analysis was completed with Interpretative Phenomenology Approach (IPA). This study's findings demonstrated that African American women perceived the barriers to breast cancer …


Correlates Of Zero-Dose Vaccination Status Among Children Aged 12-59 Months In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multilevel Analysis Of Individual And Contextual Factors, Chamberline Ozigbu, Bankole Olatosi, Zhenlong Li, James W. Hardin, Nicole L. Hair Jun 2022

Correlates Of Zero-Dose Vaccination Status Among Children Aged 12-59 Months In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multilevel Analysis Of Individual And Contextual Factors, Chamberline Ozigbu, Bankole Olatosi, Zhenlong Li, James W. Hardin, Nicole L. Hair

Faculty Publications

Despite ongoing efforts to improve childhood vaccination coverage, including in hard-to-reach and hard-to-vaccinate communities, many children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remain unvaccinated. Considering recent goals set by the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030), including reducing the number of zero-dose children by half, research that goes beyond coverage to identify populations and groups at greater risk of being unvaccinated is urgently needed. This is a pooled cross-sectional study of individual- and country-level data obtained from Demographic and Health Surveys Program and two open data repositories. The sample includes 43,131 children aged 12–59 months sampled between 2010 and 2020 in 33 SSA countries. …


“Where The Truth Really Lies”: Listening To Voices From African American Communities In The Southern States About Covid-19 Vaccine Information And Communication, Ran Zhang, Shan Qiao, Brooke Mckeever, Bankole Olatosi, Xiaoming Li Jun 2022

“Where The Truth Really Lies”: Listening To Voices From African American Communities In The Southern States About Covid-19 Vaccine Information And Communication, Ran Zhang, Shan Qiao, Brooke Mckeever, Bankole Olatosi, Xiaoming Li

Faculty Publications

The high uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is one of the most promising measures to control the pandemic. However, some African American (AA) communities exhibit vaccination hesitancy due to mis- or disinformation. It is important to understand the challenges in accessing reliable COVID-19 vaccine information and to develop feasible health communication interventions based on voices from AA communities. We conducted 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) among 18 community stakeholders recruited from 3 counties in South Carolina on 8 October and 29 October 2021. The FGDs were conducted online via Zoom meetings. The FGD data were managed and thematically analyzed using NVivo …


How Different Pre-Existing Mental Disorders And Their Co-Occurrence Affects Covid-19 Clinical Outcomes? A Real-World Data Study In The Southern United States, Shan Qiao Ph.D., Jiajia Zhang Ph.D., Shujie Chen, Bankole Olatosi Ph.D., Suzanne Hardeman, Meera Narasimhan, Larisa Bruner, Abdoulaye Diedhiou, Cheryl Scott, Ali Mansaray, Sharon Weissman, Xiaoming Li Ph.D. Jun 2022

How Different Pre-Existing Mental Disorders And Their Co-Occurrence Affects Covid-19 Clinical Outcomes? A Real-World Data Study In The Southern United States, Shan Qiao Ph.D., Jiajia Zhang Ph.D., Shujie Chen, Bankole Olatosi Ph.D., Suzanne Hardeman, Meera Narasimhan, Larisa Bruner, Abdoulaye Diedhiou, Cheryl Scott, Ali Mansaray, Sharon Weissman, Xiaoming Li Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Background: Although a psychiatric history might be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and mortality, no studies have systematically investigated how different clusters of pre-existing mental disorders may affect COVID-19 clinical outcomes or showed how the coexistence of mental disorder clusters is related to COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, a total of 476,775 adult patients with lab-confirmed and probable COVID-19 between March 06, 2020 and April 14, 2021 in South Carolina, United States were included in the current study. The electronic health record data of COVID-19 patients were linked to all payer-based claims data …


Multilevel Determinants Of Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Severe Maternal Morbidity And Mortality In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In The Usa: Protocol For A Concurrent Triangulation, Mixed-Methods Study, Jihong Liu, Peiyin Hung Ph.D, Chen Liang Ph.D., Jiajia Zhang Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Berry A. Campbell, Bankole Olatosi Ph.D., Myriam E. Torres Ph. D., Neset Hikmet, Xiaoming Li Ph.D. Jun 2022

Multilevel Determinants Of Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Severe Maternal Morbidity And Mortality In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In The Usa: Protocol For A Concurrent Triangulation, Mixed-Methods Study, Jihong Liu, Peiyin Hung Ph.D, Chen Liang Ph.D., Jiajia Zhang Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Berry A. Campbell, Bankole Olatosi Ph.D., Myriam E. Torres Ph. D., Neset Hikmet, Xiaoming Li Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has affected communities of colour the hardest. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic pregnant women appear to have disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 infection and death rates.

Methods and analysis We will use the socioecological framework and employ a concurrent triangulation, mixed-methods study design to achieve three specific aims: (1) examine the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on racial/ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity and mortality (SMMM); (2) explore how social contexts (eg, racial/ethnic residential segregation) have contributed to the widening of racial/ethnic disparities in SMMM during the pandemic and identify distinct mediating pathways through maternity care and mental health; and …


Food Insecurity And Suicidal Behaviors Among Us High School Students*, Andrea D. Brown, Hilary Seligman, Sarah Silwa, Ellen Barnidge, Kathryn L. Krupsky, Zewiditu Demissie, Angela D. Liese May 2022

Food Insecurity And Suicidal Behaviors Among Us High School Students*, Andrea D. Brown, Hilary Seligman, Sarah Silwa, Ellen Barnidge, Kathryn L. Krupsky, Zewiditu Demissie, Angela D. Liese

Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) rates in the United States are particularly high among households with children. This research set aims to analyze if high school students experiencing FI had higher risk for mental health and suicidal behaviors.

METHODS: Using combined data from 11 states that conducted the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a total of 26,962 and24,051 high school students were used to estimate race/ethnicity and sex-stratified prevalence ratios (PRs) from Poissonregression models. A single-question was used to measure the exposure of FI and outcomes of mental health and suicidalbehaviors.

RESULTS: Overall, 10.8% of students reported FI. Students experiencing FI …


Updates In The Pharmacologic Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Invasive Candidiasis In The Pediatric And Neonatal Intensive Care Units, James Hunter Fly, Seerat Kapoor, Kelly Bobo, Jeremy S. Stultz May 2022

Updates In The Pharmacologic Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Invasive Candidiasis In The Pediatric And Neonatal Intensive Care Units, James Hunter Fly, Seerat Kapoor, Kelly Bobo, Jeremy S. Stultz

Faculty Publications

Purpose of review The goal of this review was to provide an update on the prevention and treatment options for invasive candidiasis (IC) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Recent findings Studies have further validated the use of fluconazole for IC prophylaxis among high-risk patients in the NICU. It remains unclear if prophylaxis leads to resistance development and the ideal dosage regimen is still not clear. Recent studies have been published comparing caspofungin and micafungin to amphotericin B and illustrated similar efficacy outcomes in the NICU. Micafungin now has approval from the United …


Examining Social Determinants Of Health During A Pandemic: Clinical Application Of Z Codes Before And During Covid-19, Xueying Yang Ph.D., Brooks Yelton, Shujie Chen, Jiajia Zhang Ph.D., Bankole Olatosi Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Daniela B. Friedman Ph.D. Apr 2022

Examining Social Determinants Of Health During A Pandemic: Clinical Application Of Z Codes Before And During Covid-19, Xueying Yang Ph.D., Brooks Yelton, Shujie Chen, Jiajia Zhang Ph.D., Bankole Olatosi Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Daniela B. Friedman Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Recognition of the impact of social determinants of health (SDoH) on healthcare outcomes, healthcare service utilization, and population health has prompted a global shift in focus to patient social needs and lived experiences in assessment and treatment. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) provides a list of non-billable “Z codes” specific to SDoH for use in electronic health records. Using population-level analysis, this study aims to examine clinical application of Z codes in South Carolina before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study population consists of South Carolina residents who had a healthcare visit and had …


Bibliometric Analysis Of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Medical Research Production From Saudi Arabia, Amr A. Jamal, Samar Binkheder, Raniah N. Aldekhyyel, Jwaher Almulhem, Shabana Tharkar, Afaf Ali Batis, Layal Hneiny Apr 2022

Bibliometric Analysis Of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Medical Research Production From Saudi Arabia, Amr A. Jamal, Samar Binkheder, Raniah N. Aldekhyyel, Jwaher Almulhem, Shabana Tharkar, Afaf Ali Batis, Layal Hneiny

Faculty Publications

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and as an attempt to fill the knowledge gap related to this topic, extensive research in this area has been published. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as one of the countries affected by the pandemic, has contributed to the growing body of scientific literature related to COVID-19. To measure research contribution produced by Saudi Arabian affiliated researchers, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of COVID-19 research across two databases: the Web of Science and Scopus. Analysis was conducted on February 2, 2021 and included all relevant COVID-19-related publications (n = 1510). …


Analysis Of Firearm Violence During The Covid-19 Pandemic In The Us, Shengzhi Sun, Wangnan Cao, Yang Ge Apr 2022

Analysis Of Firearm Violence During The Covid-19 Pandemic In The Us, Shengzhi Sun, Wangnan Cao, Yang Ge

Faculty Publications

Importance In the US, the COVID-19 pandemic intensified some conditions that may contribute to firearm violence, and a recent surge in firearm sales during the pandemic has been reported. However, patterns of change in firearm violence in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US remain unclear.

Objective To quantify the changes in interpersonal firearm violence associated with the pandemic across all 50 US states and the District of Columbia.

Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based cross-sectional study examined 50 US states and the District of Columbia from January 1, 2016, to February 28, 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic …


Social Capital, Urbanization Level, And Covid-19 Vaccination Uptake In The United States: A National Level Analysis, Shan Qiao, Zhenlong Li, Jiajia Zhang, Xiaowen Sun, Camryn Garrett, Xiaoming Li Apr 2022

Social Capital, Urbanization Level, And Covid-19 Vaccination Uptake In The United States: A National Level Analysis, Shan Qiao, Zhenlong Li, Jiajia Zhang, Xiaowen Sun, Camryn Garrett, Xiaoming Li

Faculty Publications

Vaccination remains the most promising mitigation strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, existing literature shows significant disparities in vaccination uptake in the United States. Using publicly available national-level data, we aimed to explore if county-level social capital can further explain disparities in vaccination uptake rates when adjusting for demographic and social determinants of health (SDOH) variables, and if association between social capital and vaccination uptake may vary by urbanization level. Bivariate analyses and a hierarchical multivariable quasi-binomial regression analysis were conducted, where the regression analysis was stratified by urban–rural status. The current study suggests that social capital contributes significantly to …


Tell Or Retell? The Role Of Task And Language In Spanish-English Narrative Microstructure Performance, Mary Claire Wofford, Jessica Cano, Lisa A. Fitton Ph.D. Apr 2022

Tell Or Retell? The Role Of Task And Language In Spanish-English Narrative Microstructure Performance, Mary Claire Wofford, Jessica Cano, Lisa A. Fitton Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Purpose:

This study examined performance of dual language learners (DLLs) on Spanish- and English-language narrative story retells and unique tells. Transcription and analysis focused on comparisons of common microstructural language sample measures in Spanish and English across tasks. Each language sample measure was evaluated for its possible convergence with norm-referenced standardized assessments for DLL children.

Method:

Spanish–English DLLs (N = 133) enrolled in English-only kindergarten or first-grade classrooms completed two-language sample tasks (one in each language), which were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (Miller & Iglesias, 2017) for measures of syntactic complexity (mean length of …


Hiv-Related Stigma, Sexual Identity, And Depressive Symptoms Among Msm Living With Hiv: A Moderated Mediation Modeling Analysis, Tianyue Mi, Guanghua Lan, Xueying Yang Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou Mar 2022

Hiv-Related Stigma, Sexual Identity, And Depressive Symptoms Among Msm Living With Hiv: A Moderated Mediation Modeling Analysis, Tianyue Mi, Guanghua Lan, Xueying Yang Ph.D., Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou

Faculty Publications

Depression is one of the biggest health issues among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV, where sexual identity might play an intricate role. Yet, findings of the relationship between sexual identity and depression were mixed and few studies explored its underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to examine the association between sexual identity and depression, and the potential mediating role of HIV-related stigma and moderating role of age. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 203 MSM living with HIV in Guangxi, China. Participants provided information on sexual identity, depression, HIV-related stigma, and background information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate …


Translation Of Policy For Reducing Undernutrition From National To Sub-National Levels In Rwanda, Elyse Iruhiriye, Deanna K. Olney, Edward A. Frongillo, Emmanuel Niyongira, Simeon Nanama, Eugene Rwibasira, Paul Mbonyi, Christine E. Blake Mar 2022

Translation Of Policy For Reducing Undernutrition From National To Sub-National Levels In Rwanda, Elyse Iruhiriye, Deanna K. Olney, Edward A. Frongillo, Emmanuel Niyongira, Simeon Nanama, Eugene Rwibasira, Paul Mbonyi, Christine E. Blake

Faculty Publications

Understanding how countries improve children’s nutrition can inform policies and contribute to further improvements. We examined the relationship between improvements in nutrition in Rwanda (1992–2017) and political commitment to- and policy coherence in- nutrition. We reviewed nutrition-relevant Rwandan policies and programs (2000–2018) and conducted 90 semi-structured interviews with national (n = 32), mid-level (n = 38), and community (n = 20) nutrition stakeholders and 40 community-level focus group discussions (FGDs). FGDs and sub-national interviews were conducted in ten purposefully selected districts, five each in which stunting decreased (reduced) and increased or stagnated (non-reduced) between the 2010 and 2014/15 Rwanda Demographic …


Accountability And Autonomy, Motivation, And Psychiatric Treatment, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans Mar 2022

Accountability And Autonomy, Motivation, And Psychiatric Treatment, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Accountability As A Key Virtue In Mental Health And Human Flourishing, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans Mar 2022

Accountability As A Key Virtue In Mental Health And Human Flourishing, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans

Faculty Publications

We propose that accountability plays an implicit, important, and relatively unexamined role in psychiatry. People generally think of accountability as a relation in which one party is held accountable by another. In this paper, we examine accountability as a virtue, drawing on philosophy, psychiatry, and psychology to examine what it means to welcome being accountable in an excellent way that promotes flourishing. When people manifest accountability as a virtue, they are both responsive to others they owe a response, and they are responsible for their attitudes and actions in light of these relationships. Psychiatric treatment often aims to correct disordered …


The Relationship Of Hair Glucocorticoid Levels To Immunological And Virological Outcomes In A Large Cohort Of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Treated People Living With Hiv, Quan Zhang, Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Shuaifeng Liu, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen Mar 2022

The Relationship Of Hair Glucocorticoid Levels To Immunological And Virological Outcomes In A Large Cohort Of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Treated People Living With Hiv, Quan Zhang, Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Shan Qiao Ph.D., Shuaifeng Liu, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen

Faculty Publications

Background

Existing literature mostly investigated the relationship of acute or short-term glucocorticoid exposure to HIV disease progression using cortisol levels in serum, saliva, or urine. Data are limited on the relationship of long-term glucocorticoid exposure to HIV disease progression. This study examined whether hair glucocorticoid levels, novel retrospective indicators of long-term glucocorticoid exposure, are associated with two common indicators of HIV disease progression (CD4 count and HIV viral load) among a large cohort of combination antiretroviral therapy treated Chinese people living with HIV (PLHIV).

Methods

A total of 1198 treated PLHIV provided hair samples for glucocorticoid (cortisol and cortisone) assay …


Mindfulness, Psychological Distress, And Somatic Symptoms Among Women Engaged In Sex Work In China, Cheuk Chi Tam, Yuejiao Zhou, Shan Qiao, Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Zhiyong Shen Mar 2022

Mindfulness, Psychological Distress, And Somatic Symptoms Among Women Engaged In Sex Work In China, Cheuk Chi Tam, Yuejiao Zhou, Shan Qiao, Xiaoming Li Ph.D., Zhiyong Shen

Faculty Publications

Women engaged in sex work (WSW) in China encounter numerous disadvantages (e.g., exposure to violence) and have substantial risk for psychological distress and somatic symptoms. Intervention literature has attended to mindfulness, which is a protective factor for psychological outcomes, and its influences can further improve physical health. However, mindfulness has not been well studied in WSW. We aimed to examine the association among mindfulness, psychological distress, and somatic symptoms among Chinese WSW. Data were collected from 410 WSW in Guangxi, China, using an anonymous, self-administered survey evaluating demographics, mindfulness, psychological distress (i.e., depression, loneliness, and perceived stress), and somatic symptoms …


Evaluation Of A Community-Based Performance Arts Programme For People Who Have Experienced Stroke In The Uk: Protocol For The Shaper-Stroke Odysseys Study, Carolina Estevao, Maria Baldellou Lopez, Rachel E. Davis, Lucinda Jarret, Tayana Soukup, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Jean Harrington, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane, Fiona Jones, Carmine Pariante, Daisy Fancourt, Nick Sevdalis Mar 2022

Evaluation Of A Community-Based Performance Arts Programme For People Who Have Experienced Stroke In The Uk: Protocol For The Shaper-Stroke Odysseys Study, Carolina Estevao, Maria Baldellou Lopez, Rachel E. Davis, Lucinda Jarret, Tayana Soukup, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Jean Harrington, Anthony Woods, Nikki Crane, Fiona Jones, Carmine Pariante, Daisy Fancourt, Nick Sevdalis

Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Stroke survivors, once in the community, face challenges with their long-term rehabilitation care and present higher levels of loneliness, depression and anxiety than the rest of the population. A community-based performance arts programme, Stroke Odysseys (SO), has been devised to tackle the challenges of living with stroke in the UK. In this study, we aim to evaluate the implementation, impact and experiences of SO for stroke survivors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Scaling-up Health Arts Programmes: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER)-SO aims to scale-up SO to 75 participants and 47 stakeholders, while simultaneously evaluating the effectiveness and implementation of the programme. …


Cluttering In The Speech Of Young Men With Fragile X Syndrome, Katherine Bangert, Kathleen Scaler Scott, Charley Adams, Jessica S. Kisenwether, Lisa Giuffre, Jenna Reed, Angela John Thurman, Leonard Abbeduto, Jessica Klusek Mar 2022

Cluttering In The Speech Of Young Men With Fragile X Syndrome, Katherine Bangert, Kathleen Scaler Scott, Charley Adams, Jessica S. Kisenwether, Lisa Giuffre, Jenna Reed, Angela John Thurman, Leonard Abbeduto, Jessica Klusek

Faculty Publications

Purpose: Cluttering is a fluency disorder that has been noted clinically in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Yet, cluttering has not been systematically characterized in this population, hindering identification and intervention efforts. This study examined the rates of cluttering in male young adults with FXS using expert clinical opinion, the alignment between expert clinical opinion and objectively quantified features of cluttering from language transcripts, and the association between cluttering and aspects of the FXS phenotype.

Method: Thirty-six men with FXS (aged 18-26 years; M = 22, SD = 2.35) contributed language samples and completed measures of nonverbal cognition, autism …