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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Bowel Clean Out Prior To Intrathecal Baclofen Pump Implantation: Effects On Acute Post-Operative Gastrointestinal Complications, Amanda Lindenberg, Sathya Vadivelu, Brittni Walton, Matthew J. Mclaughlin May 2024

Bowel Clean Out Prior To Intrathecal Baclofen Pump Implantation: Effects On Acute Post-Operative Gastrointestinal Complications, Amanda Lindenberg, Sathya Vadivelu, Brittni Walton, Matthew J. Mclaughlin

Research Days

Background: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps have been used for management of spasticity and dystonia There is limited data on immediate post-operative complications such as GI adverse events after surgery for ITB pump related procedures. This study aimed to compare patients who underwent a pre-operative bowel cleanout to those who did not and the relationship with post-operative nausea, vomiting and constipation requiring an escalation of their bowel regimen.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Pediatric acute care hospital.

Participants: All patients who underwent new ITB pump and/or catheter placement from January 2015-December 2022.

Interventions: Preoperative bowel clean out. Main

Outcome Measure: Quantity …


A Literature Review Of Current Treatments For The Hypermobility Subtype Of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, John Gericke, Mary Zsolway, Chelsea Reyes, Pooja Patel, Saad Ahmed, Julia Hwang, Venkateswar Venkataraman May 2024

A Literature Review Of Current Treatments For The Hypermobility Subtype Of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, John Gericke, Mary Zsolway, Chelsea Reyes, Pooja Patel, Saad Ahmed, Julia Hwang, Venkateswar Venkataraman

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare pharmacologic intervention, neurocognitive therapy, physical therapy, and orthotics in treating the hypermobility subtype of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (hEDS) and determine which has the most positive effect on symptoms.

Introduction: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is an inheritable connective tissue disorder which results from a genetic mutation that alters the body’s ability to produce collagen. The most common subtype of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is hEDS, which leads to hypermobility and hyperextensibility and can cause frequent joint dislocations.

Methods: A review of literature was performed to compare each treatment based on reported results. The types of studies reviewed …


Examining The Differences In Functional Outcomes For Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury After Acute Rehabilitation And Subacute Rehabilitation: A Review Of The Literature, Michael Rangel, Dr. Ashley Kakkanatt May 2024

Examining The Differences In Functional Outcomes For Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury After Acute Rehabilitation And Subacute Rehabilitation: A Review Of The Literature, Michael Rangel, Dr. Ashley Kakkanatt

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of morbidity in the US [1-4]. Studies suggest TBI patients’ enrollment in a rehabilitation program strongly predicts social reintegration. The structure and outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation programs, including acute and subacute rehabilitation, are not well-delineated [5-7].

DESIGN

A structured review of current literature was conducted. Articles were screened using the search string: (post-traumatic brain injury OR post-TBI OR traumatic brain injury OR TBI) AND (acute rehabilitation OR subacute rehabilitation) AND (outcomes OR functional outcomes) NOT (outpatient OR outpatient populations) NOT (pediatric OR pediatric populations). Articles were limited to 1990 …


Participation And Outcomes Of A Community-Based Fall Prevention Program Before, During And After Covid-19 Pandemic., Bhavana Raja, Preeti Oza Apr 2024

Participation And Outcomes Of A Community-Based Fall Prevention Program Before, During And After Covid-19 Pandemic., Bhavana Raja, Preeti Oza

Pacific Journal of Health

Introduction: Several community education programs aim to minimize risk of falling in community-dwelling older adults. However, due to the covid-19 pandemic most of these programs stopped or were delivered virtually. A matter of balance (MOB) is one such program that was delivered virtually during pandemic. The purpose of this study is to assess the differences in outcomes between in-person and virtual MOB program in San Joaquin County of California.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the community. Each MOB course ran for 8 sessions in-person or 9 sessions in the virtual format. A retrospective analysis was conducted on deidentified pre-post survey …


Prevalence Of Depression In Physical Therapy Environments For Young Adult Populations In The U.S.: A Systematic Literature Review, Audrey N. Baucom Apr 2024

Prevalence Of Depression In Physical Therapy Environments For Young Adult Populations In The U.S.: A Systematic Literature Review, Audrey N. Baucom

Honors College Theses

Objective: This systematic review aimed to examine interactions of depression symptoms and diagnoses and its prevalence in physical therapy settings among the young adult population ages 18-24 in the United States through current literature and to identify existing literature. Methods: This review followed the PRISMA guidelines to form a systematic review. Ten databases were extensively searched. Results were screened by one researcher and those that met the criteria were verified as inclusive by a second researcher. Results: The search yielded 3,017 results and included two studies. In each study, age was not identified as a prevalent variable in mental health …


Blood Flow Restriction Therapy: A Review Of Physiology, Clinical Application, And Guidelines For Implementation, Nathan Schuliger Apr 2024

Blood Flow Restriction Therapy: A Review Of Physiology, Clinical Application, And Guidelines For Implementation, Nathan Schuliger

Senior Honors Theses

Blood flow restriction (BFR) therapy is an emerging clinical modality utilizing the metabolic stress of a hypoxic state to induce hypertrophic and strength adaptations in a manner allowing for reduced external loading. BFR has a variety of applications in rehabilitation settings, showing great potential for patients seeking the benefits of high intensity training without the associated degrees of mechanical stress. This literature review details the proposed mechanisms of BFR, along with various clinical applications of BFR including active and aerobic BFR. Concerns and contraindications for BFR usage are discussed regarding certain clinical populations, with risk stratification recommendations provided. Current BFR …


Idiopathic And Neuromuscular Scoliosis In A Female College Basketball Player Requiring Spinal Correction Surgery, Magan Kim Mar 2024

Idiopathic And Neuromuscular Scoliosis In A Female College Basketball Player Requiring Spinal Correction Surgery, Magan Kim

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The purpose of this report is to present the case of a 20-year-old female collegiate basketball player who was diagnosed with a combination of idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis. Patient underwent thoracic spinal fusion surgery when she was 15 to resolve her extreme scoliosis. The uniqueness of this case stems from the athlete’s urgency to have to undergo a life-altering spine operation and still be able to successfully contribute to a collegiate basketball team. Athletic trainers should be knowledgeable and aware of how to maintain treatment/rehabilitation for athletes with scoliosis, operative or non-operative. Scoliosis should no longer be a reason to …


Posteriormedial Ankle Impingement In A Male Division I Ice Hockey Player: A Case Report, Bethany Thompson Mar 2024

Posteriormedial Ankle Impingement In A Male Division I Ice Hockey Player: A Case Report, Bethany Thompson

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The purpose of this case report is to present the case of a 21 year old male Division I collegiate hockey player’s injury during their season, resulting in posteriormedial ankle impingement of the deep posterior tibiotalar ligament, osteochondral lesion of the talus, and tenosynovitis of the tibialis posterior. The patient’s injury did not require surgery; however, they did complete a rehabilitation plan with a physical therapist and receive a cortisone injection. The patient had a positive outcome due to the athletic trainer sending the patient for immediate diagnostic imaging after initial consultation. The patient was able to continue participation in …


Measuring Similarities Between The Patient Specific Functional Scale And Physical Therapist-Created Long-Term Goals In Outpatient Physical Therapy, Robin Zappin, Soo Yeon Sun Mar 2024

Measuring Similarities Between The Patient Specific Functional Scale And Physical Therapist-Created Long-Term Goals In Outpatient Physical Therapy, Robin Zappin, Soo Yeon Sun

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background: The Patient-specific Functional Scale (PSFS) can be used to promote person-centered goal setting. This study aimed to determine how often PSFS Items and Target Activities from physical therapist-created long-term goals (PTC-LTG) agreed. The relationship between patient demographics, meeting/partially meeting PTC-LTG and meeting or exceeding the minimal clinical important difference (MCID) for PSFS activities was also investigated. Method: PTC-LTGs, patient demographic questionnaires, and pre/post-physical therapy intervention PSFS were collected. Each item in PSFS and Target Activity in PTC-LTGs was linked to a World Health Organization International Classification of Function (WHO ICF) category. A regression analysis determined if there was …


Effect Of Russian Current And Structured Exercise Program On Postpartum Diastasis Recti Abdominis: A Case Series, Nagma Khan, Ashwini Bulbuli Mar 2024

Effect Of Russian Current And Structured Exercise Program On Postpartum Diastasis Recti Abdominis: A Case Series, Nagma Khan, Ashwini Bulbuli

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background: Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is the most common complication occurring post-delivery that limits the functional well-being of the affected individuals. Management of diastasis recti can include an abdominal binder, core strengthening, taping, and various surgical procedures. There is limited evidence to support the Russian current and structured exercise intervention in managing patients with DRA. Methodology: Three patients identified with DRA underwent a multi-modal treatment regimen including a hot moist pack, Russian current, abdominal binder, transverse abdominus activation exercises, treadmill training, and stationary cycling training. Outcomes were assessed using the visual analogue scale, abdominal girth, Ranney DRA scale, Oswestry …


The Development And Testing Of A Gyroscope-Based Neck Strengthening Rehabilitation Device, Nicole D. Devos Feb 2024

The Development And Testing Of A Gyroscope-Based Neck Strengthening Rehabilitation Device, Nicole D. Devos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Neck pain can be debilitating, and is experienced by the majority of people at some point over the course of their life. Resistance training has been shown to have significant improvement in pain or disability for patients. There are few options available for telerehabilitation, and the use of gyroscope stabilizers is proposed for this use. A biomechanics model of a head--neck--gyroscope system was created. In order to also model the dynamics of such a system, this work proposes a blended method using the Denavit--Hartenberg (DH) convention, popular in the field of robotics, with the Lagrangian mechanics approach to analyze an …


The Signs And Symptoms Of Discogenic Low Back Pain, Joe J. Putos Feb 2024

The Signs And Symptoms Of Discogenic Low Back Pain, Joe J. Putos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The signs and symptoms of low back pain (LBP) associated with disc herniation (DLBP) and its underlying mechanism(s) are not well supported. One theory proposes that some low back pain (LBP) is the result of a disc herniation compressing adjacent tissues innervated with nociceptors. The theory proposes that spinal manipulation (SM) and/or mobilizations (SMOB) can reduce the size and position of the herniation, and relieve pain and improve range of motion. There is no research to support or negate the theory even though clinical evidence supports its plausibility.

In this three-part study we examined clinical practices that have an anecdotal …


Visualizing Versatility In Clinical Research: A Letter To The Editor On “Clinicians As Researchers”, Francis Clarence Chua Feb 2024

Visualizing Versatility In Clinical Research: A Letter To The Editor On “Clinicians As Researchers”, Francis Clarence Chua

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

No abstract provided.


Evolution Of Physical Therapy Scholarship In The Philippines: A Scientometric Analysis Of Peer-Reviewed Publications, Rolando Lazaro, Catherine Joy T. Escuadra, Esmerita Rotor, Arvie Vitente, Edward Gorgon, Eric Robinson Feb 2024

Evolution Of Physical Therapy Scholarship In The Philippines: A Scientometric Analysis Of Peer-Reviewed Publications, Rolando Lazaro, Catherine Joy T. Escuadra, Esmerita Rotor, Arvie Vitente, Edward Gorgon, Eric Robinson

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy began publication in 2021. The editorial board identified as a high-priority project to undertake a detailed analysis of current publishing practice among physical therapy researchers in the Philippines.

Methods. This study systematically mined publications from Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed using the keywords “physical therapy” OR “physiotherapy” OR “physical therapist” OR “physiotherapist.” Results were further refined to only include English publications by authors from the Philippines. Publication, citation, collaboration, and text-co-occurrence network analysis were done using RStudio and VOSViewer.

Results. A total of 122 publications from 1987 to 2022 were …


Measures Of Function In Physical Therapy Assessment Of Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Clinical Audit, Marvin D. Zotomayor Feb 2024

Measures Of Function In Physical Therapy Assessment Of Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Clinical Audit, Marvin D. Zotomayor

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

Introduction: The assessment of outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is important for monitoring their progress, evaluating interventions, and guiding health policies. This study aimed to (1) identify the most common outcome measures used in the clinics to assess function in children with CP, and (2) determine whether the outcome measures used in the clinics meet the current standards of assessment for the purpose of improving patient care decisions, research, and quality assurance.

Methodology: A retrospective record audit study design was used to determine if the current practice in the clinics on the assessment of function in children with …


Philippine Physical Therapy Association Convention 2023 Conference Abstracts: Poster Presentations, Philippine Physical Therapy Association Feb 2024

Philippine Physical Therapy Association Convention 2023 Conference Abstracts: Poster Presentations, Philippine Physical Therapy Association

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

No abstract provided.


Philippine Physical Therapy Association Convention 2023 Conference Abstracts: Platform Presentations, Philippine Physical Therapy Association Feb 2024

Philippine Physical Therapy Association Convention 2023 Conference Abstracts: Platform Presentations, Philippine Physical Therapy Association

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

No abstract provided.


Physiotherapists Description Of Patient-Centered Care, And Barriers And Facilitators Experienced To Implementation, Maclean Jordan Feb 2024

Physiotherapists Description Of Patient-Centered Care, And Barriers And Facilitators Experienced To Implementation, Maclean Jordan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patient-centered care (PCC) is a growing standard for healthcare delivery due to the benefits to patient autonomy. Lacking a cohesive definition in the physiotherapy literature, it is also lacking in implementation. Employing interpretive description with semi-structured interviews, the goal was to understand how physiotherapists drawn from private for-profit clinics in Canada describe PCC, and barriers and facilitators to providing it. Results included requiring person-centered communication in PCC, seeing Health holistically, centering the patient in care, and being a skill that becomes clearer with practice experience. Barriers included: lack of practitioner reflexivity, patient not desiring self-directed care, and limited access to …


Barriers And Facilitators To Enhance Interprofessional Education For Rehabilitation Science Graduate Students, Mary A. Riopel, Kimberly Wynarczuk, Taylor Grube Feb 2024

Barriers And Facilitators To Enhance Interprofessional Education For Rehabilitation Science Graduate Students, Mary A. Riopel, Kimberly Wynarczuk, Taylor Grube

The Qualitative Report

Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to develop healthcare practitioners who work effectively in teams, demonstrate strong communication skills, respect others, and have a working knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of other professionals. Of identified research to date, it is unclear what students perceive as important for effective IPE delivery and learning. The purpose of this study was to identify graduate students' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to learning interprofessional practice using phenomenology. Three semi-structured focus groups were conducted including athletic training, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology students and the transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged about IPE …


Effects Of Core And Pelvic Floor Strength On Speed And Agility: A Systematic Review, Zackary Jayne, Thomas Vaccaro Jan 2024

Effects Of Core And Pelvic Floor Strength On Speed And Agility: A Systematic Review, Zackary Jayne, Thomas Vaccaro

Student Research Poster Presentations 2024

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of An 8-Week Core Training Program On 1 Mile And 100-Meter Dash Indoor Running Times In College-Aged Students, John Kelley, Dane Frantz, Spencer Sundeberg, Jarod Cipriano, Tyler German Jan 2024

The Effect Of An 8-Week Core Training Program On 1 Mile And 100-Meter Dash Indoor Running Times In College-Aged Students, John Kelley, Dane Frantz, Spencer Sundeberg, Jarod Cipriano, Tyler German

Student Research Poster Presentations 2024

The Effect of an 8-week Core Training Program on 1 Mile and 100-M Dash Indoor Running Times in College-Aged Students

Background:

The core provides proximal stability of the trunk which enhances power production and strength with distal limb movement. Available literature has studied the correlation between increasing core strength and the augmentation of balance and stability, power generation, core endurance, neuromuscular control and injury prevention.

Objective:

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of an 8-week core training program on the running performance of college-aged students, specifically their 1 mile and 100-meter dash times. The study aims …


The Impact Of Robotic-Assisted Ambulation On The Cardiopulmonary System: A Systematic Review, Alexandrea Steele Jan 2024

The Impact Of Robotic-Assisted Ambulation On The Cardiopulmonary System: A Systematic Review, Alexandrea Steele

Student Research Poster Presentations 2024

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Robotic-Assisted Ambulation On The Cardiopulmonary System: A Systematic Review, Alexandrea Steele, Zachary Johnson, Alanna O'Malley, Laurie Brogan, Nicole Evanosky Jan 2024

The Impact Of Robotic-Assisted Ambulation On The Cardiopulmonary System: A Systematic Review, Alexandrea Steele, Zachary Johnson, Alanna O'Malley, Laurie Brogan, Nicole Evanosky

Student Research Poster Presentations 2024

No abstract provided.


Limb Speed Perception Accuracy In Neurodegenerative Disease, Brandmeir Lynn Cheryl Jan 2024

Limb Speed Perception Accuracy In Neurodegenerative Disease, Brandmeir Lynn Cheryl

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Movement is a fundamental human activity, enabling us to engage with our surroundings. Consequently, a well-operating neuromuscular system is essential for maintaining quality of life. Motion is not only integral for the basic function of daily living, but also plays a significant role in enhancing our physical, mental, and emotional health. The importance of this system becomes abundantly clear when it is compromised, such as with neurodegenerative disease.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), followed by Parkinson’s disease (PD) are the two most common neurodegenerative diseases that profoundly affect millions of individuals worldwide (Lamptey et al., 2022). Characterized by distinct but sometimes overlapping …


Jump To Box Kombinasi Core Plank Knee To Elbow Terhadap Power Otot Tungkai, Maya Triyanita1 Ms. Dec 2023

Jump To Box Kombinasi Core Plank Knee To Elbow Terhadap Power Otot Tungkai, Maya Triyanita1 Ms.

Jurnal Fisioterapi Terapan Indonesia or Indonesian Journal of Applied Physiotherapy

Leg power training is defined as a movement to get the jump in athletes doing the maximum jump smash. Badminton requires leg muscle explosive power because it is the muscle's ability to overcome loads and with a high speed of contraction. This study aims to determine differences in the effect of jump to box training, a combination of core plank knee to elbow on increasing leg power in badminton athletes. This study used an experimental design method with a pre-test and post-test design. The treatment group was given the Jump To Box Combination Core Plank Knee To Elbow exercise. The …


Efektivitas Step Marching Exercise Dalam Mengurangi Resiko Jatuh Pada Lansia, Jabbar Naufal Ramdhetya Mr., Ida Ayu Astiti Suadnyana Ms., Iga Sri Wahyuni Novianti Ms., I Gusti Ngurah Mayun Mr. Dec 2023

Efektivitas Step Marching Exercise Dalam Mengurangi Resiko Jatuh Pada Lansia, Jabbar Naufal Ramdhetya Mr., Ida Ayu Astiti Suadnyana Ms., Iga Sri Wahyuni Novianti Ms., I Gusti Ngurah Mayun Mr.

Jurnal Fisioterapi Terapan Indonesia or Indonesian Journal of Applied Physiotherapy

As age progresses, the elderly will experience a degenerative process which one of the impacts will cause a decrease in the ability to maintain balance in the elderly so that it will increase the risk of falling. To overcome this risk, it is necessary to give exercises to improve balance and muscle strength in lower extremity, one of which is step marching exercise. This exercise has alternating leg lifting movements by following a rhythm or beat. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of step marching exercise in reducing the risk of falls in the elderly. Method: …


Indeks Massa Tubuh Dan Obesitas Sentral Kaitannya Dengan Tekanan Darah Pada Anggota Batalyon X, Annisa Kusumarahmawati Ms., Farahdina Bachtiar Ms., Rena Mailani Ms., Andy Sirada Mr. Dec 2023

Indeks Massa Tubuh Dan Obesitas Sentral Kaitannya Dengan Tekanan Darah Pada Anggota Batalyon X, Annisa Kusumarahmawati Ms., Farahdina Bachtiar Ms., Rena Mailani Ms., Andy Sirada Mr.

Jurnal Fisioterapi Terapan Indonesia or Indonesian Journal of Applied Physiotherapy

A sedentary lifestyle leading to obesity is one of the contributing factors to high blood pressure. Excessive fat can result in tissue dysfunction and is a key factor in the development of hypertension. Military personnel are expected to maintain good health and physical fitness. This study aimed to investigate the connection between Body Mass Index (BMI), central obesity, and blood pressure (BP) among Battalion X members. Methodology: A cross-sectional quantitative approach was employed with a sample size of 62 individuals. The data included height, weight, and waist circumference of the participants. Spearman's rho test was used for data analysis. The …


Pengaruh Backward Walking Exercise Terhadap Nyeri Dan Kemampuan Fungsional Pasien Osteoarhtritis Genu, Aulia Khumaerah Ms., Yusfina Yusfina Ms., Andi Tenriola Mr. Dec 2023

Pengaruh Backward Walking Exercise Terhadap Nyeri Dan Kemampuan Fungsional Pasien Osteoarhtritis Genu, Aulia Khumaerah Ms., Yusfina Yusfina Ms., Andi Tenriola Mr.

Jurnal Fisioterapi Terapan Indonesia or Indonesian Journal of Applied Physiotherapy

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that mainly attacks the joints and surrounding tissues, causing progressive damage to cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial structures. Genu OA is the most common OA and can cause disabilities that interfere with daily activities, reduce quality of life and increase the risk of falls. Physiotherapy intervention for genu OA can be conducted using various methods, one of them is backward walking exercise. The study is a quasi experimental research using two group pre and post-test control group design. The aim of the research is to determine the effect of backward walking exercise on pain …


Terapi Latihan Dan Ultrasound Dalam Meningkatkan Kemampuan Fungsional Pada Total Hip Replacement, Retno Utami Ms., Faizah Abdullah Djawas Ms. Dec 2023

Terapi Latihan Dan Ultrasound Dalam Meningkatkan Kemampuan Fungsional Pada Total Hip Replacement, Retno Utami Ms., Faizah Abdullah Djawas Ms.

Jurnal Fisioterapi Terapan Indonesia or Indonesian Journal of Applied Physiotherapy

Total Hip Replacement (THR) is an orthopedic surgical procedure to replace the cartilage of the acetabulum and collum femur with a prosthesis, which is an artificial ball and rod made of metal. This causes various problems including limited joint range of motion (LGS), decreased muscle strength, decreased balance, and decreased functional ability. The application of modalities in the form of ultrasound is believed to be able to reduce pain and the application of exercise therapy in the form of Stretching Exercise, ROM Exercise, Strengthening Exercise, Balance Exercise, and Gait Training is believed to be able to improve functional abilities by …


Physical Therapists And Physical Therapy Assistants’ Readiness Levels To Deliver Telehealth Services: A Survey Analysis, Bhavana Raja, Alicia Rabena-Amen, David Gillette, Preeti Oza, Todd E. Davenport Dec 2023

Physical Therapists And Physical Therapy Assistants’ Readiness Levels To Deliver Telehealth Services: A Survey Analysis, Bhavana Raja, Alicia Rabena-Amen, David Gillette, Preeti Oza, Todd E. Davenport

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate physical therapists (PT) and physical therapy assistants’ (PTA) readiness to deliver telehealth (TH) services during COVID-19 pandemic. Method: IRB approved this survey analysis study. The Modified Maryland TH Readiness Assessment Tool (mMTRAT) was distributed by email to all licensed PTs and PTAs in California in October 2020. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare between-groups differences for continuous demographic data. Pearson chi-square analysis was used to assess between-group distributions of categorical data. The statistical significance of between-groups median mMTRAT scores was assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance …