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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Examining The Use Of Expressive Arts Therapies In Neurorehabilitation Treatment Planning, Rebecca J. Horner May 2023

Examining The Use Of Expressive Arts Therapies In Neurorehabilitation Treatment Planning, Rebecca J. Horner

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Those undergoing neurorehabilitation after stroke and traumatic brain injury report a diminished sense of overall wellness. This paper examines the conceivable benefits of introducing expressive arts therapies, which is the therapeutic use and combination of the visual arts, movement, drama, music, writing and other intermodal creative processes, into physical therapy and neurorehabilitation treatment planning. Expressive arts therapies have the capacity to engage with an individual’s physical, emotional, social and spiritual states concurrently. They simultaneously offer the ability to promote an increased sense of well-being, address mind-body disconnects, and process trauma non-verbally.

The sections of this narrative literature review focus ...


Examining State Of Flow And Its Future In Dance/Movement Therapy: A Literature Review, Rachael A. Cohen May 2023

Examining State Of Flow And Its Future In Dance/Movement Therapy: A Literature Review, Rachael A. Cohen

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This paper analyzes State of Flow, the definition codified by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and analyzes how Flow as a concept has developed in current psychological and artistic research, alternative therapies, and mainstream medias. This paper also views existing Dance/Movement Therapy frameworks such as Body-Mind Centering and Kestenberg Movement Profile to see how Csikszentmihalyi’s definition could integrate into current Dance/Movement Therapy practice, as well as looks at Laban Movement Analysis and its future in Dance/Movement Therapy. This thesis also examines how gender and neurodivergence may impact how one can experience State of Flow.


Creating An Interactive Virtual-Reality Game As A Method For Vestibular Rehabilitation, Jessica Kaganskiy Jun 2022

Creating An Interactive Virtual-Reality Game As A Method For Vestibular Rehabilitation, Jessica Kaganskiy

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Virtual reality is an innovative form of technology that has been used more and more in vestibular rehabilitation therapy programs for individuals with chronic balance problems. Blender and Unity game engines were used to create a 3D interactive virtual reality video game intended for Oculus devices in order for individuals to utilize the game to perform vestibular rehabilitation exercises. The activities in the video game are based on the Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises commonly used in vestibular rehabilitation. The exercises target eye movement, head movement, stretch movement, and bilateral coordination; repetitive motion is used to help train and treat the individual’s ...


A Qualitative Study On Nurse Facilitators Of Mind-Body Skills Groups, Paula D. Blake-Beckford May 2022

A Qualitative Study On Nurse Facilitators Of Mind-Body Skills Groups, Paula D. Blake-Beckford

Mindfulness Studies Theses

The Center for Mind-Body Medicine (CMBM), founded by Dr. James Gordon, provides communities with evidence-based Mind-Body Skills Groups (MBSGs) that foster self-care, self-awareness, and self-expression. MBSGs range from 8 to 12-week series on various mind-body practices wherein group members meet, practice, and reflect on the impact of mind-body skills in their lives. Research has demonstrated that participants in MBSGs have positive outcomes. Healthcare professionals (HCPs), especially nurses, gain resiliency from MBSGs. As facilitators of MBSGs, nurses develop essential skills transferable to clinical and educational settings. MBSGs are therapeutic for adult participants with chronic stress. Prior to this thesis, only one ...


Dance/Movement Therapy As A Transdisciplinary Approach To Treating Trauma, Destany Schadder May 2022

Dance/Movement Therapy As A Transdisciplinary Approach To Treating Trauma, Destany Schadder

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This thesis considers dance/movement therapy as a transdisciplinary approach to treating trauma in the body. It explains what the functions of the brain are, how trauma negatively affects it, and how posttraumatic stress disorder is expressed in both the body and the brain. It discusses multidisplinary approaches, it shows how these approaches leverage the body in treating trauma. Moreover, it demonstrates the benefits and advantages of a dance/movement therapist in supporting individuals who have experienced traumatic events. To achieve these goals, this thesis discusses research by neuroscientists, such as Damassio (1999), who maintain that the body and mind ...


Concepts Of Leadership And The Value Of Leadership For Health Care Professionals: Perspectives From Doctor Of Physical Therapy Students, Tara Haj May 2022

Concepts Of Leadership And The Value Of Leadership For Health Care Professionals: Perspectives From Doctor Of Physical Therapy Students, Tara Haj

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

The complex and rapidly changing environment of health care requires health care professionals with leadership knowledge and skills. Many health professional education programs have recognized the importance of developing the leadership abilities of students studying to be professionals in their field. There is emerging evidence of the need for leadership development for physical therapists, including a set of leadership competencies that has recently been identified by physical therapists. The perspective of Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students regarding leadership and the value of leadership for health care professionals is unknown.

This qualitative phenomenological study utilizing semi-structured interviews was conducted to ...


Mindful Resources: A Guide To Mindfulness-Based Interventions, Lexi Marie Vogel May 2022

Mindful Resources: A Guide To Mindfulness-Based Interventions, Lexi Marie Vogel

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Although mindfulness is often associated with wellness, relaxation, and simplicity, the literature surrounding it is extensive and often complex. The abundance of mindfulness research and resources presents a challenge for educators, parents, and other individuals interested in mindfulness-based intervention. This project examines the literature surrounding mindfulness with emphasis on interventions, targeted benefits, potential barriers, and key considerations to aid in the development of the resource guide, Mindful Resources: A Guide to Mindfulness-Based Interventions. Translating the information from the comprehensive literature review into this resource guide will simplify the process of selecting appropriate interventions and provide users with a sample of ...


Adaption, Retention, And Readaptation Strategies For Unfamiliar Leka (Lower-Extremity Knee Angles), Leea M. Perry May 2022

Adaption, Retention, And Readaptation Strategies For Unfamiliar Leka (Lower-Extremity Knee Angles), Leea M. Perry

Honors Capstones

This capstone aimed to look into individuals’ abilities to adapt, retain, and readapt a newly-provided, typically over-exaggerated, goal knee angle for their right leg based upon feedback received and accuracy of examined gait pattern. Research was carried out using individuals aged 18-25, looking at the potential of “learning” per say, a new pattern for their rather instinctual previously formed habits for walking. Knee angle, both baseline and individuals’ attempts at goal angle, were measured with a knee brace worn throughout data collection. Participants for this study were blind in terms of what their goal LEKA (lower-extremity knee angle) was. The ...


Enhancing Life: Promoting Meaningful Interventions To Support Individuals With Dementia, Keelan N. Blasius May 2022

Enhancing Life: Promoting Meaningful Interventions To Support Individuals With Dementia, Keelan N. Blasius

Occupational Therapy Capstone Presentations

This capstone project focused on the implementation of meaningful interventions to support the quality of life in individuals with dementia. Those with dementia often lack the opportunity to participate in meaningful activities, leading to increased loneliness and decreased quality of life. Individual and group sessions were administered to eight participants over the course of fourteen weeks. Progress was tracked through feedback surveys and pre-test/post-test assessments. This project found that engaging in meaningful activities helps to support quality of life while also decreasing feelings of loneliness, anxiety, and depression.


Promoting Engagement In A School Setting, Jordyn M. Sippel May 2022

Promoting Engagement In A School Setting, Jordyn M. Sippel

Occupational Therapy Capstone Presentations

The sensory system influences development and an individual’s ability to participate in their daily occupations, like education. Many students have difficulty participating in their school environment because they have difficulties processing or integrating sensory stimuli. These children may be hypersensitive or hyposensitive to sensory stimuli which may impact their ability to participate in the classroom. An occupational therapist can implement a sensory integrative approach to enhance the student’s ability to process the incoming information. The purpose of the capstone experience was to develop sensory-based strategies and implement the Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training (SMART) program to improve ...


Perceived Exertion During Moderate And Vigorous Physical Activity While Mask Wearing: A Quantitative And Qualitative Pilot Study, Jennifer L. Scheid, Corinne Edwards, Michael Seils, Sarah L. West May 2022

Perceived Exertion During Moderate And Vigorous Physical Activity While Mask Wearing: A Quantitative And Qualitative Pilot Study, Jennifer L. Scheid, Corinne Edwards, Michael Seils, Sarah L. West

Articles & Book Chapters

There is limited research examining the perception of exertion during exercise while wearing a facemask. The current study examined if mask usage during moderate or vigorous physical activity (MVPA) changed the self-reported perception of exertion. Seventy-two adults (18 years and older) who were physically active before the COVID-19 pandemic completed a questionnaire that assessed exercise habits and perceptions of mask wearing during MVPA. Participants reported their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, on a scale of 1–10) while exercising. Wearing a mask resulted in higher RPE vs. no mask during both vigorous (8.4 ± 0.2 vs. 7.4 ± 0 ...


An Occupation-Based Approach To Empower Individuals Experiencing Homelessness, Sydney L. Bodensteiner May 2022

An Occupation-Based Approach To Empower Individuals Experiencing Homelessness, Sydney L. Bodensteiner

Occupational Therapy Capstone Presentations

Individuals experiencing homelessness often have decreased occupational participation in all domains of occupational therapy practice. The purpose of this capstone experience was to explore the role of occupational therapy among individuals experiencing homelessness. in Rapid City, SD. A Needs Assessment was developed in collaboration with Fork Real Community Café and the HOPE Center in order to identify the occupational needs of individuals experiencing homelessness in the Rapid City community. With the needs identified, I led holistic, client-centered, individual and group interventions to increase the occupational participation of guests. For individual interventions, guests completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure to determine ...


Rehabilitation Through Reintegration: Supporting Survivors Of Stroke, Alexander T. Wiemann May 2022

Rehabilitation Through Reintegration: Supporting Survivors Of Stroke, Alexander T. Wiemann

Occupational Therapy Capstone Presentations

After returning home from inpatient care, survivors of stroke have several ongoing needs related to this transition that are not always fully addressed, leading to poor community reintegration and psychosocial well-being. The purpose of this capstone project was to modify a community-based occupational therapy program to improve community reintegration and psychosocial well-being among survivors of stroke. One significant modification was the implementation of a survivor support group focused on psychosocial topics. Interviews and formal assessments conducted with participants indicated several perceived benefits from the support groups as well as a decrease in depression and anxiety and an increase in community ...


Occupational Therapy’S Role In Sensory Play Education In Daycare Setting, Bianca K. Claussen May 2022

Occupational Therapy’S Role In Sensory Play Education In Daycare Setting, Bianca K. Claussen

Occupational Therapy Capstone Presentations

Sensory integration involves individuals’ ability to interpret and understand their sensations to optimize their ability to participate in daily activities. Sensory integration begins at the beginning of a child’s life and continues developing and changing as individuals grow. Early childhood education is a crucial part of development, health, and the child’s overall well-being. The purpose of my capstone experience was to explore and educate the staff on the importance of sensory play. Three approaches were utilized throughout this capstone experience to provide the staff with a wide array of activities. These included observations to understand how the center ...


Quantifying Intra- And Interlimb Use During Unimanual And Bimanual Tasks In Persons With Hemiparesis Post-Stroke, Susan V. Duff, Aaron Miller, Lori Quinn, Gregory Youdan Jr., Lauri Bishop, Heather Ruthrauff, Eric Wade May 2022

Quantifying Intra- And Interlimb Use During Unimanual And Bimanual Tasks In Persons With Hemiparesis Post-Stroke, Susan V. Duff, Aaron Miller, Lori Quinn, Gregory Youdan Jr., Lauri Bishop, Heather Ruthrauff, Eric Wade

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Individuals with hemiparesis post-stroke often have difficulty with tasks requiring upper extremity (UE) intra- and interlimb use, yet methods to quantify both are limited.

Objective

To develop a quantitative yet sensitive method to identify distinct features of UE intra- and interlimb use during task performance.

Methods

Twenty adults post-stroke and 20 controls wore five inertial sensors (wrists, upper arms, sternum) during 12 seated UE tasks. Three sensor modalities (acceleration, angular rate of change, orientation) were examined for three metrics (peak to peak amplitude, time, and frequency). To allow for comparison between sensor data, the resultant values were combined into ...


Effects Of Caffeine On Agility Tests On One Women's Collegiate Volleyball Team, Sarah Monnier, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Eric Dick May 2022

Effects Of Caffeine On Agility Tests On One Women's Collegiate Volleyball Team, Sarah Monnier, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Eric Dick

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on agility tests (3-step approach,2-hand vertical leap,5-10-5 drill) on a women’s collegiate volleyball team at one Division III institution.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
Vertical jump measuring device measured 3-step approach and 2-hand vertical leap measurements. A stopwatch measured the 5-10-5 drill.


Effects Of Rock Steady Boxing On Parkinsons Patients, Hannah Hall, Jennifer Walker, Erika Smith-Goodwin May 2022

Effects Of Rock Steady Boxing On Parkinsons Patients, Hannah Hall, Jennifer Walker, Erika Smith-Goodwin

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
Rock Steady Boxing’s (non-profit organization) program goal is improving Parkinson’s patients’ quality of life through a non-contact, boxing-based fitness class. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Parkinson’s patients perceived improvement on proprioception from one hospital-based Rock Steady Boxing Program. The program was led by athletic trainers and physical therapists.

MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURE
Likert scale survey was used with one fill in the blank question.


Comfort Levels Of Male Collegiate Student Athletes In Reporting Symptoms Of Eating Disorders, Maryn Herring, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Jennifer Walker May 2022

Comfort Levels Of Male Collegiate Student Athletes In Reporting Symptoms Of Eating Disorders, Maryn Herring, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Jennifer Walker

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the comfort levels of male student athletes at a Division III college in reporting symptoms of eating disorders to Athletic Trainers.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
Likert scale questions with one open ended question.


Rodeo Athletes' Perceptions Of The Available Onsite Medical Care Provided, Rachel R. Kesterson, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Jennifer Walker, Perry Denehy May 2022

Rodeo Athletes' Perceptions Of The Available Onsite Medical Care Provided, Rachel R. Kesterson, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Jennifer Walker, Perry Denehy

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the medical care perceptions of rodeo athletes at one Southwest Ohio rodeo as compared to others.

MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURE
The survey was made of 23 Likert-scale questions.


Mens' And Womens' Diii Soccer Athletes Anxiety Levels Due To Balancing Academic And Team Responsibilities, Kathleen Monnig, Jennifer Walker, Erika Smith-Goodwin May 2022

Mens' And Womens' Diii Soccer Athletes Anxiety Levels Due To Balancing Academic And Team Responsibilities, Kathleen Monnig, Jennifer Walker, Erika Smith-Goodwin

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety levels due to balancing academic and team responsibilities in one Division III womens’ and mens’ soccer teams.

MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURE
5-point,6-point Likert scale.


Effects Of Tiktok On The Mental Health Of Men's And Women's Soccer Teams At One Institution, Hayley Suchland, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Eric Dick May 2022

Effects Of Tiktok On The Mental Health Of Men's And Women's Soccer Teams At One Institution, Hayley Suchland, Erika Smith-Goodwin, Eric Dick

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the social media platform, TikTok, on the mental health of Division III Men’s and Women’s soccer players at one institution.

MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASUREMENT
Likert scale survey.


Comparison Of Rehabilitation Programs Following A Latarjet Procedure: A Level 3 Case Study, Philip Wienkamp, Lisa S. Jutte May 2022

Comparison Of Rehabilitation Programs Following A Latarjet Procedure: A Level 3 Case Study, Philip Wienkamp, Lisa S. Jutte

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
Anterior shoulder dislocations cause chronic disability, often requiring surgery. Latarjet procedures are considered when the anterior glenoid fractures during shoulder dislocation. Latarjet procedures show positive outcomes with low dislocation recurrence rates, although rehabilitation guidelines are not well established. This Level-3 CASE report will compare two rehabilitation protocols.

UNIQUENESS
Our patient’s progress was significantly delayed compared to Murphy et al.’s patient. Although they had similar strength and ROM deficits in week 2, our patient required an additional 15 weeks to make similar gains. Also, our patient did not begin aggressive overhead activity until 10 weeks after Murphy et ...


A 12-Year Retrospective Analysis Of Vo2max Values In College-Aged Student Athletes, Michelle Wilson, Scott Swanson May 2022

A 12-Year Retrospective Analysis Of Vo2max Values In College-Aged Student Athletes, Michelle Wilson, Scott Swanson

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
To examine VO2max values in a cohort of exercise physiology students over a 12-year time period.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
Student’s VO2max values were examined for the effects of gender (males vs. females) and athletic status (athlete vs. non-athlete). Significance was set at p


Exploring The Relationship Between Athletic Identity On Certain Coping Mechanisms In Adolescent Athletes, Jessica Steger, Laura Harris May 2022

Exploring The Relationship Between Athletic Identity On Certain Coping Mechanisms In Adolescent Athletes, Jessica Steger, Laura Harris

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
(1) To describe athletic identity and coping mechanisms in an adolescent athletic population, and (2) to examine the relationship between athletic identity and coping mechanisms in an adolescent population.

MAIN.OUTCOME.MEASURES
Descriptive statistics were calculated for the summated AIMS-7 score and three CISS-SSC subscale scores. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between each AIMS-7 subscale and CISS-SSC subscale. Additionally, three independent t-tests were conducted with the independent variable, low, moderate, or high AIMS score, and the dependent variables, avoidance, emotion, or task-focused CISS-SSC score. Alpha level was set at 0.05 for all analyses.


Reliability And Utility Of A Lumbopelvic-Hip Complex Stability Assessment In Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain, Erika Zambarano, Neal Glaviano, Amanda Murray May 2022

Reliability And Utility Of A Lumbopelvic-Hip Complex Stability Assessment In Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain, Erika Zambarano, Neal Glaviano, Amanda Murray

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
Lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) stability is related to altered movement patterns that are present in individuals with PFP. Current studies measuring LPHC function in PFP primarily assess endurance and not stability. A test of isolated LPHC stability, the Seated Trunk Control Test (STCT) was recently developed and test-retest reliability for the STCT has been shown to be excellent in a healthy population. To improve the clinical usefulness of the STCT, we aimed to establish test-retest reliability for individuals with PFP. We hypothesized the STCT would show good-to-excellent reliability. We also compared STCT performance between healthy individuals and those with PFP ...


Caring For Pregnant And Postpartum Athletes: Athletic Trainers, Strength Coaches, And Athletic Coaches, Aly Matejka, Stephanie Born May 2022

Caring For Pregnant And Postpartum Athletes: Athletic Trainers, Strength Coaches, And Athletic Coaches, Aly Matejka, Stephanie Born

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
A survey was created to assess the experience, education, and self-perceived competence of treating and/or training pregnant and postpartum athletes among athletic trainers, strength coaches, and coaches.


Academic Resilience Of Athletic Training Students During Covid-19 Pandemic, Brandon J. Gallimore, Laura Harris, Janet E. Simon May 2022

Academic Resilience Of Athletic Training Students During Covid-19 Pandemic, Brandon J. Gallimore, Laura Harris, Janet E. Simon

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
(1) To describe resilience in athletic training students enrolled in professional coursework during the spring 2020 semester, and (2) to determine the association between resilience and academic performance during the spring 2020 semester.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Descriptive statistics for GPA were calculated for Fall 2019, Spring 2020, cumulative Fall 2019, cumulative Spring 2020 (ie., current), change in cumulative GPA, and ARS-30 total score. The primary analysis was a Pearson correlation between change in cumulative GPA and ARS-30 total score. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate change in cumulative Fall 2019 and Spring 2020 GPA with a paired t-test ...


The Effects Of A 6-Week Intrinsic Foot Morphology, Kinematics, And Kinetics In Individuals With Pes Planus, Rebecca Marszalek, Janet E. Simon, Robert Wayner May 2022

The Effects Of A 6-Week Intrinsic Foot Morphology, Kinematics, And Kinetics In Individuals With Pes Planus, Rebecca Marszalek, Janet E. Simon, Robert Wayner

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

CONTEXT
The intrinsic foot muscles are vital in supporting the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. Individuals with pes planus have poor foot morphology, strength, and biomechanics, warranting an intervention.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
At pre-intervention, foot posture and arch height were assessed via the Foot Posture Index-6 and the Navicular Drop test, respectively. Cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis was assessed using ultrasound as an indirect measure of strength. Biomechanical measures, including peak rearfoot eversion, peak tibial internal rotation, peak rearfoot eversion moment, and center of pressure excursion, were collected using 3D-motion capture and an instrumented treadmill. At post-intervention, these ...


The Relationship Between Sport Specialization And Coping Mechanisms In Adolescent Athletes, Sara Kusner, Laura Harris May 2022

The Relationship Between Sport Specialization And Coping Mechanisms In Adolescent Athletes, Sara Kusner, Laura Harris

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
(1) To describe the coping mechanisms of adolescent athletes as emotion-focused, problem-focused, or avoidant-focused coping before and after injury or illness, and (2) to compare the perceived adolescent coping mechanisms across sport specialization levels (i.e., low, moderate, or high).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
Demographic information was reported for the entire sample. A one-way ANOVA was conducted for each dependent variable (i.e., coping strategy) by sport specialization. For the secondary analysis the independent variable time and the dependent variable coping mechanism (i.e., task, emotion, and avoidance) were analyzed by paired t-tests. Hedge’s g effect size was calculated ...


Adolescent Injury Rates, Laura Harris, Erin Gordon, Lyn M. Meyerhoff, Boden Miller, Matallyn E. Overmyer, Jordyn R. Williams May 2022

Adolescent Injury Rates, Laura Harris, Erin Gordon, Lyn M. Meyerhoff, Boden Miller, Matallyn E. Overmyer, Jordyn R. Williams

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

OBJECTIVE
To describe the frequency of adolescent athlete injury based upon injury location, injury diagnosis, activity, playing surface, weather condition, and sport.

MAIN.OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
Injury frequency per injury location, diagnosis, activity, and playing surface were determined. Injury location and diagnosis frequency were reported by weather condition. Injuries per 1000 athletic exposures were analyzed by sport.